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Here are some examples of good paraphrases. The original is in red. Note that both the vocabulary and the sentence structure must be different from the original version.

1. Swain also found that both parents reacted more strongly to the cries of their own infant than to those of others and both were at least 80 percent correct in identifying which cry was their own baby's.

As Swain discovered, fathers and mothers respond more sensitively to their newborn baby's crying than to other parents' infants. Also, the percentage of parents being able to recognize their baby's cry was more than 80.

Swain discovered that more than 80% of parents can tell which cries are from their babies and all parents had a strong response when they hear their own babies as opposed to other people's babies.

2. The tots whose fathers used a bigger vocabulary with them at age two scored higher on a language test a year later. The study did not find that the mothers' vocabulary significantly affected the results.

If fathers spoke to their two-year-old children with more meaningful words, the children tended to get higher marks a year later on language tests. The way the mothers spoke, however, didn't have a big influence on the marks.

If dads speak meaningful words to the two-year-olds, after one year, these children get higher marks on language tests. However, the way the mothers spoke to their children didn't seem to influence the tests.

3. Whereas mothers like to soothe and calm down their children, fathers like to excite and stimulate them. Roughhousing is a favourite playtime activity, and dads like to encourage their children to take risks.

Moms prefer to appease and comfort their children; dads, however, prefer to be more active and lively. Fathers play with their children in a more physical way and try to get them to be risktakers.

4. The children did better in school and later in life, were less likely to get into trouble with the police or to have mental-health problems and were more apt to form stable relationships.

Not only did the children have improved school performance and more success as adults, but they tended not to have conflicts with the law, their emotional state was better, and they were more successful in their developing their close interactions with people.

5. Daly became interested in fathers in the early '90s, and since then has seen that the amount of time mothers and fathers are spending on child care and housework are coming closer together.

Daly's curiosity about fathers started in the first part of the 1990s. In the years since, Daly has noticed that fathers are spending more time taking care of the children and the house and mothers are spending less time; in other words, the quantity of time for both mothers and fathers in these activities is beginning to converge.



From the Language Centre at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Last Revised: June 27, 2007
Copyright © 2006 (U of S LC)