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CLAS 220: Arena and Circus - The Roman Games
compiled by John Porter, University of Saskatchewan
Relevant Links Elsewhere on the WWW and Bibliography for Course Lectures on the Games in Ancient Rome.
NOTE: For the most part, links on this page are to relevant material on other WWW sites.
Please do not assume that the material is mine unless the page to which you are directed is clearly marked as being part of this WWW site.
Links to Relevant Sites Elsewhere on the WWW
For a list of journal abbreviations and call numbers, see the
Journals Relating to Classics in the University of Saskatchewan Libraries page.
- Albu, E. "Gladiator at the Millennium," Arethusa 41.1 (2008) 185-204.
- Arenas, A. "Popcorn and Circus: Gladiator and the Spectacle of Virtue," Arion 9 (2001) 1-12.
- Auguet, R. Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games. New York, 1972.
- Aurigemma, S. I mosaici di Zliten. Rome, 1926.
- Baker, A. The gladiator: the secret history of Rome's warrior slaves. New York, 2002.
- Baldwin, B. "The Sports Fans of Rome and Byzantium," LCM 9 (1984) 28-30.
- Balsdon, J.P.V.D. Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. New York,1969.
- Barron, J.A. "The turning of the thumb," McGill University Magazine, 1905. [microform]
- Barton, C.A. "The Scandal of the Arena," Representations 27 (1989) 1-36.
- Barton, C.A. The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans. Princeton, 1993.
- Bartsch, S. Actors in the Audience: Theatricality and Doublespeak from Nero to Hadrian. Cambridge, 1994.
- Beacham, R.C. Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. New Haven, 1999.
- Bergmann, B., and C. Kondoleon, eds. The Art of Spectacle. New Haven, 2000.
- Berlan-Bajard, A. Les spectacles aquatiques romains. Rome, 2006.
- Bertrand, J.-M., ed. La violence dans les mondes grec et romain: actes du colloque
international, Paris, 2-4 mai, 2002. Paris, 2005.
- Bingham, S. "Security at the Games in the Early Imperial Period," EMC 18 (1999) 369-79.
- Bomgardner, D.L. "The Magerius Mosaic Revisited," in T. Wilmott, ed., Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21st-Century Perspective (Oxford, 2009) 165-178.
- Bomgardner, D.L. The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. London and New York, 2000.
- Bretler, M.Z., and M. Poliakoff. "Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish at the Gladiator's Banquet: Rabbinic Observations on the Roman Arena," HTR 83 (1990) 93-98.
- Brown, S. "Death as Decoration" in A. Richlin, ed., Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (New York, 1992) 180-211.
- Brown, S. "Explaining the Arena: Did the Romans 'Need' Gladiators?" JRA 8 (1995) 376-84.
- Brunet, S. "Female and Dwarf Gladiators," Mouseion 3.4 (2004) 145-71.
- Cagniart, P. "The Philosopher and the Gladiator," CW 93 (2000) 607-18.
- Cameron, A. Circus Factions. Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxford, 1976.
- Cameron, A. Porphyrius the Charioteer. Oxford, 1973.
- Carlsen, J. "Exemplary Deaths in the Arena: Gladiatorial Fights and the Execution of Criminals," in J. Engberg, U.H. Eriksen, and A.K. Petersen, eds., Contextualising Early Christian Martyrdom (Frankfurt, 2011) 75-92.
- Carter, M. "Accepi ramum: Gladiatorial Palms and the Chavagnes Gladiator Cup," Latomus 68 (2009) 438-41.
- Carter, M. "Gladiatorial combat with 'sharp' weapons," ZPE 155 (2006) 161-75.
- Carter, M. "Livy, Titus Manlius Torquatus and the gladiatorial prolusio," RhM 151 (2008) 313-25.
- Carter, M.J. "Gladiators and Monomachoi: Greek Attitudes to a Roman 'Cultural Performance,'" International Journal of the History of Sport 26 (2009) 298-322.
- Carter, M. "(Un)Dressed to Kill: Viewing the Retiarius," in J. Edmondson and A. Keith, eds., Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (Toronto, Buffalo, and London, 2008) 113-35.
- Carter, M.J. "Gladiatorial Combat: The Rules of Engagement," CJ 102 (2006) 97-114.
- Carter, M. "Archiereis and Asiarchs: A Gladiatorial Perspective," GRBS 44 (2004) 41-68.
- Carter, M. "Artemidorus and the Arbelas Gladiator," ZPE 134 (2001) 109-15.
- Cerutti, S.M., and L. Richardson, Jr. "The Retiarius Tunicatus Of Suetonius, Juvenal, And Petronius," AJP 110 (1989) 589-94.
- Chamberland, G. "A Gladiatorial Show Produced in sordidam mercedem (Tacitus Ann. 4. 62)," Phoenix 61 (2007) 136-49.
- Chamberland, G., and S. Orlandi. "A new edition of the Colosseum inscriptions," JRA 20 (2007) 451-53. (review article)
- Christesen, P., and D.G. Kyle, eds. A companion to sport and spectacle in Greek and Roman antiquity. Malden and Oxford, 2014.
- Coleman, K.M. "Valuing Others in the Gladiatorial Barracks," in R.M. Rosen and I. Sluiter, eds., Valuing Others in Classical Antiquity (Leiden and Boston, 2010) 419-46.
- Coleman, K.M. "The Contagion of the Throng: Absorbing Violence in the Roman World," Hermathena 164 (1998) 65-88.
- Coleman, K.M. "Fatal Charades. Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments," JRS 80 (1990) 44-73.
- Coleman, K.M. "Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire," JRS 83 (1993) 48ff.
- Corbeill, A. "The Power of Thumbs," in id., Nature Embodied. Gesture in Ancient Rome (Princeton, 2004) 41-66.
- Coulston, J.C.N. "Victory and Defeat in the Roman Arena: The Evidence of Gladiatorial Iconography," in T. Wilmott, ed., Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21st-Century Perspective (Oxford, 2009) 195-210.
- Cozzo, G. Il Colosseo. Rome, 1971.
- Curtis, R. I. "A slur on Lucius Asicius, the Pompeian gladiator TAPA CX (1980) 51-61.
- Dill, S. Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius. London, 1920.
- Dodge, H. Spectacle in the Roman World. London and New York, 2011.
- Dodge, H. "Amusing the Masses: Buildings for Entertainment and Leisure in the Roman World," in D.S. Potter and D.J. Mattingly, eds., Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, 1999) 205-55.
- Dunbabin, K.M.D. The Mosaics of Roman North Africa: Studies in Iconography and Patronage. Oxford, 1978.
- Edmonson, J.C. "Dynamic Arenas," in W.J. Slater, ed., Roman Theater and Society (Ann Arbor, 1996).
- Edwards, C. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge, 1993.
- Edwards, C. "Unspeakable Professions: Public Performance and Prostitution in Ancient Rome," in J.P. Hallett and M.B. Skinner, eds., Roman Sexualities (Princeton, 1997) 66-95.
- Ehrman, R.K. "Martial, De spectaculis 8: Gladiator or Criminal ?" Mnemosyne XL (1987) 422-425.
- Enenkel, K.A.E. "The propaganda of fortitudo. Gladiatoral combats from ca. 85 BC to the times of Trajan and their reflection in Roman literature," in K.A.E. Enenkel and I.L. Pfeijffer, eds., The manipulative mode. Political propaganda in antiquity. A collection of case studies (Leiden and Boston, 2005) 275-93.
- Epplett, C. "The Capture of Animals by the Roman Military," G&R 48 (2001) 210-22.
- Étienne, R. "La naissance de l'amphithéâtre: le mot et la chose," REL 43 (1965) 213-20.
- Fagan, G.G. The Lure of the Arena: Social Psychology and the Crowd at the Roman Games. Cambridge and New York, 2011.
- Feldherr, A. Spectacle and Society in Livy's History. Berkeley, 1998.
- Feldherr, A. "Ships of State: Aeneid 5 and Augustan Circus Spectacle," ClassAnt 14 (1955) 245-65.
- Flaig, E. "Roman gladiatorial games: ritual and political consensus," in R. Roth and J. Keller, eds., Roman by Integration: Dimensions of Group Identity in Material Culture and Text (Portsmouth, 2007) 83-92.
- Futrell, A. Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power. Austin, 1997.
- Futrell, A. The Roman Games. A Sourcebook. Oxford, 2005.
- Gabucci, A., ed. The Colosseum. Los Angeles, 2001.
- Gardiner, N. Athletics in the Ancient World. Oxford, 1930.
- Goldman, N. "Reconstructing the Roman Colosseum Awning," Archaeology 35.2 (1982) 57-65.
- Grandi, L. "The Photography of Ben Hur," American Cinematographer 40 (1959) 604-5 and 622-5.
- Grant, M. Gladiators. London, 1967.
- Guilland, R. "The Hippodrome at Constantinople," Speculum 23 (1948) 676-682.
- Gunderson, E. "The Ideology of the Arena," ClassAnt 15 (1996) 113-51.
- Gunderson, E. "The Flavian Amphitheatre: All The World As Stage," in A.J. Boyle and W.J. Dominik, eds., Flavian Rome: Culture, Image, Text (Boston, 2003) 637-58.
- Guttmann, A. "Roman Sports Violence," in J.H. Goldstein, ed., Sports Violence (New York, 1983) 7-19.
- Harris, H.A. Sport in Greece and Rome. New York, 1972.
- Heintz, F. "Circus Curses and their Archaeological Contexts," JRA 11 (1998) 337-42.
- Hengel, M. Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross. Philadelphia and London, 1977.
- Hönle, A., and A. Henze. Römische Amphitheater und Stadien. Zurich, 1981.
- Hope, V.M. "Negotiating Identity: The Gladiators of Roman Nîmes," in J. Berry and R. Laurence, eds., Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire (London, 1998) 176-95.
- Hope, V.M. "Fighting for Identity: The Funerary Commemoration of Italian Gladiators," in A. Cooley, ed., The Epigraphic Landscape of Roman Italy (London, 2000) 93-113.
- Hopkins, K. Death and Renewal, vol. 2. Cambridge, 1983.
- Hopkins, K., and M. Beard. The Colosseum. Cambridge [Mass.], 2005.
- Humphrey, J.H. Roman Circuses. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1986.
- Jackson, R. "The Chester Gladiator Rediscovered," Britannia XIV (1983) 87-95.
- Jacobelli, L. Gladiators at Pompeii. Los Angeles, 2003.
- Jennison, G. Animals for Show and Pleasure in Ancient Rome. Manchester, 1937.
- Jory, E.J. "Gladiators in the Theatre," CQ 36 (1986) 537-39.
- Junkelmann, M. Hollywoods Traum von Rom. Gladiator und die Tradition des Monumentalfilms. Mainz am Rhein, 2004.
- Kanz, F., and K. Großschmidt. "Dying in the Arena: The Osseous Evidence from Ephesian Gladiators," in T. Wilmott, ed., Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21st-Century Perspective (Oxford, 2009) 211-20.
- Kayser, F. "La gladiature en Égypte," REA 102 (2000) 459-78.
- Kleijvegt, M. "The Social Dimensions of Gladiatorial Combat in Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis," in H. Hofmann and M. Zimmermann, eds., Groningen Colloquia on the Novel vol. 9 (Groningen, 1998) 75-96.
- Köhne, E., C. Ewigleben, and R. Jackson. Gladiators and Caesars: The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome. Berkeley, 2000.
- Kokolakis, M. Gladiatorial Games and Animal-Baiting in Lucian. Athens, 1959.
- Konig, J. Athletics and Literature in the Roman Empire. Cambridge, 2005.
- Kyle, D.G. Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World. Malden and Oxford, 2006.
- Kyle, D.G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. New York, 1998.
- Kyle, D. "Rethinking the Roman Arena: Gladiators, Sorrows and Games," AHB 11.2/3 (1997) 94-98. [review article]
- Lafer, R. "What Can the Inscriptions Tell Us about Spectacles ? The Example of the Province of Africa Proconsularis and Numidia," in T. Wilmott, ed., Roman Amphitheatres and Spectacula: a 21st-Century Perspective (Oxford, 2009) 179-184.
- Lee, H "Athletics and the Bikini Girls from Piazza Amerina," Stadion 10 (1984) 45-76.
- Lendon, J.R. "Gladiators," CJ 95 (2000) 399-406. [review article]
- Leon, H.J. "Morituri te salutamus," TAPA 70 (1939) 46-50.
- Lintott, A.W. Violence in Republican Rome. Oxford, 1968. [pp.35-51]
- Lomas, K., and T. Cornell, eds. "Bread and Circuses." Euergetism and Municipal Patronage in Roman Italy. New York, 2002.
- Mahoney, A. Roman Sports and Spectacles. Newburyport, 2001.
- Malamud, M. "Roman Entertainments for the Masses in Turn-of-the-Century New York," CW 95 (2001) 49-57.
- Mann, C. "Gladiators in the Greek East: A Case Study in Romanization," International Journal of the History of Sport 26 (2009) 272-97.
- Marton, A. "Filming the Chariot Race for Ben Hur," American Cinematographer 41 (1960) 94ff.
- Matz, D. Greek and Roman Sport. Jefferson [N.C.], 1991.
- McCullough, A. "Female Gladiators in Imperial Rome: Literary Context and Historical Fact," CW 101 (2008) 197-209.
- McCullough, A. "Female Gladiators in the Roman Empire," in S.L. Budin and J.M. Turfa, eds., Women in Antiquity: Real Women across the Ancient World (London and New York, 2016) 954-63.
- Morgan, M.G. "Three Non-Roman Blood Sports," CQ 25 (1975) 117-122.
- Mechikoff, R.A. A History and Philosophy of Sport. Madison, 1993.
- Meijer, F. Gladiators: History's Most Deadly Sport. New York, 2004.
- Meijer, F. Wagenrennen. Spektakelshows in Rome and Constantinopel. Amsterdam, 2004.
- Nosov, K.S. Gladiator. Rome's bloody spectacle. Oxford, 2009.
- Olivová, V. Sports and Games in the Ancient World. New York, 1984.
- Pearson, J. Arena: The Story of the Colosseum. New York, 1973.
- Phillips, D., and D. Pritchard, eds. Sport and Festival in the Ancient Greek World. Swansea, 2003.
- Plass, P. The Game of Death in Ancient Rome: Arena Sport and Political Suicide. Madison, 1995.
- Poliakoff, M.B. Combat Sports in the Ancient World. New Haven and London, 1987.
- Potter, D. "Constantine and the Gladiators," CQ 60 (2010) 596-606.
- Potter, D.S., and D.J. Mattingly, eds. Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor, 1999.
- Potter, D. "Martyrdom as Spectacle," in R. Scodel, ed., Theater and Society in the Classical World (Ann Arbor, 1993) 53-88.
- Poynton, J.B. "Public Games and the Romans," G&R 7 (1937) 27-35.
- Rawson, E. "Chariot-Racing in the Roman Republic," BSR 49 (1981) 1-16.
- Rawson, E. "Discrimina ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis," BSR 55 (1987) 83-114.
- Robert, J.-N. Les Plaisirs à Rome. Paris, 1986.
- Roueché, C. Performers and partisans at Aphrodisias in the Roman and late Roman periods. London, 1993.
- Ryan, F.X. "The Report on the Gladiatorial Combats of 174 BC," Exemplaria Classica 14 (2010) 21-41.
- Scanlon, T.F. Greek And Roman Athletics: A Bibliography. Chicago, 1984.
- Scanlon, T.F., ed. Sport in the Greek and Roman worlds. Volume 2: Greek athletic identities and Roman sports and spectacle. Oxford and New York, 2014.
- Schnurr, C. "The Lex Julia Theatralis of Augustus: Some Remarks on Seating Problems in Theatre, Amphitheatre and Circus," LCM 17.10 (1992) 147-160.
- Scobie, A. "Spectator Security and Comfort at Gladiatorial Games," Nikephoros 1 (1988) 191-243.
- Slater, W.J. "The Theatricality of Justice," CB 71 (1995) 143-57.
- Small, D.B. "Social Correlations of the Greek Cavea in the Roman Period," in S. MacReady and F.H. Thompson, eds., Roman Architecture in the Greek World (London, 1987) 85-93.
- Spyridakis, S. "Circus Factions in Sixth-Century Crete," GRBS 8 (1967) 249-250.
- Taylor, R. Roman Builders: A Study in Architectural Process. Cambridge, 2003.
- Thompson, L.L. "The Martyrdom of Polycarp: Death in the Roman Games," Journal of Religion 82 (2002) 27-52.
- Toner, J.P. Leisure and Ancient Rome. Oxford, 1995.
- Toner, J. The day Commodus killed a rhino: understanding the Roman games. Baltimore, 2014.
- Vesley, M. "Gladiatorial Training for Girls in the Collegia Iuvenum of the Roman Empire," EMC 17 (1998) 85-93.
- Veyne, P. Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism / . London, 1990.
- Ville, G. La Gladiature en Occident des origines a la mort de Domitien. Rome, 1981.
- Vogel, L. "Circus Race Scenes in the Early Roman Empire," Art Bulletin 51 (1969) 155-160.
- Weismann, W. "Gladiator," RLAC XI, Lief. 81 (1979) 23-45.
- Welch, K. "The Roman arena in late-Republican Italy: a new interpretation," JRA 7 (1994) 59-80.
- Wiedemann, T. Emperors and Gladiators. London, 1992.
- Wiedemann, T. "The Spartacus Myth," Omnibus 8 (1984) 6-9.
- Wilson, R.J.A. Sicily under the Roman Empire. The Archaeology of a Roman Province, 36 B.C.-A.D. 535. Warminster, 1990.
- Winkler, M.M., ed. Gladiator. Film and History. Malden [Mass.], 2004.
- Wistrand, M. "Violence and Entertainment in Seneca the Younger," Eranos 88 (1990) 31-46.
- Zoll, A. Gladiatrix: The True Story of History's Unknown Woman Warrior. Berkeley, 2002.
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