110.6 ceterum

"For the rest" [OLD s.v. ceterus 5]. Sets an informal, colloquial tone. Used again at 112.1 and 4.

Note that the narrator is Encolpius, not Petronius. The Satyricon is presented as a first-person account offered by the protagonist.

110.6 Eumolpos

The termination in -os marks this as a Greek masc. nom. sg. [AG 52].

110.6 periclitantium

Pres. act. partic. (in reference to Encolpius, Giton, and those who fought on their side).

The partic. acts as a virtual noun [AG 494a]: "of <us> in our danger," "of <us> the defendants" (contrast below, on 111.4).

The gen. is objective [AG 347]: advocatus is the equivalent of "supporter," "defender," or the like.

110.6 praesentis concordiae

Objective gen. [AG 347] with auctor.

110.6 ne sileret ... hilaritas

Final/purpose clause [AG 531] in secondary sequence [AG 482].

110.6 in muliebrem levitatem

In = "against" [OLD s.v. 12].

110.7 quam facile adamarent, quam cito ... obliviscerentur

Indirect questions [AG 573] in secondary sequence [AG 482], introduced by iactare.

110.7 filiorum

Objective gen. [AG 350] with obliviscor.

110.7 nullam ... esse feminam

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by iactare.

110.7 quae non ... averteretur

Rel. clause with a potential subj. used to indicate result [AG 537.1, with note and remark] in secondary sequence [AG 482], signaled by tam.

110.7 peregrina libidine

"Adulterous lust," "desire for someone other than one's spouse" (causal abl. [AG 404]).

The adjective stands in place of an objective gen. [AG 348a]: cf., e.g., metus hostilis("fear of the enemy").

110.8 nec se ... curare

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by iactare.

110.8 saeculis

Dat. of agent [AG 375] with nota. (A particularized use of the dat. of reference.)

110.8 sua memoria

Abl. of time [AG 423].

110.8 quam

Note that quam here does not introduce a subordinate clause in oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse (cf. below on si vellemus), but rather a continuation of Encolpius' account of what Eumolpos said. (Cf., e.g., the difference between, "She said that I had insulted the man whom she loved" vs. "She said that she loved that man whom, she said, she would be bringing to the party.")

110.8 expositurum se esse

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by iactare.

Note the interlaced word order, with se delayed to come between expositurum and esse: this results in a more vivid mode of expression, with emphasis on expositurum.

110.8 si vellemus

Subordinate clause in indirect discourse [AG 583] in secondary sequence [AG 482].

110.8 conversis ... vultibus auribusque

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

110.8 in se

Note the somewhat fluid use of se [AG 301].

111.1 Ephesi


Pecere 1975: 43-44 correctly argues that this has the force of an attributive adj. — i..e., not, "There was at Ephesus a certain matrona ...," but, "A certain matrona at/of Ephesus was ...."

111.1 tam notae ... pudicitiae

Gen. of quality/description [AG 345]: predicative [cf. AG 343 NOTE 2.b].

For a discussion of the significance of pudor in Roman society, see Robert A. Kaster's essay, "The Shame of the Romans."

111.1 ut ... evocaret

Consecutive/result clause [AG 537] in secondary sequence [AG 482], signaled by tam.

111.1 vicinarum ... gentium

Note how closely this use of the genitive resembles the abl. of source [cf. AG 403 NOTE 2].

111.1 quoque

Note how quoque emphasizes the preceding word [AG 322a].

111.1 ad spectaculum

As often, ad + acc. implies purpose [OLD s.v. 40]: "to see her."

111.1 sui

Objective gen. [AG 347] of se.

111.2 cum ... extulisset

Note the plupfct., which places the focus after the funeral proper.

The subj. indicates a more nuanced statement than a simple temporal cum-clause with the indicative [AG 545 and 546].

111.2 contenta

Predicative adj. with causal/explanatory force: "not being content ..."

111.2 vulgari more

Abl. of manner [AG 412].

111.2 funus

Acc. object of prosequi. Cf. Apul. Met. 8.6: toto feralem pompam prosequente populo.

111.2 prosequi

Complementary/prolative inf. [AG 456] after contenta.

111.2 passis crinibus

Abl. absolute [AG 419] or abl. of quality/description [AG 345].

Note the interlaced word order, which places the inf. in the penultimate position.

111.2 plangere

Complementary/prolative inf. [AG 456] after contenta.

111.2 prosecuta est

Some edd. prefer secuta est (note prosequi just above).

As Burmann notes, prosequor is a "funerale verbum." (Cf. English "obsequy," from obsequor.)

111.2 defunctum

Pfct. dep. partic. of defungor (sc. virum).

The partic. acts as a virtual noun: "her dead husband" (contrast below, on 111.4).

111.2 positum

Modifying corpus.

For the use of the partic., cf. on 111.4.

111.2 Graeco more

Abl. of manner [AG 412].

111.2 totis noctibus diebusque

Abl. of time: we would expect an acc. of duration here [AG 424b].

111.3 afflictantem ... persequentem

The participles are predicative: cf. on 111.4.

111.3 inedia

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.3 non propinqui

Sc. potuerunt abducere: asyndeton [AG 323b] (non used instead of, e.g., neque).

111.3 magistratus

Nom. pl.

111.3 complorataque singularis exempli femina ab omnibus

Some mss. mistakenly read complorataque ab omnibus, taking femina as the subject.

In fact (as the word order shows) femina is a predicate nominative [AG 283]: "lamented by all as a woman without parallel."

111.3 singularis exempli

Gen. of quality/description [AG 345].

111.3 trahebat

See OLD s.v. traho 17a.

Note the force of the impf.

111.4 aegrae

Sc. matronae; dat. with cmpd. vb. assidebat [AG 370].

111.4 simulque et ... et

Que joins this statement to the one that precedes; et ... et coordinates the two halves of the statement.

111.4 commodabat

The mss. read commendabat.

111.4 lugenti

Pres. act. partic. (sc. matronae).

Note that in Latin participles tend to be predicative rather attributive: translate "to the woman as she grieved" rather than "to the grieving woman." (Contrast 111.8.)

111.4 quotienscumque

Regularly followed by the ind.

111.4 positum ... lumen

Positum is predicative (cf. on 111.4): "the lamp that had been placed."

111.5 una ... fabula

Unus often implies "the only one" [OLD s.v. 7] (cf. English: "the one true ...").

Fabula = "topic of conversation" (OLD s.v. 1d).

111.5 solum illud affulsisse verum pudicitiae amorisque exemplum

oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse (illud affulsisse) [AG 577], introduced by confitebantur.

Solum ... verum pudicitiae amorisque exemplum is predicative ("as the one true example/model of chaste love").

Note the asyndeton [AG 323b].

111.5 pudicitiae amorisque

A significant hendiadys [AG 640 s.v.]: "chaste love" — the Widow has been chaste in marriage but also passionately devoted to her husband.

111.5 omnis ordinis

Gen. of quality/description [AG 345] with homines.

111.5 confitebantur

"Profess" (as, e.g., at 4.2).

Note the impf.

111.5 cum interim

An example of the "inverted cum-clause" [AG 546 NOTE 4a].

Note that the temporal cum-clause in this construction takes an ind.

111.5 latrones ... affigi

Acc. + inf. following iussit [AG 563a].

111.5 crucibus

Dat. with the cmpd. vb. affigi [AG 370].

111.5 secundum


111.6 proxima ... nocte

Abl. of time [AG 423].

111.6 cum ... notasset ... et ... audisset

Cf. on 111.2.

111.6 ne quis ... detraheret

I.e., ne (ali)quis [AG 310a]. ("After si, num, nisi, ne, ali- takes a holiday.")

Negative final/purpose clause [AG 531] in secondary sequence [AG 482].

111.6 corpus

Some mss. read corpora.

The singular is both more logical (since such an act would be performed by someone with personal ties to the dead) and better prepares for the finale.

111.6 ad sepulturam

Ad expresses purpose [OLD s.v. 45]: cf. on 111.1.

111.6 notasset

For notavisset.

111.6 notasset sibi

See OLD s.v. se 7b; cf. 6.1: non notavi mihi.

A good example of the nuanced use of the ethical dat. [AG 380]. cf. the difference between "to notice" (OLD s.v. notare 12) and "to remark upon."

(Pecere 90, note 86 suggests that the use of sibi here might be a pleonasm characteristic of popular speech.)

111.6 [et]

Et was first deleted by the editor Bücheler; it was no doubt inserted by a scribe who wrongly assumed that both lumen and gemitum were the object of notasset sibi and tried to provide the same sort of coordination as at 111.4, 111.8, and 112.4.

111.6 clarius

Comparative adv.

111.6 lugentis

Cf. on 111.4.

111.6 audisset

For audivisset.

111.6 vitio

Causal abl. [AG 404].

111.6 quis aut quid faceret

Indirect question [AG 573] in secondary sequence [AG 482].

Latin idiom suggests the translation, "who it was and what he/she was doing" (Russell 1990 ad loc.): cf., e.g., Sallust Cat. 47.1 (Volturcius interrogatus ... quid aut qua de causa consili habuisset), Livy 7.12.3 (inscitia, qui aut unde hostes aduenissent) and 25.10.4 (inscienter a Graeco inflata [sc. tuba], quis aut quibus signum daret incertum efficiebat), Flor. Epit. 1.26 (qui aut ubi essent ... nescientes). In the present context, however, the reader might assume that the soldier is not altogether certain whether the phenomena he has observed has a human origin: hence, e.g., his initial reaction to the sight of the Widow in 111.7.

111.7 descendit


111.7 visa ... pulcherrima muliere

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

111.7 quasi quodam monstro infernisque imaginibus

Causal abls. [AG 404].

The copulative here (que) is used in a specifying or exegetical sense: i.e., infernis imaginibus elaborates upon quodam monstro and makes it more specific.

111.8 ut ... conspexit et ... consideravit

Ut introduces a temporal clause with the ind., in the same fashion as does ubi [AG 543].

111.8 et ... et ... faciemque

Notice the way the Soldier's view of things unfolds: he both (et) catches sight of the corpse and, thereafter (et), contemplates the woman's tears and (que) visage.

111.8 iacentis

Pres. act. partic. (sc. hominis).

Here the partic. acts as a virtual noun: "of the dead man" (contrast above, on 111.4).

111.8 ratus

The pfct. partic. of dep. vbs. is often used like a pres. partic., esp. in later writers [AG 491].

Id supplies the object — i.e., the substance of the Soldier's surmise — which is then clarified by desiderium extincti non posse feminam pati (see next note).

111.8 desiderium extincti non posse feminam pati

Implied oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by ratus.

The clause stands in apposition to id [AG 397f].

111.8 extincti

Objective gen. [AG 347] with desiderium.

111.8 lugentem

Cf. on 111.4.

111.8 ne perseveraret ... ac ... diduceret

Jussive noun clause / indirect command [AG 563] in secondary sequence [AG 482], introduced by hortari.

Instead of ac we might have expected neve / neu [AG 328 NOTE]: the following nihil no doubt influenced Petronius' usage here.

111.8 nihil profuturo gemitu

Abl. of means [AG 409].

Nihil is a cognate / internal acc. [AG 390 NOTE 2]: "destined to prove of no benefit."

111.8 diduceret

Here diduco must be translated "rend." Cf. Seneca(?), Hercules Oetaeus 1668-72.

111.8 omnium eundem esse exitum [sed] et idem domicilium

Implied oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by hortari.

111.8 cetera

Sc. dicebat.

111.8 quibus

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.8 revocantur

Note the use of the ind. rather than the subj.

111.9 illa ... percussa

Ille is regularly employed to shift the focus onto the second of two individuals or groups.

111.9 ignota consolatione

Abl. of means [AG 409].

Ignota here is problematic. (Lawall's gloss ignobilis ("base") seems to be without parallel.) Commentators argue that it is a type of enallage [AG 640 s.v.], with ignota replacing a subjective genitive [AG 348 NOTE] ("the consolation of [i.e., offered by] the stranger": cf., e.g., desiderium tuum ["your longing," i.e. the longing that you feel]) and cf. on 110.7.

Suggested readings include ignoti, inopinata, ingrata. (The last, proposed by Nisbet, is to be read with praeclusa [abl.] for percussa [nom.].)

111.9 vehementius

Comparative adv.

111.9 corpus

Some sources read pectus.

111.9 iacentis

See on 111.8.

111.10 eadem exhortatione

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.10 mulierculae

Sullivan is almost alone among translators in taking this as a reference to the ancilla rather than the Widow. Most translators and commentators take muliercula to be a pathetic diminutive (cf., e.g., homuncio at 34.7 and 34.10) but the only other uses of the word in Petronius are both slangy and dismissive (as is regularly the case with muliercula elsewhere): 12.3 (rusticus quidam familiaris oculis meis cum mulercula comite propius accessit — where muliercula is used, as often, of a woman of the lower classes) and 19.4 (tres enim erant mulierculae, si quid vellent conari, infirmissimae, scilicet contra nos: si nihil aliud, virilis sexus esset — where the literal sense of the diminutive is primary, to be sure, but the dismissive connotations are also strong). Contrast, e.g., the unambiguous aegrae at 111.4.

Consider, as well, the words eadem exhortatione at 111.10: eadem suggests some change of focus — i.e., that the same arguments are being used to another purpose or with another interlocutor. It is true that the Soldier's original exhortation (111. 8) was only ne perseveraret in dolore supervacuo, but it is difficult to believe that a reader would not take this as referring to the breaking of the Widow's fast (particularly when the words immediately preceding this exhortation are adtulit in monumentum cenulam suam).

The perfect temptavit is also perhaps relevant (although this argument is subjective): if the object of the Soldier's exhortations at this point is the Widow, one expects the imperfect ("The Soldier began to try to give ..."), with the intervention of the ancilla coming as a comic surprise. The perfect works quite well if the muliercula and the ancilla are one and the same: such an attempt enjoys immediate success in the case of the maid! (There is also, on this reading, a nicely comic touch to the words vini odore corrupta: they introduce a humorous disjunction between the Soldier's philosophy-laden rhetoric and the actual means of persuasion, the vinum.)

MCGLATHERY 1998: 323 suggests that the ancient reader would recognize here a convention of such seduction scenarios, one which appears in Ovid, Ars Amatoria 1.351-52: sed prius ancillam captandae nosse puellae / cura sit: accessus molliet illa tuos ["But first take care to get to know the maid of the girl you're after: she will facilitate your approach to her mistress"].

Against Sullivan's interpretation is the use of the specific ancilla in the donec clause of 111.10: if the muliercula and the ancilla are one and the same, why include the word ancilla here at all? And why employ the more specific word in the subordinate clause at the expense of possible ambiguity in the main clause?

111.10 certum ab eo

Some edd. attempt to translate this as if it were, e.g., certe ab eo: "actually, by him (i.e., the Soldier)."

Best deleted as an intrusive gloss composed by a tediously literal-minded scribe who pointed out that it wasn't actually the wine that corrupted the Nurse but the Soldier.

Attempts to make orthographic sense of the words are not convincing. (E.g., certum habeo ["I feel certain" — found in John of Salisbury] is too heavy-handed: the story consistently relies upon the reader to appreciate its delicate ironies without such flat-footed markers.)

111.10 odore

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.10 ad humanitatem invitantis

Abstract for concrete: "to accept the kind offer of the man who was urging/tempting her."

For the use of the pres. partic., cf. on 111.4.

111.10 primum

Adv. — picked up by deinde in the next clause.

111.10 potione et cibo

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.11 quid proderit ... hoc

Quid is an internal acc. (cf. on 111.8).

Tibi is dat. of reference/advantage [AG 376].

111.11 soluta ... fueris, ... sepelieris, ... effuderis

Fut. pfcts.

111.11 inedia

Abl. of means [AG 409] or cause [AG 404].

111.11 vivam

A predicate adj.

111.11 antequam

Note the use of the subj. [AG 550 and 551].

111.12 id ... sepultos?

Vergil Aen. 4.34 (with sentire for curare).

111.12 manes ... sentire

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by credis.

Id is the object of sentire.

111.12 discusso muliebri errore

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

111.12 quam diu licuerit

Quam diu takes the indicative [AG 555, note 2].

Licuerit is fut. pfct. ind.

111.12 lucis commodis

"The pleasures of life."

Lux is commonly used metaphorically for "life on earth" [OLD s.v. 6].

Commodis is abl. with frui [AG 410].

111.12 ipsum ... corpus

Nom. — subject of debet.

111.12 iacentis

See on 111.8.

111.12 admonere

Some mss. read commonere or commovere. Admonere takes te as its object.

111.12 ut vivas

Jussive noun clause / indirect command [AG 563] in primary sequence [AG 482], introduced by admonere.

111.13 invitus

Predicate adj. — translate adverbially [AG 290].

111.13 cum cogitur aut cibum sumere aut vivere

Some edd. read cogitur [aut cibum sumere aut] vivere, taking the bracketed words as the work of a fussy scribe: cf. on 111.10.

Note the use of the ind. with cum (cf. on 111.2).

111.13 aliquot dierum

Gen. of quality/measure [AG 345b] with abstinentia.

111.13 abstinentia

Causal abl. [AG 404].

111.13 passa est

Pfct. of patior.

111.13 cibo

Abl. of means [AG 409].

111.13 prior

Predicate adj. (see on invitus above).

111.13 victa est

We might have expected victa erat.

112.1 ceterum

See on 110.6.

112.1 scitis quid plerumque soleat temptare humanam satietatem

Indirect question (quid ... soleat) [AG 573] in primary sequence [AG 482].

Humanam satietatem is the equivalent of "a person when he/she has eaten" (abstract for concrete).

112.1 quibus blanditiis

Subsumed antecedant; picked up by isdem below [AG 307b and NOTE].

112.1 ut vellet

Consecutive/result clause [AG 568: cf. GL 553] in secondary sequence [AG 482], introduced by impetraverat.

112.2 castae

Dat. with videbatur [AG 375b].

112.2 conciliante gratiam ancilla ac ... dicente

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

112.2 placitone ... arvis?

Vergil Aen. 4.38-39.

Most edd. delete the second line, on the grounds: (1) that it adds an extraneous argument which does not, like Aen. 4.38, reinforce the Widow's own thoughts and which is inappropriate for what is alluded to as a constant refrain (subinde dicente); (2) that a single verse quotation parallels that at 111.12; (3) that the line goes a bit over the top.

112.2 venit

Pres. ind.

112.2 consederis

Indirect question [AG 573] in primary sequence [AG 482], introduced by venit in mentem (the equivalent of scis, vel sim.).

112.2 quid ... moror

Note the use of the ind. rather than the subj.

112.2 ne <in> hanc quidem partem [corporis] abstinuit

The mss. read ne hanc quidem partem corporis mulier abstinuit (with some disagreement about the order of the last three words).

Freudians might like to emphasize a homologous relationship between the mouth and the vagina, but the crudeness of the mss. reading (not to mention the awkwardness of abstinuit in this context) is alien to the finely-honed irony that characterizes this narrative and must be due to the struggles of a later scribe to make sense of the text: cf. on 111.10.

The proposed emendation yields, "she did not refrain even in this regard" [OLD s.v. pars 14]. (Some edd. read simply ne hanc quidem partem [corporis], with the same meaning.) Cf., e.g., Terence, Adelphoe 174: in istam partem potius peccato ("Err rather on that (other) side / in that other regard"). [Cf. in larvam at 62.10.]

Cf. the metrical version of Romulus Nilantus 19-20: et sic execranda / hac in parte fuit.

112.2 victor

A predicate nominative (pres. ptcple. of sum understood) [AG 283]; here, virtually the equivalent of a pfct. partic.

112.2 utrumque

The object of persuasit. Persuadeo takes the dat. of the person being persuaded [AG 367] and the acc. of the matter being urged.

112.3 una


112.3 illa nocte — qua — postero ... ac tertio die

Abls. of time [AG 423].

112.3 praeclusis ... foribus

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

112.3 ut ... putaret

Final/purpose clause [AG 531] in secondary sequence [AG 482].

112.3 ex notis ignotisque

Partitive, with quisquis.

112.3 venisset

Quisquis introduces the equivalent of the protasis of a conditional statement [AG 519]: "... so that <if> anyone ... might/should have come to the tomb, <they> would think ...."

The plupfct. subj. represents a reported fut. pfct. (here within the context of the indirect discourse implied by the purpose clause) — cf. AG 589.2.a.3 and see, e.g., Aen. 2.94, 136, 189, 756, 3.652, 8.206.

112.3 espirasse ... uxorem

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by putaret.

112.4 ceterum

See on 110.6.

112.4 delectatus

Pfct. partic. of a dep. vb. used as if a pres. partic.: cf. on 111.8.

112.4 forma ... secreto

Abls. with delectatus [AG 431].

112.4 quicquid boni

The partitive gen. is idiomatic [AG 346.3].

112.4 poterat

Poterat takes the complementary/prolative inf. [AG 456] coemere (understood), with quicquid as the object.

112.4 coemebat ... ferebat

Note the impfs.

112.4 prima ... nocte

Abl. of time [AG 423].

Primus here operates like summus, medius, imus, etc.: "at the beginning of the night," "at nightfall" [AG 293].

112.5 parentes

= "relatives" (vs. 111.3).

Cf. Romulus (r.g.) 5 (suis); Romulus Anglicus (cognati ... et amici); Jacques de Vitry (consanguinei).

112.5 ut viderunt

Cf. on 111.8.

112.5 custodiam laxatam

Oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by viderunt (with esse understood).

112.5 detraxere

For detraxerunt.

112.5 nocte

Abl. of time [AG 423].

112.5 pendentem

Pres. act. partic. Cf. on 111.8.

112.5 supermo ... mandaverunt officio

With mando ("to consign") one expects a concrete term such as tumulo, humo, terrae, or the like. Here supremo ... officio ("last rites," "burial") is employed: abstract for concrete.

112.6 dum desidet

Note the use of dum with the pres. ind. [AG 556].

112.6 ut ... vidit

Cf. on 111.8.

112.6 postero die

Abl. of time [AG 423].

112.6 veritus

Pfct. partic. of a dep. vb. used as if a pres. partic.: cf. on 111.8.

112.6 mulieri

Dat. of indirect object [AG 361] with exponit.

112.6 quid accidisset

Indirect question [AG 573] in secondary sequence [AG 482], introduced by exponit (on which, see next note).

112.6 exponit

Notice that the vivid pres. does not affect the tense of the preceding accidisset: the latter is still presented in secondary sequence even though it depends upon a pres. tense vb.

112.6 nec se expectaturum ... sed ... dicturum

Implied oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse [AG 577], introduced by exponit. (Esse to be understood with each of the fut. participles.)

112.6 gladio

Abl. of means [AG 409].

112.6 ignaviae suae

Gen. of charge [AG 352].

112.6 commodaret ... faceret

Jussive subjs. in secondary sequence, continuing the implied oratio obliqua/ indirect discourse: the subjs. are used to report what, in the original utterance, would have been pres. imperatives [AG 588] or (elevated style) jussive subjunctives [AG 439a].

112.6 modo

The adv., not the abl. of modus. Modo is regularly used in this way to introduce commands and wishes.

112.6 perituro

Sc. sibi (i.e., the Soldier): dat. of indirect object [AG 361] with commodaret.

112.6 fatale conditorium <commune> familiari ac viro

Others read fatale conditorium <unum> familiari ac viro.   [Most recently, Vannini (followed by Schmeling) has suggested emending faceret to sacraret, on paleographic grounds. This obviates the need to supply an appropriate object after facio.]

112.7 nec

OLD s.v. 1.

112.7 istud

The demonstrative here has its usual pejorative force.

112.7 dii

Dii and di are regularly used as the nom. pl. of deus.

112.7 sinant

Optative subj./subj. of wish [AG 441].

112.7 ut ... spectem

Consecutive/result clause [AG 537] in primary sequence [AG 482], in apposition with istud (cf. on 111.8).

112.7 funera

"Deaths," not "funerals."

112.7 eodem tempore

Abl. of time [AG 423].

112.7 malo mortuum impendere quam vivum occidere

Sullivan offers a snappy translation ("I'd rather hang the dead than kill the living" — similarly Arrowsmith) but one that is not without difficulties.

The problem: does one read (a1) impendĕre < impendo ["to weigh out, expend"] or (a2) impendēre < impendeo ["to overhang"], (b1) occīdere < occīdo ["to strike down, kill, slay, plague"] or (b2) occĭdere < occĭdo ["to fall down, die, perish"]? Sullivan opts for (a1) and (b1), as does Ernout, although less literally ("J'aime mieux pendre le mort que perdre le vivant"). The difficulty is that impendo does not mean "to hang (trans.)" but "to pay out," "disburse," "expend." (Less difficult, perhaps, is the lack of logic entailed, on this translation, in the Widow's reference to her killing the living.)

One could read (a2) and (b2), taking the two acc.-infs. as noun clauses — "I would rather that the dead hang than that the living die" (cf. Romulus Anglicus: utilius est enim ut pendeat quam sic tumulatus iaceat, dum vivus possit mortuo iuvari) — but, unlike pendeo (used, e.g., at 112.5), impendeo does not usually mean simply "hang" but "overhang," "threaten," "be close at hand."

The other solution is to read (a1) — taking impendo in its more usual sense of "expend," "devote to a particular purpose" (not infrequently used with a personal object) — and (b1), in which case the two infs. are complementary/prolative [AG 456] and have the acc. as their object: "I would rather make a dead man useful, than send a live man to death" (Heseltine/Warmington); "I would rather sacrifice a dead man than execute a live one!" (Branham/Kinney); "I would rather surrender the dead than put paid to the living" (Walsh); "Lieber will ich den Toten darangeben als den Lebendigen umbringen" (Müller / Ehlers). But this lofty sentiment deletes the wonderfully direct reference to the crucifixion of the dead husband, reducing it (at best) to the level of a distant etymological pun (cf. Schmeling [2011] ad loc., citing Buchwald [1964] 184). It also lacks a specific reference to the purpose for which the dead man is being expended: i.e., the Widow's lapidary summation is purchased at the expense of a certain obscurity.

Perhaps we should read suspendere (< pendo) in place of impendere? This would yield the sense (a1 + b1), "I would rather hang the dead hang than kill the living" (discussed above). Again, however, the sentiment is not nearly so snappy as one would wish.

Nisard translates, "J'aime mieux sacrificer le mort que crucifier le vivant," with the note, "Il y a une réserve d'expression et une finess de prude dans ce mot à double sens, impendere. Selon qu'on fait brève l'avant-dernière syllabe, ou qu'on la fait longue, il signifie livrer ou pendre. Nous croyons avoir rendu dans notre version l'intention de l'auteur, au moyen de l'allitération."


112.8 iubet

Note the use of the vivid pres.

112.8 illi ... cruci

Dat. with cmpd. vb.: cf. on 111.4.

112.8 postero ... die

Abl. of time [AG 423]: cf. 112.6.

112.8 qua ratione ... isset

Indirect question [AG 573] in secondary sequence [AG 482], introduced by miratus est.

112.8 isset in crucem

I / Ite in crucem (or, more often, in malam crucem) is the Latin equivalent of "Go to Hell!"

113.1 risu

Abl. of means [AG 409].

113.1 excepere

For exceperunt.

113.1 erubescente ... Tryphaena ... ponente

Abl. absolute [AG 419].

113.2 si iustus ... imperator fuisset, debuit

Past contrary-to-fact condition [AG 517].

Note the use of the pfct. ind. of debeo [AG 517c].

113.3 Hedyle

The wife of Lichas: see introduction. (The name, which is Greek, means "Sweety.")

113.3 expilatum ... navigium

This is generally taken as a reference to the stealing of the sacred robe and sistrum of the goddess Isis (mentioned in 114) when Encolpius ran off with Hedyle.

113.3 libidinosa migratione

Abl. of means [AG 409] or, perhaps, time [AG 423].

113.4 meminisse

Elliptical [OLD s.v. memini 5a: cf. AG 640, s.v. "ellipsis"]. The use of this verb is informed by the particular context. Treaties often contained clauses that forbade the parties to recall or seek to pursue past grievances. This is the case here: the specific terms of the "truce" put in place by Eumolpus (foederis verba) are said to prevent Lichas from mentioning Encolpius' past offences.

113.4 iracundiae

Dat. of indirect object [AG 361].