a, ab, abs

prep. with abl.:   of motion: away from;   of origin: fromesp. of agency: by, at the hands of

abduco (3) -duxi -ductum

to lead away, seduce

abeo, -ire, -ii, -itum

to go away

abstinentia, -ae (f.)

abstinence, self-denial, temperance;   fasting

abstineo (2) -tinui, -tentum

trans.: to hold back, keep away from;   intrans.: to abstain from

accido (3) - cidi

to fall down, fall to, happen   [ab + cado]


prep. with acc.: towards, to;   of aim or purpose: towards, for;   of addition: besides

adamo (1)

to fall in love with, find pleasure in (perhaps here with the added nuance of "in addition to" [ad] a prior love)

admoneo (2) -ui, itum

to admonish, remind, advise to do something, urge, incite

advocatus, -i (m.)

one called in to help in a lawsuit, an advocate, defender   [advoco]

aeger, -gra, -grum

sick, ill; sad, sorrowful

affero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum   [adfero]

to carry or bring to

affigo (3) -fixi, -fixum   [adfigo]

to fasten to, affix (+ ad or dat.)

afflicto (1)   [adflicto]

to agitate, knock about, harass, upset, distress

affulgeo (2) -fulsi   [adfulgeo]

to shine, glitter;   to shine forth, appear, dawn

aggredior (3) -gressus   [adgredior]

to go to, approach, attack, attempt, begin

alimentum, -i (n.)

food, sustenance


numer. (indecl.):   some, several   (+ gen.)

amabilis, -e

amiable, lovable

adv.: amabiliter

amor, -is (m.)


ancilla, -ae (f.)

a female slave, maid-servant

animus, -i (m.)

the seat of feeling, heart;   character, disposition;   courage, confidence, spirit;   the seat of the will;   the seat of thought, intellect, mind


conj.:   before

arca, -ae (f.)

chest, box;   money-box, safe

arvum, -i (n.)   [arvus, -a, -um]

ploughed land, field;   (esp. in pl.) country

asservo (1)   [adservo]

to preserve, guard, watch

assideo (2) -sedi, -sessum   [adsideo]

to sit near or by the side of;   attend/assist (one who is ill or grieving) (+ dat.)


conj.:   but, moreover

atque, ac

conj.:   and, and also

auctor, -is (m.)

originator, causer;   author;   originator of a proposal

audio (4)

to hear

auris, -is (f.)

the ear


conj.:   or (generally introduces a second alternative that positively excludes the first)

aut ... aut: either ... or

averto (3) -verti, -versum

to turn away, turn off, remove;   to turn away, divert (of thoughts, wishes, etc.);   to estrange;   to disturb, produce distraction in

avidus, -a, -um

vehemently desiring, longing for

adv.:   avide

blanditia, -ae (f.)

flattery, coaxing;   charm, attraction

bonus, -a, -um

good, useful;   virtuous, honest;   patriotic

bonum, -i (n.):   of material goods (usually pl.)

cadaver, -eris (n.)

a dead body, corpse

caput, -itis (n.)

the head

carus, -a, -um

costly;   dear, beloved

castus, -a, -um

clean, pure;   morally pure, temperate;   chaste;   pious, religious, holy

casula, -ae (f.)

a little hut, cottage

cenula, ae (f.)

a little meal

certus, -a, -um

settled, resolved, decided;   definite, fixed;   undoubted, sure

cervix, -icis (f.)

the nape of the neck, the neck

ceterus, -a, -um

the other, the rest

ceterum (n. sg. as adv.):   for the rest, otherwise;   moreover;   but

cibus, -i (m.)

food, nourishment (for human or animal)

cinis, -is (m.   [rarely] f.)

ashes   (esp. of the corpse after cremation)

circumscribo (3) -scripsi, -scriptum

to enclose in a circular line;   to confine, limit, restrict;   to take in, deceive, "get around"


adv.:   quickly, speedily   [cieo]

civitas, -atis (f.)

a state, commonwealth;   the inhabitants of a city, townsfolk;   a city, town (esp. for the Gk. polis)

clarus, -a, -um

clear distinct;   loud;   bright, brilliant, plain

comp. adv.:   clarius

coemo (3) -emi, -emptum

to buy in large quantities, buy up

coepi (3/4)

Defective (no present in use in the classical period):   I have begun, I began

cogo (3) coegi, coactum

to bring together, collect;   to restrict, confine;   to compel to do something

commodo (1)

to make fit, adapt;   to please, oblige, serve;   to furnish, lend

commodus, -a, -um

to measure, full, complete;   proper, fit, convenient, satisfactory

commodum, -i (n.):   a suitable time, opportunity;   use, advantage, interest;   pleasure;   remuneration

commoveo (2) -movi, -motum

to move entirely or violently, to shake;   to disturb, upset (of the mind or passions);   to cause

communis, -e

shared, common

comploro (1)

to bewail, weep, lament loudly (+ acc.)

concilio (1)

to bring together, unit, win over;   to recommend, make acceptable

concordia, -ae (f.)

agreement, union, harmony, concord

concupisco (3) -pivi or -pii, pitum

to desire eagerly, covet, aim at

conditorium, -i (n.)

the place in which a corpse or its ashes are preserved

confiteor (2) -fessus

to confess, admit, acknowledge;   to reveal, make known

considero (1)

to look at, regard carefully, contemplate

consido (3) -sedi, -sessum

to sit down, settle, encamp;   to settle down

consolatio, -onis (f.)

consolation, comfort, encouragement, alleviation

conspectus, -us (m.)

look, sight, view;   appearance

conspicio (3) -spexi, -spectum

to catch sight of, behold

contentus, -a, -um

contented, satisfied (+ abl. or inf.)   [contineo]

converto (3) -verti, -versum

to turn round;   to direct towards

corpus, -oris (n.)

body, substance;   human body;   corpse

corrumpo (3) -rupi, -ruptum

to break to pieces;   to spoil, mar, corrupt

credo (3) -didi, -ditum

to entrust, commit;   to trust in, rely upon;   to believe, accept as true

crinis, -is (m.)

a hair, the hair

cruciarius, -i (m.)

a person who has been crucified   [cruciarius, -a, -um]

crux, crucis (f.)

a cross;   torment, trouble

cum (quum, quom)

conj.:   when, whenever, since, although (+ ind. or subj.)

curo (1)

to care for, pay attention to, trouble about, attend to (+ acc.)

custodia, -ae (f.)

a watching, guarding, care, keeping guard

custodio (4)

to guard, watch, keep;   to take care of

debeo (2) -ui, -itum

to owe;   to be morally bound to do something

deficio (3/4) -feci, -fectum

to desert, rebel, revolt;   to fail, run short;   of fire: to go out

defleo (2) -flevi, -fletum

to bewail, weep for (+ acc.)

deformis, -e

deformed, misshapen, ugly

defungor (3) -functus

to perform, discharge, finish, have done with (+ abl.);   (with vita understood): to die

defunctus, -a:   a dead person, corpse


adv.:   from that place;   thereafter, thereupon, then

delector (1)

to take delight in (+ abl.)   [delecto]

descendo (3) -scendi, -scensum

to climb down, descend

desideo (3) -sedi, -sessum

to sit idle, be slothful

desiderium, -i (n.)

desire or longing for, grief for the absence or loss of a person or thing

detraho (3) -traxi, -tractum

to draw down, drag down, drag away, remove

deus, -i (m.)

god (nom. pl.: dei, dii, or dei;   gen. pl.: deorum or deum;   dat. pl.: deis, diis, or dis)

dico (3) dixi, dictum

to say, speak, tell

diduco (3) -duxi, -ductum

to draw apart, separate;   to divide, distribute, disperse;   to distract

dies, -ei (m. — sometimes f.)

daytime;   a day, a 24-hour period;   time (in general)

discutio (3/4) -cussi, -cussum

to shatter;   to disperse, scatter


adv.:   for a long time;   a long time ago

comp.:   diutius

do (1) dedi, datum

to give, offer, provide, allow

dolor, -is (m.)

pain, ache, anguish, grief

domicilium, -i (n.)

a place of residence, dwelling, abode

domina, -ae (f.)

mistress of a household, wife, royal lady


conj.:   up to the time when, until;   so long as, while

dubius, -a, -um

uncertain, hesitating, irresolute;   uncertain, doubted, doubtful

adv.:   dubie


conj.:   while, during the time that;   so long as, provided that;   until

duo, -ae, -o


effero, efferre, extuli, elatum   [ecfero]

to carry out, bring out, carry off;   esp.: to carry out for burial

effundo (3) -fudi, fusum

to pour out, pour forth, shed


pers. pron.:   I

eo, ire, ivi and ii, itum

to go

Ephesus, -i (m.)

one of the twelve Ionian Greek towns of Asia Minor


adv.:   consequently, therefore, accordingly, then

error, -oris (m.)

a wandering about;   wavering, uncertainty;   error, mistake

erubesco (3) -rubui

to grow red, blush (esp. with shame)


conj.:   and

et ... et: both ... and


particle:   as yet, still;   also, besides, even

Eumolpos, -i (m.)

The decadent poet and companion of Encolpius who narrates our story. (A Greek name.)   [See the Background to the Tale.]

evoco (1)

to call out, summon, draw out, call forth


prep.:   out of, from;   since;   by reason of, in accordance with

excipio (3/4) -cepi, -ceptum

to take out, rescue;   to take up, catch, receive, greet, welcome

exemplum, -i (n.)

an example, model;   precedent;   warning, object-lesson

exhortatio, -onis (f.)

exhortation, encouragement

exitus, -i (m.)

a going out;   a means of going out, exit;   end, finish;   result

expecto (1)   [exspecto]

to look for, wait for, await, hope for, dread

expilo (1)

to plunder, rob

expiro (1)   [exspiro]

to breath out, exhale;   to give up the ghost, die

expono (3) -posui, -positum

to put outside, cast out;   to put on view, display, set forth, exhibit, explain

expugno (1)

to take by storm, capture;   to overcome, subdue;   to extort;   to accomplish

extinguo (3) -stinxi, -stinctum   [exstinguo]

to put out, extinguish;   to kill;   to abolish, destroy

exulcero (1)

to make sore, aggravate, irritate, embitter

fabula, -ae (f.)

(esp. pl.):   talk, conversation;   tale, story, fable

facies, -ei (f.)

shape, form, figure;   face, countenance;   character, nature;   seeming, pretence

facilis, -e

easy to do, easy;   facile, dexterous, clever;   affable, good-natured

adv.:   facile

facio (3/4) feci, factum

to make, do, perform, cause

facultas, -atis (f.)

feasibility, possibility;   power, means

familia, -ae (f.)

household, family (generally includes married children and their children, slaves, and other dependents)

pater familias:   head of a household [familias is an archaic genitive used after pater, mater, filius, filia: notice that when the first noun is declined (as in this passage), the archaic form of the genitive is no longer used.]

familiaris, -e

belonging to a family (familia) or household

familiaris, -is (m.): a familiar friend, intimate

fatalis, -e

relating to destiny or fate;   fated, destined;   deadly, fatal   [fatum]

fatum, -i (n.)

an utterance;   a divine utterance, the expressed will of the gods;   destiny, fate;   the will of a god;   misfortune, ruin, catastrophe   [fari]

femina, -ae (f.)

a woman, a female

fero, ferre, tuli, latum

to bear, carry, bring

fidus, -a, -um

true, faithful, trusty

filius, -ii or -i (m.)

a son;   pl. — children

fleo (2) flevi, fletum

to weep;   lament, bewail

foedus, -eris (n.)

a league between states;   a compact, covenant, agreement

foris, -is (f.)

a door;   in pl.: folding doors;   an entrance

forma, -ae (f.)

form, figure, shape;   beauty;   figure, image, likeness

frango (3) fregi, fractum

to break in pieces, shatter;   to master, tame, subdue

frequentia, -ae (f.)

a large crowd

fruor (3) fructus and fruitus

to have the benefit of, enjoy (+ abl.)

fulgeo (2) fulsi

to flash, shine, gleam, glitter

funus, -eris (n.)

a funeral, burial;   a funeral procession;   a corpse;   death, destruction, ruin

furor, -oris (m.)

madness, raving insanity;   furious anger;   passionate love;   inspiration, poetic or prophetic frenzy

gemitus, -us (m.)

a sigh, groan

gens, gentis (f.)

a clan;   stock;   a people, tribe, nation;   a district, country

Giton, -onis (m.)

The handsome young companion of Encolpius. (A Greek name.)   [See the Background to the Tale.]

gladius, -i (m.)

a sword

Graecus, -a, -um

Greek (It is necessary to recall that, from the Roman perspective, Asia Minor was part of the largely Greek world of the eastern Mediterranean.)

gratia, -ae (f.)

charm, attraction;   favor with others, esteem, regard;   a service, kindness;   thankfulness, thanks, recompense (A common euphemism for the sexual favors granted to a lover by a mistress.)

Hedyle, -es (f.)

The wife of Lichas. (A Greek name.)   [See the Background to the Tale.]

hic, haec, hoc

demons. pron. and adj.:   this, this ... here

hilaritas, -atis (f.)

cheerfulness, mirth, gaiety

homo, hominis (m.)

a human being, person

hortor (1)

to exhort, incite, encourage

humanitas, -atis (f.)

humanity, human feeling;   kindness;   refinement, education, culture

humanus, -a, -um

human, relating to human beings, characteristic of a human

hypogaeum, -i (n.)   [hypogeum]

an underground vault or cellar;   a sepulcher

iaceo (2) iacui

to lie resting or sick;   to lie thrown to the ground;   to lie dead

iacto (1)

to throw, cast, fling about;   to scatter;   to harass, disturb;   to broadcast, bring up, discuss, speak of (Frequentative of iacio.)


adv.:   now, already;   by this time, by that time

idem, eadem, idem

pron. and adj.:   the same


adv.:   then, so, therefore, accordingly

ignavia, -ae (f.)

idleness, listlessness;   cowardice

ignotus, -a, -um

unknown;   ignoble, obscure

ille, illa, illud

demons. pron. and adj.:   that, that yonder, that other, that well-known

imago, -inis (f.)

an image, copy, likeness;   a portrait;   the shade or ghost of a dead person

impendo (3) -pendi, -pensum

to weigh out;   to expend, lay out   (See commentary ad loc.)

imperator, -oris (m.)

commander, leader;   commander of an army;   the emperor

impetro (1)

to get, obtain, accomplish, effect

impono (3) -posui, -positum

to put, set, lay, place in or upon


prep. — with acc.: into, onto, towards, against;   with abl.: in, on, among, in relation to, in the case of

indemnatus, -a, -um


inedia, -ae (f.)

fasting, abstinence from food

infacundus, -a, -um


infernus, -a, -um

that which is or comes from below;   infernal

ingenium, -i (n.)

natural disposition, character;   mental power, cleverness, ability, talent;   a clever invention or idea


defective vb.:   I say   (pres.: inquam, inquis, inquit, inquimus, inquitis, inquiunt — used parenthetically, of both the present and the past.)


prep.:   between, among, amid (+ acc.)


adv.:   meanwhile

invito (1)

to invite;   to receive, entertain;   to summon;   to allure, induce

invitus, -a, -um

unwilling, against one's will

ipse, ipsa, ipsud

pron.:   myself, yourself, him/herself;   just, exactly (of numbers);   of a master, teacher;   spontaneously, of one's own accord

iracundia, -ae (f.)

an angry disposition, irascibility;   a state of anger, fury, wrath

irascor (3) iratus

to grow angry

iratus, -a, -um:   angry, full of wrath

is, ea, id

demons. pron. and adj.:   he, she, it;   this or that person or thing

iste, ista, istud

demons. pron. and adj.:   that of yours, that beside you (often with contemptuous overtones)


adv.:   and thus, and so;   therefore, for that reason

iubeo (2) iussi, iussum

to order, command, bid

iudex, -icis (m.)

a judge;   in general: a person in a position to judge or decide something

ius, iuris (n.)

right, law

ius dicere:   to declare the law, administer justice, pass sentence

iustus, -a, -um

just, equitable, fair;   proper

iuvenis, -e

young, youthful

iuvenis, -is (m./f.):   a young man or woman

lacero (1)

to tear to pieces, maim, mangle, lacerate

lacrima, -ae (f.)

a tear

latro, -onis (m.)

a hired servant or mercenary soldier;   a robber, bandit, brigand

laxo (1)

to widen, loosen;   undo, slacken;   relax

levitas, -atis (f.)

lightness;   levity, fickleness, inconstancy

libidinosus, -a, -um

full of desire;   passionate, lustful

libido, -inis (f.)

violent desire, longing, lust;   whim, caprice

licet (2) licuit, licitum

it is allowed, one can or may

Lichas, -antis (m.)

The captain of the ship on which Encolpius and his friends find themselves. (A Greek name.)   [See the Background to the Tale.]

locus, -i (m.)

a place;   occasion, cause

lugeo (2) luxi

trans.:   to mourn, be in mourning;   intrans.: to bewail, lament

lumen, -inis (n.)

light;   a lamp;   the light of day;   life

lux, lucis (f.)

light;   the light of day, daylight;   life;   the eye, eyesight;   publicity

magistratus, -us (m.)

a magistracy, official office;   a magistrate, state official

malo, malle, malui

to wish rather, prefer

mando (1)

to commit to one's charge, entrust;   to commit, hand over to

manes, -ium (m.)

the shades of the departed, the spirits of the dead

manus, -us (f.)

the hand

maritus, -a, -um

of or relating to marriage, conjugal

maritus, -i (m.):   husband

matrona, -ae (f.)

a married woman, matron;   a noble lady

mediocris, -e

moderate, middling, ordinary

memini, -isse

to remember, recollect (pfct. used as pres.: i.e., "I have called to mind and therefore remember");   to call to mind, mention

memoria, -ae

memory, the capacity for remembering;   memory or remembrance of something;   time of remembrance, recollection

mens, mentis (f.)

the mind, understanding, reason, intellect, judgment

migratio, -onis (f.)

a removal, change of abode, departure

miles, -itis (m.)

a soldier

minor, -us

comp. of parvus, -a, -um: small, little

comp. adv.:   minus

miror (1)

to wonder, be astonished at, marvel

misericors, -cordis

pitiful, merciful, compassionate


adv.: :   only, merely, but, just;   just recently, soon

monstrum, -i (n.)

a wonder, portent, supernatural event

monumentum, -i (n.)

a memorial, monument;   tomb

morior (3) mortuus

to die

mortuus, -i (m.): dead man, corpse

moror (1)

intrans.:   to delay, linger, loiter;   trans.: to retard, detain, hinder

mors, mortis (f.)


mos, moris (m.)

the will, humor, inclination of a person;   custom, usage, wont;   regular practice, rule, law

more (abl.):   in the manner of (+ gen. or possessive adj.)

muliebris, -e

of a woman, womanly, feminine, womanish

mulier, -is (f.)

a woman;   a wife, matron

muliercula, -ae (f.)

a little woman (dimin. of mulier — used in pity or contempt)

multus, -a, -um

much, many

nauta, -ae (m.)

a sailor (a 1st decl. m. noun indicating a profession: cf. agricola, poeta)

navigium, -i (n.)

a ship, vessel


conj.:   lest, that not

adv.:   not (ne ... quidem:   not even)

nec, neque

conj.:   and ... not, nor;   and yet ... not

nec ... nec:   neither ... nor

nemo, neminis (m./f.)

no one, nobody

nihil (n.)

nothing (indecl.vs. nihilum)

adv.:   not at all, in no respect

nomen, nominis (n.)

a name;   the person or community that bears the name;   a famous name;   a person of renown or notoriety;   fame, glory


adv.:   not;   no

noto (1)

to mark, distinguish, mark out;   to observe;   to write

notus, -a, -um

known;   familiar;   notorious (pfct. partic. of nosco)

noti, -orum (m.):   friends, acquaintances

nox, noctis (f.)


nudo (1)

to make naked, bare, strip;   reveal, uncover, lay bare;   plunder

nullus, -a, -um

no, none, not any

nuptiae, -arum (f.)

marriage, wedding rites;   consummation of a wedded union

obliviscor (3) oblitus

to forget (+ gen.)

occido (3) -cidi, -cisum

to strike down, beat to the ground;   to kill, slay;   to plague to death, torment   (See commentary ad loc.)

occupo (1)

to take possession of, seize, master, occupy

odor, -is (m.)

a smell, odor

officium, -i (n.)

a dutiful or respectful action;   a duty;   a ceremonial action (esp. of the last rites offered someone who has died)

omnis, -e

all, every, whole

oratio, -onis (f.)

a speech

ordior (3) orsus

to begin a web, lay the warp;   to begin, commence

ordo, -inis (m.)

a series, line, row, order;   an order, rank, class

pando (3) pandi, pansum and passum

to stretch out, extend;   to spread;   to dishevel

parens, -entis (m./f.)

a parent;   a grandfather;   an ancestor

pars, partis (f.)

a part, portion, piece, share;   a side, direction;   the part or role of an actor

pater, patris (m.)

a father

patior (3) passus

to suffer, undergo;   to endure, permit, allow

pectus, -oris (n.)

the breast, chest

pendeo (2) pependi

intrans.:   to hang suspended


prep.:   through, along, over;   throughout, during;   through, by, by means of;   because, on account of   (+ acc.)

percutio (3/4) -cussi, -cussum

to strike hard, pierce, transfix;   to shock

peregrinus, -a, -um

foreign, of a foreigner, strange;   associated with someone who is a stranger

pereo, -ire, -ii and -ivi, -itum

to go to waste, be lost, perish, pass away

periclitor (1)

to try, make a trial, venture;   to be in danger

periclitans (partic.):   a person standing trial, defendant

permitto (3) -misi, -missum

to let go through;   to let go, hurl;   to give up, yield, surrender;   to allow, permit

persequor (3) -secutus

to follow constantly, pursue with hostile intent;   to pursue, strive after

persevero (1)

to persist, continue

persuadeo (2) -suasi, -suasum

to persuade, convince (+ dat. of the person and acc. of the thing that you are trying to make acceptable to him/her)

pertinacia, -ae (f.)

firmness, obstinacy, stubbornness

placeo (2) -ui, -itum

to please, be agreeable to, acceptable to

placitus, -a, -um:   pleasing, pleasant, agreeable

plango (3) planxi, planctum

to beat, strike noisily;   to bewail

plerusque, -raque, -rumque

very many, a large part, the most part

adv.:   plerumque:   for the most part, mostly, generally, commonly

pono (3) posui, positum

to lay, put, place

populus, -i (m.)

a people;   the people (vs. the senate);   the public;   a crowd, multitude

porrigo (3) -rexi, -rectum

to stretch out, extend

posco (3) poposci

to ask earnestly, request

possum, posse, potui

to be able

posterus, -a, -o

subsequent, following, next

potio, -onis (f.)

a drinking;   a drink, draught

praecludo (3) -clusi, -clusum

to close in front, shut up;   to close, make inaccessible

praesum, -esse, -fui

to be before;   to be over, preside over

praesens, -entis:   present, at hand

primus, -a, -um

first, foremost;   the first part of x

prior, prius

former, earlier, previous

adv.:   prius

propinquus, -a, -um

neighboring, near, closely connected, nearly related

propinquus, -i / propinqua, -ae:   a relative

prosequor (3) -secutus

to follow, accompany, attend;   to attack, pursue

prosum, prodesse, profui, profuturus

to be useful, do good

provincia, -ae (f.)

employment, charge, sphere of duty, office; a province governed by a Roman magistrate

proximus, -a, -um

very near, nearest;   next, following;   most recent   [propior]

prudens, -entis

foreseeing;   skilled, practiced;   prudent, discreet, wise, judicious

pudicitia, -ae (f.)

modesty, chastity, virtue

pudicus, -a, -um

modest, chaste, virtuous

pugno (1)

to fight, combat, give battle;   to struggle, contend

pulcher, -chra, -chrum

beautiful, fair, lovely;   excellent, admirable, fine

puto (1)

to reckon, estimate;   to consider, believe, think


adv.:   how, in what way;   interrog.:   to what extent, how much, how;   correlated to tam or sic:   as;   with comp. adj. or adv.:   than, as


adv.:   with ind.just as;   with subj. or partic.as if (unreal comparison);   as it were, a sort of;   with numbers: about

qui, quae, quod

rel. pron.:   who, which, that

qui, quae, quod

interrog. adj.:   which? what? what kind of?

quidam, quaedam, quoddam

indef. adj.:   a certain person or thing;   a kind of, so to speak


adv.:   indeed, even, at least;

ne ... quidem:   not even

quintus, -a, -um


quis, quid

interrog. pron.:   who? what?

quid:   why? (originally an internal or cognate acc.) [AG 390c]

Note:   quis, quid is employed after si, num, nisi, and ne in place of aliquis, aliquid

quisquis, quaequae, quidquid

rel. pron.:   whoever, whichever;   indef. pron.: anyone, anything, any; anyone who, anything that


adv.:   also, too;   even, indeed, actually

quotienscumque   [quotiescumque]

adv.:   however often

ratio, -ionis (f.)

a reckoning, account, calculation;   a transaction, affair, business;   a reason, motive, ground;   a plan, scheme, method

recedo (3) -cessi, -cessum

to go back, retreat, retire

recens, -entis

new, fresh, young, recent

redeo, -ire, -ivi and -ii, -itum

to go back, come back, return

refero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum

to carry back, bring back, restore

reficio, (3/4) -feci, -factum

to make again, restore, repair;   to refresh, revive [intrans.]

renovo (1)

to renew, renovate, restore, repair, refresh

reor (2) ratus

to reckon, think, suppose, judge

repello (3) reppuli, repulsum

to drive back, drive away;   to spurn

repleo (2) -plevi, -pletum

to fill again, fill up;   make full, satisfy

res, rei (f.)

a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance

revivisco (3) -vixi

to come to life again, revive

revoco (1)

to call again, call back, recall;   to bring back again, recover

rideo (2) risi, risum

intrans.:   to laugh;   trans.:   to laugh at, mock

risus, -us (m.)

laughter;   jeering, ridicule

rumpo (3) rupi, ruptum

to break, shatter, burst open;   to cause to break forth;   to destroy, violate, make void;   to break off, cause to snap

saeculum, -i (n.)

a generation;   century;   age;   the people of a generation

sanitas, -atis (f.)

health, soundness;   reasonableness, good sense, sanity

satietas, -atis (f.)

sufficiency, abundance;   overabundance, satiety, fullness


adv.:   evidently, certainly, of course;   no doubt   [scire licet]

scio (4) scivi and scii, scitum

to know, understand, have knowledge of

se, sui

reflex. pron.:   himself, herself, itself, themselves

seco (1) secui, sectum

to cut, wound, scratch, injure

secretum, -i (n.)   [secerno]

retirement, solitude, a solitary place;   a secret, mystery   [secerno]


prep.:   following, after;   close behind;   next to;   in accordance with   (+ acc.)


conj.:   but, however;   and indeed, what is more

sententia, -ae (f.)

a way of thinking, opinion, thought, meaning, purpose;   a decision, vote, verdict

sentio (4) sensi, sensum

to feel, experience, realize, perceive

sepelio (4) -pelivi and -pelii, -pultum

to bury

sepultura, -ae (f.)

a burying, burial, interment


conj.:   if, supposing that


adv.:   thus, so, in this way;   as follows;   in that case, with this limitation;   so much, to such a degree

siccus, -a, -um

dry;   firm, sound, healthy;   thirsting, thirsty;   sober, temperate;   plain, simple

sileo (2) silui

to be still, noiseless, silent;   to be still, rest, be inactive


adv.:   at once, at the same time, together


prep.:   without   (+ abl.)

singularis, -e

alone, single, individual;   unique, extraordinary

sino (3) sivi, situm

to place, put down, set down;   to let alone, leave;   to let, allow, permit

soleo (2) solitus sum

to be accustomed

solus, -a, -um

alone, only, sole

adv.:   solum — alone, only, merely

solvo (3) solvi, solutum

to loosen, untie, unbind, free;   to dissolve, break up, weaken, bring to an end;   to pay off, discharge

spectaculum, -i (n.)

a sight, show, spectacle;   a spectacle in the circus or theater

specto (1)

to look at carefully, contemplate, observe, watch;   to consider, contemplate, observe

spiritus, -us (m.)

breathing, breath, breeze;   breath of life, life;   divine or poetic inspiration;   spirit, disposition;   pride


adv.:   without yielding, firmly, steadfastly;   on the spot, immediately, at once


adv.:   immediately afterwards;   repeatedly, from time to time

subsisto (3) -stiti

to make a stand, withstand;   to come to a stand, stop, halt;   to stay, remain

sum, esse, fui, futurus

to be, exist, live;   to be so and so

sumo (3) sumpsi, sumptum

to take, borrow, choose, obtain, buy;   to exact


prep.:   over, above, upon   (+ acc.)

supervacuus, -a, -um

superfluous, unnecessary

supplicium, -i (n.)

a supplication, entreaty;   punishment (esp. capital punishment)

supremus, -a, -um

highest, uppermost;   last, final;   highest, greatest   [superus]

suus, -a, -um

his, her, its, their (own)


adv.:   so, so far, to such a degree


conj.:   however, yet, nevertheless, notwithstanding, for all that

tantus, -a, -um

of such a size, so great, so small

tantum (n. acc. as adv.):   so much, so far;   only

tempto (1)

to prove, test, try;   to test by attack, assail;   to work upon, tamper with, excite, disturb

tempus, -oris (n.)

a division, section;   a period of time;   a fit time, occasion, opportunity

tertius, -a, -um


tollo (3) sustuli, sublatum

to lift up, raise, elevate

totus, -a, -um

the whole, complete, entire

tragoedia, -ae (f.)

a tragedy;   a dramatic scene

traho (3) traxi, tractum

to draw, drag;   to draw out;   to squander;   to prolong, lengthen, spin out

Tryphaena, -ae (f.)

The decadent aristocratic lady who once owned Giton; a former mistress to the novel's narrator, Encolpius. (A Greek name.)   [See the Background to the Tale.]

tu, tui

pron.:   thou, you (sg.)

turbo (1)

to disturb, throw into confusion

ultimus, -a, -um

most distant, farthest, extreme, last   [*ulter]

ultimo (adv.):   at last


adv.:   in one, together   [unus]

unguis, -is (m.)

a finger- or toe-nail

unus, -a, -um

one;   only one, one alone


adv.:   at every point, through and through, from ... to, all the way, continuously

usque ad:   all the way to


adv.:   with ind.as, when;   with subj. — to indicate purpose (that, in order that), result (so that), indirect commands (that)

uterque, utraque, utrumque

each of two, both

utor (3) usus

to use, make use of, employ;   to possess, enjoy   (+ abl.)

uxor, -oris (f.)

a wife, spouse

vaco (1)

to be empty, void;   to be without

vehemens, -entis

violent, vehement, furious, impetuous

comp. adv.:   vehementius

venio (4) veni, ventum

to come, arrive

verbum, -i (n.)

a word

vereor (2) veritus

to be afraid or anxious, fear;   to have respect for, revere

verus, -a, -um

true, real, genuine

vetus, -eris

old, ancient, of long standing

vicinus, -a, -i

near, neighboring

victor, -oris (m.)

a conqueror, victor;   in apposition:   as a conqueror, victorious


adv.:   it is clear;   clearly, plainly, manifestly;   ironic:   forsooth, of course, to be sure

video (2) vidi, visum

to see;   dep.:   to seem;   pass.:   to be seen

vinco (3) vici, victum

to conquer, overcome, subdue, defeat, vanquish

vinum, -i (n.)


vir, -i (m.)

a man, male person;   a husband

vitium, -i (n.)

a fault, defect, blemish, imperfection

vivo (3) vixi, victum

to live, be alive

vivus, -a, -um

alive, living

volo, velle, volui

to be willing, wish

vulgaris, -e

common, ordinary, usual   [vulgus]

vultus, -us (m.)

the expression of the face, countenance, aspect, look;   the face;   the look, appearance of something