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Chronological Overview
compiled by John Porter, University of Saskatchewan

Notice: This text is the copyrighted property of the author and should not be reproduced without the author's permission.

This page presents a general overview of the main chronological periods commonly cited in the study of ancient Greece and Rome.


ca. 3000-1100 B.C.: Bronze Age

ca. 1900-1100: Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations
1104: "Dorian Invasion"

ca. 1100-875 B.C.: Protogeometric Period ("Dark Age") [Note]

ca. 875-750 B.C.: Geometric Period [Note]

ca. 800: First Temples
776: First Olympics
ca. 750: Introduction of Greek Alphabet

ca. 750-620 B.C.: Orientalizing Period [Note]

Age of Colonization
Late 8th Century: Homeric Epic
ca. 630: Introduction of Attic Black Figure Pottery

ca. 620-480 B.C.: Archaic Period

594: Solon's archonship (Athens)
561-528/7: Tyranny of Pisistratus (Athens)
ca. 530: Introduction of Attic Red Figure pottery
508/7: Establishment of the Athenian Democracy
490: Battle of Marathon
480-479: Battles of Salamis and Plataea

479-323 B.C.: Classical Period

ca. 470: Production of Attic Black Figure Pottery ends
447-432: The Parthenon
431-404: Peloponnesian War
359-336: Philip of Macedon
336-323: Campaigns of Alexander the Great

323-30 B.C.: Hellenistic Period


753 B.C.: Legendary Founding of Rome

753-509 B.C.: The Regal Period (Age of Kings)

509-27 B.C.: The Roman Republic

509-275: Expansion of Roman power throughout Italy; the struggle of the orders
264-146 Expansion of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean; the Punic Wars
133-27: The traumatic final years of the Roman Republic; the Civil Wars

27 B.C.-A.D. 68: The Julio-Claudian Emperors

Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14)
Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)
Caligula (A.D. 37-41)
Claudius (A.D. 41-54)
Nero (A.D. 54-68)

A.D. 68-69: Civil Wars

Galba, Otho, Vitellius

A.D. 69-96: The Flavian Emperors

Vespasian (69-79)
Titus (79-81)
Domitian (81-96)

A.D. 96-180: The Antonine Emperors

Nerva (96-98)
Trajan (98-117)
Hadrian (117-138)
Antoninus Pius (138-161)
Marcus Aurelius (161-180)

A.D. 180-476: The Late Empire

180-192: Commodus
193-211: Septimius Severus
211-217: Caracalla
218-222: Elagabalus
222-235: Severus Alexander
235-284: Age of the Soldier Emperors
284-305: Diocletian
306-337: Constantine The Great
361-363: Julian the Apostate

A.D. 476: Fall of Western Empire


Note: The terms Protogeometric, Geometric, and Orientalizing refer to specific styles of vase painting. They should not be understood to indicate anything specific about Greek society or culture in these periods. [Return to text]

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These pages were designed by John Porter.
Last Modified: Monday, 08-May-2006 16:10:35 CST
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