Ratites Bibliography

Compiled by Ken Ladd
Last update: August 16, 1996
706 References

1. . Animal health . Annual report, 1 April 1980 to 31 March 1981. 1981;
73-99. vi + 173pp 
English; 9601
The well-written introduction intelligently discusses the broad principles of
land use. Extensive trials of crossbreeding and purebreeding in beef cattle
continued and, overall, the performance of Simmental was outstanding. The
drop in milk yield which occurs during the autumn in cows grazing kikuyu has
now been shown to be caused by lowered intake of herbage--not a drop in
nutritional value of kikuyu; supplementary feeding prevents the drop.
Production of mutton from Merinos and Dorpers was investigated. There is a
shortage of protein-rich food for pigs and work continued to find suitable
sources; soya bean and lucerne are possibilities. Two of the biggest
commercial abattoirs now use electrical stimulation of warm beef carcasses to
obtain "red meat of far more consistent quality". In the slaughter of
ostriches for meat, the balance between the values of feathers and meat has
to be considered and it appears that below a body weight of 73 kg, the proper
first pluck of plumes should take precedence. Colibacillosis of calves has
become more common. Adaptation of the heartwater organism to mice has made
possible the harvesting of antigen and this should be of great help to
research workers. A new species of Babesia was found in cattle. Ascites in
broilers (and it occurs only in broilers) begins as damage to the right heart
muscle, which leads to congestion of liver and other organs; it is a new
disease which occurs at an altitude of at least 1000 m above sea level. It is
estimated that more than a million broilers died of the disease during the
winter of 1980-81. [This may be the same disease which has appeared in
British broilers--despite the difference in altitude].
Meat inspection/ Veterinary services/ goat diseases/ Research/ Animal
diseases/ cattle diseases/ sheep diseases/ cattle/ sheep/ goats 

2. . Annual report of the Director General:Agriculture for the period 1 April
1981 to 31 March 1982. Pretoria, South Africa; 1983; 174 pp. 
Short reports are given of continuing work on (1) the use of Dorper sheep for
intensive meat production; (2) the effects of phosphorus supplementation on
reproduction in ewes and cows; (3) breeding of laying and broiler fowls; (4)
selection of sheep for wool production; (5) effects of crossbreeding on skin
traits in Merino sheep; (6) breeding black, brown and white Karakul sheep;
(7) sexing day-old ostrich chicks; (8) biochemical polymorphism in indigenous
cattle breeds; (9) effects of 1/29 chromosome translocation on performance in
cattle. Items abstracted appear in the appropriate sections of ABA.
Research/ South Africa/ Department of Agriculture/ Tropics 

3. Avian influenza virus in ratites--1993. Foreign Animal Disease Report
1993; 21(4): 9-10.
emus/ rhea/ avian influenzavirus/ epidemiology/ usa 

4. Do not give ostriches feeds for turkeys. Rivista di Avicoltura 1993;
62(2): 21-24.
The use of turkey diets rich in protein and energy for feeding young
ostriches can result in a too rapid increase in body weight for the partly
mineralized bones in the feet to support, resulting in deformations. Recent
data on the specific nutrient requirements of ostriches are discussed.
Recommended intake of metabolizable energy for maintenance, growth and
reproduction is 2400, 2600 to 2700 and 2400 to 2500 kcal/ kg feed.
Recommended intake of crude protein is 140, 180 to 200 and 160 to 200 g,
lysine 7, 9 to 10 and 8 to 10 g, methionine plus cystine 6.5, 8 to 8.5 and 7
to 9 g, calcium 8 to 10, 10 and 28 to 30 g and available phosphorus 4.5, 5
and 4.5 g/ kg, respectively. In cases of stress electrolytes, vitamins and
antibiotics if necessary should be given in addition to drinking water.
Ostriches/ nutrient requirements

5. . Summary of equine encephalitis surveillance January 1, 1993 - October
15, 1994. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association; October
29 - November 4, 1994; Grand Rapids, MI. Richmond, VI: United States Animal
Health Association; 1994 282-285. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Provides statistics on the number of submissions received and the number of
positive cases of both Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine
Encephalitis (WEE) and which state. For 1993, there were 4 cases of emus with
EEE and 2 emus with WEE. For January 1 to October 15, 1994 there were 5 cases
of emus with EEE and 2 cases of emus with WEE.
emus/ Eastern Equine Encephalitis/ Western Equine Encephalitis

6. Update on exotic ticks. Foreign Animal Disease Report 1989; 17(4): 2-3.
The introduction of the African ticks Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma sp. to the
USA on ostriches imported from Tanzania to Texas and Ohio in April 1989 is
reported. Emergency programmes were introduced that involved inspecting and
treating ostriches, other animals, premises and vehicles for exotic ticks.
The last exotic tick was found at Dennison, Texas on June 7th 1989.
Surveillance included the use of carbon dioxide traps, flagging and the
inspection of wild animals. It is suggested that the introduction of vectors
of heartwater and East Coast fever represents a major threat to the livestock
industry in the southern USA.
Acari/ Ectoparasitoses/ Imported infections/ Birds/ Zoo animals/
Struthionidae/ Amblyomma gemma/ ostriches/ USA/ Hyalomma/ Ixodidae/ Texas/

7. Aarons J. First aid and wound management. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(9):
This article was originally intended for veterinarians dealing with ratites.
The first step is to asses the situation for additional potential damage for
the bird and the safety of the veterinarian and handlers. Contact the
insurance company to get permission to perform procedures. Decide if the bird
must be handled for proper treatment. Often, time and antibiotics are all
that are needed. If the bird is to be handled decide on use of restraint,
tranquilizers or anesthesia. Author discusses various levels of restraints,
tranquilizers and anesthetic. Advice is given on how to make recovery from
general anesthetic quiet and routine and prevent postsurgical paralysis.
ostirches/ wound management/ restraint/ tranquilizers/ anesthetic/ lidocaine/
valium/ ketamine/ isoflurane

8. Aarons J. Ostrich pediatrics. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 20, 22-23.
References. KL1+
Second in a series. Discusses the medical problems of newly hatched chicks -
wet chicks, yolk sac problmes, non-infected yolk sac problems, yolk sac
infections, diarrhea, hyperthermia, hypothermia, and respiratory infections.
ostriches/ neonatal/ yolk sac/ diarrhea/ hypothermia/ hyperthermia/
respiratory infections

9. Aarons J. Ostrich pediatrics. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(8):
Part one of two. This article discusses brooding and nutrition. Environmental
conditions requisite to successful brooding are temperature control,
ventilation, moisture and adequate space. Discusses dietary principles.
ostriches/ pediatrics/ brooding/ nutrition

10. Aarons J. Ostrich pediatrics. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 22-26.
References. KL1+
Third in a series. Deals with orthopedic problems - curly toe, spraddle-leg,
twisted leg syndrome, perosis, trauma rickets, twisted leg (unknown causes),
impactions, torticollis (wry neck), and feather picking. Also provides
miscellaneous care guides - electrolyte dosage, baby formula, intensive care
baby formula (for very weak chicks), antibiotics, and subcutaneous fluids.
ostriches/ neonatal/ perosis/ twisted leg syndrome/ orthopedics/ curly toe/

11. Adams, AW. Ostrich production. L Coop Ext Serv Kans State Univ.
Manhattan, Kan. : The Service. 1989; 2 p. 
English; ill.
struthio camelus/ animal breeding/ incubation/ animal feeding/ disease

12. Adams N; Seddon P; Du Plessis M; Dean W; Jackson S; Geldenhuys L; Morkel
P; Berry H; and Paxton M. Capture of wild ostriches Struthio camelus
australis in the Namib Desert. Madoqua 1991; 18(1): 37-39.
The extreme visual acuity of ostriches and their open habitat makes them
difficult to approach undetected. We describe the procedure we adopted to
capture wild birds in the Namib Desert (Africa). We attempted unsuccessfully
to catch birds by hooking them around the neck from a moving vehicle.
Casualties resulted from inexperience and incorrect handling. Drop nets were
deployed to capture eight ostriches. Two casualties were a consequence of
collisions with nets and a vehicle. We had few problems in handling
blindfolded birds.
Visual Acuity/ Open Habitat/ Drop Net/ Capture Technique/ Africa

13. Adamson G. Observations on the ostrich (Struthio camelus massaicus
Neumann). East African Wildlife Journal 1964; 2: 164.

14. Aitken I and Survashe B. A procedure for location and removal of the
lachrymal and Harderian glands of avian species. Comparative Biochemistry and
Physiology 1976; 53A(2): 193-195.
English; 6 ref; 9601
Experimental surgery/ lacrimal apparatus/ conjunctiva/ fowls/ parrots/
pigeons/ Rhea/ Sparrow

15. Alldredge B; Ahmed Z; and Khan M. Salmonellosis in an ostrich (Struthio
camelus). Livestock Adviser, Bangalore 1981; 6(12): 39-40.
English; 3 ref; 9601
Aviary birds/ Bacterial diseases/ Antibiotics/ NITROFURAL/ case reports/ Zoo
animals/ salmonellosis/ Salmonella gallinarum/ ostriches 

16. Allen J and Stevens M. Diversification in the woolbelt; Other on-station
activities for wool pastoralists. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia
1994; 35(1): 30-34; 35-37.
The first paper (Allen, pp.30-34) discusses requirements and prospects for
new non-traditional enterprises in Western Australia's wool belt areas. It
covers: floriculture; aquaculture; export hay; farm tourism; commercial
timber; horticulture; goats; deer; alpacas; emus; and ostriches. The second
paper (Stevens, pp.35-37) discusses the prospects of various options for
Western Australian wool growers: horticulture; beef cattle; goats; farm
tourism; kangaroo meat; emus; sandalwood; and dried quandong fruit (Santalum
acuminatum). Also discussed are ways of improving the performance of the wool
enterprise by means of improved ram and ewe selection, reproductive
management and clip preparation.
adjustment of production/ sheep farming/ diversification/ ancillary
enterprises/ production possibilities

17. Allwright, DM. Ostrich diseases Smith, WA, Editor. Practical guide for
ostrich management and ostrich products. [Matieland, South Africa]: Alltech
Inc.; 1995; 20-27. 44pp. 
English; 9603
Brief overview of the most common diseases of ostriches categorized as
respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous/ musculo-skeletal and other
(dermatological, hepatitis and fading chick).
ostriches/ diseases/ avian influenza/ mycoplasma/ aspiration/ bacterial
respiratory disease/ fungal respiratory disease/ megabacteria/ fungal
gastritis/ libyostrongylus/ foreign bodies/ impaction/ stasis/ viral
enteritis/ bacterial enteritis/ parasitic enteritis/ newcastle disease/
encephalopathy/ botulism/ poisoning/ leg deformities/ fractures/ myopathy/
hypoglycemia/ dermatology/ hepatitis/ fading chick

18. Allwright D; Burger W; Geyer A; and Terblanche A. Isolation of an
influenza A virus from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Avian Pathology 1993;
22(1): 59-65.
English; 9 ref
An influenza A virus of the H7N1 subtype was isolated from young ostriches
which died after developing a syndrome characterized by a green
discolouration of the urine, weakness, and signs of respiratory distress.
Mortality varied, depending on the age of the ostriches, the presence of
other infective agents and the amount of stress to which they were exposed.
Using the haemagglutination inhibition test, an anamnestic response was
recorded in ostriches that recovered from the disease. Pathogenicity tests
indicated that the isolate was of low virulence for fowls.
Pathogenicity/ Symptoms/ Haemagglutination inhibition test/ Avian
influenzavirus/ ostriches/ influenzavirus 

19. Allwright D; Burger W; Geyer A; and Wessels J. Avian Pox In Ostriches.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1994; 65(1): 23-25.
Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions resembling avian pox were
observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic
intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a
pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was
used to protect young ostriches in the field.
Ostrich/ Struthio camelus/ Avian pox/ Fowl pox vaccine

20. Allwright D; Geyer A; Burger W; Williams R; Gerdes G; and Barnard B.
Isolation of Wesselsbron virus from ostriches. Veterinary Record 1995;
136(4): 99.
In February 1992 a farmer found very high mortalities in a flock of 250 4
month-old ostriches. Post mortem examination found only enlarged spleens.
Wesselsbron virus was eventually identified and confirmed by
microneutralisation tests. Ten surviving ostriches were seropositive for
Wesselsbron virus. An experiment on eight 6 month-old seronegative ostriches
resulted in seroconversion but all remained healthy. The role of the virus in
the deaths of the young ostriches is unknown. Age-related resistance to
infection may explain the experimental results with the 6 month-old
ostriches/ Wasselsbron virus

21. Allwright D and Wessels J. Cryptosporidium species in ostriches.
Veterinary Record 1993; 133(1): 24.
English; 2 ref
In a study of histological sections from young ostriches with cloacal
prolapses, numerous Cryptosporidium species were detected in sections of the
bursa of Fabricius. It is suggested that pathological lesions in the bursa in
ostriches could result in straining and consequently prolapses.
birds/ protozoal infections/ prolapse/ Cryptosporidium/ ostriches/ bursa
fabricii/ Cryptosporidiidae/ Struthionidae/ plumage birds/ South Africa/

22. Allwright D; Wilson M; and Vanrensburg W. Botulism in Ostriches
(Struthio-Camelus). Avian Pathology 1994; 23(1): 183-186.
English Note
An outbreak of botulism in ostriches (Struthio camelus) is described. Some
birds became totally paralysed, and many developed paresis and ataxia.
Clostridium botulinum type C and its toxin were found in the remains of an
ostrich carcass collected from the camp in which the birds were kept. Toxin
could not be demonstrated in the serum of affected ostriches. Treatment with
specific antitoxin resulted in total recovery of almost all the birds.

23. American Ostrich Association. Official publication of the American
Ostrich Association. Ostrich report 
Ft. Worth, TX; English
Ostriches Periodicals/ Ostrich farms and farming Periodicals

24. Anderioni G. Incubation of ostrich eggs. Rivista di Avicoltura 1993;
62(5): 51-55.
Italian; 2 ref
This article describes the incubation requirements (temp., humidity, etc.) of
ostrich eggs. Incubation duration is 6 wk, the last week of which is the
hatching phase.
Incubation/ ostriches 

25. Anderloni G. The ostrich has a problem? Here is the solution. Rivista di
Avicoltura 1993; 62(11): 43-46.
poultry diseases/ trauma/ digestive disorders/ bacterial diseases/ viral
diseases/ ostriches/ diseases 

26. Anderloni G. Ostriches do not eat everything. Rivista di Avicoltura 1993;
62(9): 21-26.
Peculiarities of the digestive system, feeding habits and nutritional
requirements of ostriches in the wild and in captivity are discussed.
Experiments indicate that ostriches spend 70 to 80% of daylight hours feeding
with continuous ingestion and movement being important in their digestive
physiology. In the wild the diet consists of 60% plant material, 15% fruits
and legumes, and 4 or5% insect eggs and small mammals, the rest consisting of
cereal grain, salts and small stones. Nutrient requirements of ostriches at
different ages are outlined. Feed should be made continuously available to
the ostriches rather than fed as meals.
ostriches/ nutrient requirements/ feeding habits

27. Angel, CR. Research update: Age changes in digestibility of nutrients in
ostriches and nutrient profiles of status of the hen and chick. Proceedings
of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31
- September 4, 1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993
English; 17 ref.
A digestibility study was conducted with 3, 5, 10, 17 week old and 30 month
old ostriches. Metabolizable energy (ME) values and fat and neutral detergent
fiber (NDF) digestibilities were determined. The formulated ME of the diet
(chicken ME basis) was 1983 kcal/ kg. The determined values with ostriches
were: 3 weeks, 1731; 6 weeks, 2337; 10 weeks, 2684; 17 weeks, 2739; and 30
months, 2801 kcal/ kg. Fat digestibility was 44.1% at 3 weeks and 91.1% by 17
weeks of age. NDF digestibility was 6.5% at 3 weeks, 51% at 10 weeks and
61.6% at 30 months. Also, vitamin and mineral levels were determined in the
eggs of ostriches and emus and compared with poultry values. Deficiencies or
excesses of vatamins and/ or minerals in the laying hen, and thus in the egg,
can lead to infertility, poor hatchability and early chick health problems.
Specifics are described. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ nutrition/ nutrients/ digestibility/ fat/ neutral detergent fiber

28. Angel, R. Diet effect on egg nutrients in a high producing ostrich.
Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/
Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 121-125. 
English; 10 ref.
Eggs from a high producing laying hen were sampled at different stages during
the production cycle and analyzed for selected vitamins and minerals. In the
two laying seasons evaluated, no major changes in nutrient content were
observed between the start, middle, and end of the laying season. When
comparing nutrient values from this ostrich hen with typical poultry laying
hen nutrient values, key differences were observed. (Author's interpretive
ostriches/ eggs/ nutrients

29. Anon. DNA fingerprinting. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(2): 22-23.
Information supplied by Zoogen Inc. DNA fingerprinting can be used to help
breeders pair birds. Inbreeding can have detrimental effects. By knowing the
degree of relatedness optimal pairing can be made and careful line breeding
DNA fingerprinting/ ratites

30. Anon. DNA sexing. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(2): 20.
Information supplied by Zoogen Inc. Sexing is not always easy with birds.
" Vent sexing" is used for ratites; accuracy and safety is dependent
on the skill and experience of the operator. DNA sexing is over 99% accurate
and reduces the risk of stress or injury to the bird. Because of the nature
of ratite sex chromosomes, they presented a special problem. Unlike other
birds, the W chromosome of the female does not look different from the Z
chromosome of the male. The sexing test uses a DNA sequence to identify a
bird as female or male. Since the test was introduced its accuracy has been
shown in over 60,000 ratites. One advantage to this technique is that it can
be done on birds of any age. A blood sample is used.
DNA sexing/ ratites

31. Anon. Winter management of ostriches - A guide for cold weather ostrich
producers. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(11): 18-20,46.
English; 9606
Answers a series of questions on fall selection and culling, facilities,
feeding and general health. Also discusses behavioural problems and cold
weather ailments.
ostriches/ cold weather

32. Arnall L and Keymer I. Bacterial infections. Bird diseases 1975; 113-136.
English; 9601
Tuberculosis/ bacterial diseases/ salmonellosis/ Birds/ ostriches/
Pseudotuberculosis/ Erysipelothrix infection

33. Ashash E; Malkinson M; Meir R; Perl S; and Weisman Y. Causes of losses
including Borna disease paralytic syndrome affecting young ostriches of one
breeding organization over a five-year period (1989-1993). Avian Diseases
1996; 40(1): 240-245.
English; 12 ref.; 9603
Necropsy records and causes of mortality of ostriches up to 3 months old over
a 5-year period (1989-1993) are presented. The data relate to one ostrich
enterprise that comprises 10 breeding flocks, five rearing farms, and one
hatchery. Causes of mortality are classified into nine major categories. The
annual mortality percentages of all hatched ostriches over the 5-year period
were 61%, 58%, 30%, 29%, and 16.6%, and the most significant cause of death
was a paresis syndrome that accounted for 20%, 11%, 16%, 10.1%, and 2%
mortality, respectively. Limb deformaties and gastroenteritis were the other
principal specific causes of mortality. The paresis syndrome was caused by an
agent serologically related to Borna disease virus. Brain extracts from
paralyzed ostriches, when given orally or intramuscularly to 5-week-old
birds, reproduced the clinical signs and microscopic lesions. The mean time
to death was less than 3 weeks for the intramuscularly infected group and was
almost twice as long for the orally infected group.
ostriches/ chicks/ mortality/ Borna disease virus

34. Ashash E; Malkinson M; Meir R; and Weisman Y. Serum Therapy of
Borna-Disease in Ostriches. Veterinary Record 1994; 135(25): 608.
English Letter
A field trial in which young ostriches were inoculated subcutaneously with
serum to prevent Borna disease is described. Two serum pools were derived,
one from birds bled 7-10 days after the onset of paresis and one from 11-to
12-month-old clinically normal ostriches from infected farms. Birds were
inoculated, according to a protocol described in the communication, with
serum from the paretic serum pool during the first 4 weeks of life and
thereafter were given the normal serum (32 birds) or served as uninjected
controls (32 birds). During the 10.5 month observation period none of the
inoculated birds died while 7 control birds died. Between May 1993 and
October 1994, the same protocol of serum therapy was applied to 1500
ostriches on a several affected farms where the incidence of Borna disease
had been 14-20% of the total hatch before serum therapy; no cases of Borna
disease were seen.

35. Ayers J; Lester T; and Angulo A. An Epizootic Attributable To Western
Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection In Emus In Texas. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 1994; 205(4): 600-601.
An epizootic of encephalomyelitis attributable to western equine encephalitis
virus was identified in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) from several flocks
in western Texas in July 1992. Affected emus ranged from 3 months to 3 years
old. Morbidity of emus in 8 flocks ranged from 15 to 50%, and 17 of 193
(8.8%) emus died. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation and
characterization of the causative virus and detection of antibody to the
virus in emus that were currently ill and emus that had been ill but
recovered. Clinical signs varied from mild to severe and included anorexia,
lethargy with sternal recumbency, ataxia, muscle tremors, head tilt,
unnatural positioning of the head on the back, acute onset of paralysis, and
lateral recumbency with paddling. A few emus died without prior evidence of
clinical disease. Postmortem examination revealed 3 to 5 ml of clear
pale-yellow pericardial fluid that contained a fibrin clot. Volume of the
contents of the proventriculus and ventriculus were less than anticipated.
Microscopic examination of numerous tissues revealed multifocal vasculitis
with infiltration of plasmacytes, lymphocytes, and a few heterophilic
leukocytes. The epizootic developed during a period of unseasonably heavy
rainfall that resulted in higher numbers of mosquitoes than was typical for
that season of year. A concurrent increase in the number of horses with
encephalomyelitis attributable to western equine encephalities virus was not
reported. [References: 5]
Emus/ Arboviruses/ Encephalitis virus/ Western equine/ Encephalomyelitis

36. Baccetti B; Burrini A; and Falchetti E. Spermatozoa and relationships in
Palaeognath birds. Biology of the Cell 1991; 71(1-2): 209-16.
In this paper the authors describe the ultrastructure of the mature
spermatozoon and the spermatid in Struthio camelus and Dromaius
novaehollandiae. The first species is characterized by a rod-like
perforatorium within an endonuclear canal in the anterior third of the
nucleus, while the second is characterized by an extremely reduced completely
extranuclear perforatorium. Other differences are in the sperm dimensions,
the number of mitochondria and the length of the axonemal accessory fibers.
Considering both the present data and previous findings, Palaeognath birds
appear to be a peculiar and monophyletic group, characterized by: 1), a
conical acrosome surrounding the nucleus; 2), a fibrous sheath around most of
the axoneme; and 3), an elongated distal centriole occupying the entire
midpiece. Within this group, Tinamiformes seem to be more primitive than
Struthioniformes. In the latter order Dromaius is distinctly different from
the reduced Struthio and Rhea which are closely related to one another by the
presence of a rod-like endonuclear perforatorium.
Birds/ Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/ Spermatogenesis/ Spermatids
ultrastructure/ Spermatozoa ultrastructure

37. Bain O; Chabaud A; and Burger W. Versternema struthionis n. gen., n. sp.,
an archaic filariid with no specialized characteristics. Annales de
Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee 1992; 67(5): 141-143.
English; 7 ref
Versternema struthionis gen. et sp. nov. from the body cavity of an ostrich
(Struthio camelus) in Bostwana, is described based on 2 male and 2 female
specimens. It is considered difficult to classify, because there are no
distinctive characteristics allowing its classification into one of the 3
filariid superfamilies. Because of its many archaic characteristics, and
despite the fact that no cephalic chitinoid structures were seen, it is
classified within the Dicheilonematinae. Spicules and cloacal papillae are
Spirurid like, the oesophagus is rather short, poorly divided, the vulva is
at the oesophageal level, there is a simple vaginal sphincter, it is probably
oviparous, in both sexes the tail is of average length, and the only
specialized characteristics are the lateral elongation of the head and the
lack of interno-labial papillae. The nematode parasites of ostriches appear
to be of ancient origin probably because the ostrich evolved long before the
other birds.
Birds/ Wild animals/ Struthionidae/ Ostriches/ Versternema struthionis/ new
genus/ new species/ Botswana/ Taxonomy/ Nematoda/ Dicheilonematinae 

38. Barman N; Sharma R; Chakraborty A; Saikia G; Hussain A; and Boro B.
Bacterial and fungal flora of zoo birds. Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences
1994; 64(3): 266-269.
9 ref
Assam/ India/ aviary birds/ zoo animals/ Nyticorax nyticorax/ Ardeidae/
Ciconiiformes/ Cygnus atratus/ Anser indicus/ budgerigars/ Dendrocitta
vagabunda/ emus/ Acridotheres tristis/ Anthropoides virgo/ Gruidae/ Casuarius
casuarius/ Corvidae/ Cuculus canorus/ Cuculidae/ turkeys/ peafowls/
ostriches/ Monasa/ Bucconidae/ Piciformes/ Anseridae/ Aspergillus fumigatus/
Candida krusei/ Escherichia coli/ Salmonella/ Citrobactera/ Edwardsiella/
Pasteurella/ Proteus/ Enterococcus/ bacterial diseases/ mycoses/ hosts 

39. Barron I. A history of the marketing of ostrich products. Canadian
Ostrich 1994; 3(4): 54-57,60.
The author, a third generation ostrich producer from the Oudtshoorn district
of South Africa, discusses the marketing of ostrich products by that country. 
ostriches/ leather/ meat/ feathers

40. Bartlett C and Anderson R. Paronchocerca struthionus n.sp. (Nematoda:
Filarioidea) from ostriches (Struthio camelus), with a redescription of
Paronchocerca ciconiarum Peters, 1936 and a review of the genus. Canadian
Journal of Zoology 1986; 64(11): 2480-2491.
English; 61 ref
P. struthionus n.sp. from the lungs of S. camelus from West Africa has a
long, sacculate glandular oesophagus similar to that of P. limboonkengi
n.comb. (=Lemdana limboonkengi), P. bambusicolae, P. tonkinensis and P.
sonini. It can be distinguished by delicate annular cuticular thickenings
and, in the male, a preanal hypodermal swelling, 3 pairs of circumanal
papillae, and the length of the right spicule in relation to the length of
the tail. Also, lateral, postanal papillae are absent, although inconspicuous
subterminal papillae are present. P. ciconiarum, the type species, is
redescribed on the basis of material from the pulmonary arteries of
Leptoptilus crumeniferus from Uganda. 17 valid species are recognized in the
genus. P. sanguinisardeae, P. choprai and P. badamii are regarded as species
inquirendae and P. ali, as a species incertae sedis. Among larger avian
filarioid genera, Paronchocerca appears unique in that each species seems
restricted to a single family of birds. Paronchocerca may have become
established in early Ornithurae and subsequently persisted in some of the
"primitive" birds, as well as having transferred to "modern"
groups which now occupy the aquatic adaptive zone originally occupied by the
earliest Ornithurae. Paronchocerca apparently has been largely unsuccessful
in transferring to other modern groups.
Birds/ Paronchocerca struthionus/ Struthio camelus/ West Africa/ Taxonomy/
Nematoda/ Paronchocerca/ Paronchocerca ciconiarum/ Redescribed/ Paronchocerca
limboonkengi/ Lemdana limboonkengi/ Paronchocerca alii/ incertae sedis/
Paronchocerca sanguinisardeae/ Paronchocerca choprai/ Paronchocerca badamii

41. Barton N and Seward D. Detection of Libyostrongylus douglassi in
ostriches in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 1993; 70(1): 31-32.
English; 7 ref
The detection in 1991 of Libyostrongylus douglassi in 1 of 5 ostriches at one
farm and 7 of 11 at another in Victoria, Australia is described. There are no
published records of parasites which may have originally been imported, in
the late 19th and early 20th centuries, in ostriches and survived in their
descendants. L. douglassi was identified in 3 of 4 Australian
Helminthological Collections found to contain parasites from ostriches. In
the specimens examined, the ensheathed L3 larvae were larger than previously
described and lacked a small knob on the point of the tail, previously
reported to be a diagnostic feature of L3 larvae. Effective control
programmes for infected flocks are discussed.
Nematoda/ Strongyloididae/ Struthionidae/ Plumage birds/ Imported infections/
Livestock/ Larvae/ Developmental stages/ Birds/ Libyostrongylus douglassi/
ostriches/ Australia/ Victoria/ morphology 

42. Bastien R. Ostrich management guide. Bull Coop Ext Serv Univ Ga Coll
Agric 1991; (1048): 8 p.
English; ill
ostriches/ animal breeding/ incubation/ animal feeding

43. Baumann R; Goldbach E; Haller E; and Wright P. Organic phosphates
increase the solubility of avian haemoglobin D and embryonic chicken
haemoglobin. Biochemical Journal 1984; 217(3): 767-771.
24 ref
Inositol/ Fowl/ Duck/ Ostrich/ Chick embryo/ Birds/ Haemoglobin/ Phosphates 

44. Baumann R; Goldbach E; Weigelt H; and Wright P. On the function of the
minor haemoglobin component in avian blood. South African Journal of Science
1979; 75(6): 276.
English; 9601
Blood/ haemoglobin/ Birds/ fowls/ ostriches 

45. Beattie, I. Applied ostrich physiology and anatomy. Ostrich workshop for
veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich
Ranch; [1992]10 p. 
Only the figures from the presentation. Show the evolutionary relationship
between reptiles, birds and mammals; possible ancestor of Archaeopteryx, the
coelurosaur Compsognathus longipes; anatomical comparisons between the small
dinosaur Compsognathus, the prehistoric bird Archaecopteryx and a modern
chicken Gallus; possible evolutionay relationships of birds; bird anatomy;
structures of the ostrich foot; dorsoventral view of the thoracoabdominal
viscera of an ostrich and stomach; right lateral view of the thoracoabdominal
viscera of an ostrich; mid-line section of cloaca of an ostrich; and
comparison of the % lengths of the three main segments of the intestines in
the adult female chicken, ostrich and dog.
ostriches/ physiology/ evolution/ anatomy

46. Beattie, I. Physiology of egg production and incubation. Ostrich workshop
for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island
Ostrich Ranch; [1992]20 p. 
Covers: how light influence the reproduction system in birds; ovulation cycle
in the chicken; ovulation to oviposition; structure of the newly-laid
domestic hen's egg; structure of the egg shell; role of the egg shell as a
mineral store for the developing embryo; development of the extra embryonic
membranes and sacs in the chick; effects of turning and non-turning eggs
during incubation; graph showing the increase in air sac size with the days
of incubation; and normal hatching position of the chicken embryo and six
ostriches/ incubation/ physiology

47. Benefield, KJ. Poultry in motion: breeders sell shares in ostrich market.
Wall Street Journal (East Edition), New York; Jan 3, 1991;
A1, A2.
ostriches/ poultry products/ investment promotion

48. Bermudez A and Hopkins B. Hemoglobinuric nephrosis in a rhea (Rhea
americana). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(3): 661-665.
English; 17 ref.
An eighteen-month-old female rhea (Rhea americana) was presented dead for
necropsy. The owner reported having observed blood in the droppings. Gross
examination revealed a rhea in good body condition with a copious amount of
frank blood in the cloaca. Large masses of matted fescue grass (Festuca spp.)
distended the ventriculus and jejunum. No hemmorrhage was evident in the
digestive tract, which was otherwise void of ingesta. The kidneys were dark
brown in color. Renal histopathology revealed a severe accumulation of
eosinophilic pigment in the tubular epithelial cells of the proximal
convoluted tubules, with tubular nephrosis and eosinophilic casts in the
collecting tubules. It was concluded that the renal pigment was hemoglobin
and not myoglobin, based on lack of evidence of muscle injury and the severe
erythrophagocytosis evident in hepatic macrophages. The renal pigment also
stained positive with the hemoglobin-specific Okajima stain. Hemoglobinuric
nephrosis has not previously been reported in an avian species. (Author's
rheas/ hemoglobinuric nephrosis

49. Bermudez A; Johnson G; Vanier M; Schroder M; Suzuki K; Stogsdill P;
Johnson G; O'brien D; Moore C; and Fry W. Gangliosidosis in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(2): 292-303.
English; 16 ref.
A 6-month-old female emu (Dromaius novaebollandiae) died following acute
central nervous system signs. Hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections revealed
that neurons of the brain were distended with nonstaining 1-to-2-mu m
vacuoles. Ultrastructural examination of the affected neurons revealed
numerous membranous cytoplasmic bodies (MCBs) similar in appearance to the
MCBs seen in mammalian gangliosidoses. A full sibling of this emu was donated
for study. This 7-month-old female emu was stunted compared with hatchmates.
Neurologic examination revealed hypermetric gait, persistent head tremor and
mild ataxia. No gross lesions were evident at postmortem. Histopathologic and
electron microscopic findings were similar to those in the index case in that
swollen, pale neurons were present in the cerebrum, pons, medulla,
cerebellum, spinal cord, spinal ganglia, autonomic ganglia, myenteric plexus,
and ganglion cell layer of the retina. Analysis of brain gangliosides of the
affected 7-month-old emu revealed 14- and 25-fold increases of GM1 and GM3
gangliosides, respectively, compared with control emus. The total brain
ganglioside sialic acids were, on a wet weight basis, 519 mu g/ g (control
A), 658 mu g/ g (control B), and 1800 mu g/ g (affected emu). The familial
association seen with this condition suggests that emus are affected by an
inherited disorder similar to mammalian gangliosidoses. (Author's abstract)
emus/ gangliosidosis

50. Berry J. Ostrich production. OSU Ext Facts Coop Ext Serv Okla State Univ.
1989; (3988): 4 p.
ostriches/ livestock enterprises/ oklahoma

51. Bertram, BCR. The ostrich communal nesting system. Princeton, N.J.:
Princeton University Press; 1992; viii, 196 p. 
ill; English; (acid-free paper)
Ostriches Behavior/ Sexual behavior in animals/ Ostriches Nests/ Social
behavior in animals

52. Bertram B. Ostriches recognise their own eggs and discard others. Nature
1979; 279: 233-234.

53. Bertram B. Vigilance and group size in ostriches. Animal Behaviour 1980;
28: 278-286.

54. Bertram B and Burger A. Are ostrich Struthio camelus eggs the wrong
colour? Ibis 1981; 123(2): 207-210.
English; 12 ref.
Ostrich nests are usually in the open, are left unattended for the first week
or so of the laying period and are not covered by the adults when left. As
the eggs are not camouflaged (creamy white) they can easily detected from the
air by predators. Experiments were done by the authors to investigate why
ostrich eggs are apparently the wrong colour. It was concluded that while the
white coloration of ostrich eggs causes a higher predation rate, it protects
the eggs against overheating when left unattended. (KL)
ostriches/ eggs

55. Bertram B and Burger A. Aspects of incubation in ostriches. Ostrich 1981;
52: 36-43.

56. Bezuidenhout A and Burger W. The Incidence of Tibiotarsal Rotation in the
Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary
Association 1993; 64(4): 159-161.
Abnormal lateal tibiotarsal rotation has been reported as one of many
abnormalities affecting the pelvic appendicular skeleton of birds. In this
study, lateral rotation of the tibiotarsus affected 89 out of 1 407 ostrich
chicks between 2 weeks and 6 months of age raised at the oudtshoorn
Experimental Farm. There was no sexual preference, but the lesion affected
the right pelvic limb almost exclusively and very rarely the left limb.
Pelvic appendicular skeletal abnormalities make significant contribution to
mortalities in ostrich chicks.
Tibiotarsal Rotation/ Ostrich/ Struthio Camelus

57. Bezuidenhout A. The coronary circulation of the heart of the ostrich
(Struthio camelus). Journal of Anatomy 1984; 138(Pt 3): 385-397.
The distribution of the coronary arteries of the ostrich is described and
compared with existing accounts of other species of birds. The blood supply
to the ventricular walls, part of the interventricular septum and atria comes
from the superficial branches of the left and right coronary arteries. The
deep branches are small, supplying most of the interventricular septum and
part of the right atrioventricular valve. The left and right coronary
arteries are of equal size, forming a balanced circulation. Numerous
homocoronary and intercoronary anastomoses are present. The venous drainage
of the ostrich heart corresponds in the main to that of the fowl. Four major
systems of veins are seen with multiple anastomoses between them. The major
trunks are located underneath the epicardium and apart from some of the
ventral cardiac veins, are concomitant veins of the arteries. The
intra-atrial openings of the left cardiac, left cardiac circumflex and dorsal
cardiac veins lie near to but separate from each other in a sinus below the
intra-atrial opening of the left cranial vena cava. The dorsal cardiac vein
consists of two branches. In some hearts the two branches do not unite, in
which case the right branch opens separately into the right atrium, dorsal to
the sinus, while the left branch opens into the sinus. Many luminal cardiac
veins are seen, draining the interventricular septum, right atrioventricular
valve and to a lesser extent the right atrium. The right atrioventricular
valve is drained mainly by a subendocardial vein, opening directly into the
right atrium or into a ventral cardiac vein.
Animal/ Birds physiology/ Coronary Vessels anatomy and histology/ Heart
physiology/ Heart Atrium anatomy and histology/ Heart Septum anatomy and
histology/ Heart Ventricle anatomy and histology/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/
Birds anatomy and histology/ Coronary Circulation/ Heart anatomy and

58. Bezuidenhout A. The Spiral Fold of the Cecum in the Ostrich
(Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Anatomy 1993; 183(Part 3): 587-592.
The caecum of the ostrich was observed to contain a fold that spiralled
approximately 30 times, transforming the lumen into a long, spiral-shaped
cavity. The fold consisted of mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa. The
proximal part of the fold also contained a central core of muscle originating
from the inner circular muscle layer of the caecal wall. The distal part was
expanded to form a 'frill', thereby enlarging the surface area of the fold.
Blood vessels entered the fold at the mesenteric border from where they were
distributed to the fold and caecal wall. From its origin near the caecorectal
junction, the fold rapidly increased in height to attain 2.75+/ - 0.95 cm at
the 9th turn of the spiral. Thereafter it gradually decreased and disappeared
similar to 14 cm from the apex of the caecum. The surface area of the spiral
fold averaged 955.75 cm(2) and constituted 54% of the total caecal mucosal
surface. It is suggested that the fold plays an important role in the
absorption of volatile fatty acids and other metabolites produced by
microbial fermentation of cellulose and hemicellulose.

59. Bezuidenhout A. The topography of the thoraco abdominal viscera in the
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
1986; 53(2): 111-117.
English; 10 ref
In 20 birds aged from 2 weeks to 12 months, lungs occupied the dorsal third
of the thorax, and the heart lay in the cranioventral thorax perpendicular to
the long axis of the body. There was no pleural cavity. The liver was
situated in the caudoventral part of the thorax, and the proventriculus
occupied the left cranial part of the abdomen between the 7th vertebral rib
and the acetabulum. The gizzard lay in the cranioventral part of the abdomen,
resting on the sternum and abdominal floor. The duodenum formed a loop from
right to left, with the pancreas lying between the 2 limbs of the loop. A
coiled jejunum and ileum occupied the ventral part of the abdomen between the
gizzard and pelvis. Two caeca lay on either side of the terminal ileum with
their apices in the pelvis. The rectum was the longest part of the intestine
and could be divided into a thick proximal segment situated in the right
dorsal part of the abdomen, and a thin distal part that occupied the left
caudodorsal part of the abdomen. Trilobed kidneys lay along the ventral
surface of the synsacrum, with the adrenal glands at their cranioventral
poles. Testes lay ventrally to the cranial divisions of the kidneys, whereas
the left ovary was situated ventrally to the cranial division of the left
kidney. The spleen lay wedged in between the right kidney, caudal vena cava
and proventriculus. Thyroid glands were situated at the cranial borders of
the subclavian arteries, and the thymus lay at the base of the neck.
Birds/ Thorax/ Abdomen/ Anatomy/ Ostrich/ Viscera 

60. Bezuidenhout A. The valva atrioventricularis dextra of the avian heart.
Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 1983; 12(2): 104-108.
English; 8 ref; 9601
The ventricular component of the right atrioventricular valve was dissected
in 32 ostrich and 10 domestic fowl hearts. Contrary to the views expressed in
the existing literature, the valve was found to be formed by the cranial part
of the longitudinal muscle of the right ventricle. The reason for the
apparent difference with existing literature is discussed.
animal anatomy/ Cardiovascular system/ heart valves/ anatomy/ poultry/ fowls/
Birds/ ostriches 

61. Bezuidenhout A and Aswegen GV. A light microscopic and immunocytochemical
study of the gastrointestinal tract of the ostrich (Struthio camelus L.).
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 1990; 57(1): 37-48.
English; 64 ref
The superficial proventricular glands were simple, branched tubular glands,
while the deep proventricular glands were restricted to a slipper-shaped area
and extended into the muscularis mucosae. The gizzard had a variably
developed muscularis mucosae, a feature that seems to be unique to the
ostrich. The villi of the small intestine were long and branched profusely,
forming a labyrinthine surface. No Paneth cells were observed. The mucosa of
the caeca and the first part of the rectum was thrown in large circular
folds, forming a compressed spiral. Numerous melanocytes were seen in the
submucosa and the connective tissue around the blood vessels of the muscle
layers at the tips of the caeca. A well developed subserosa was present
throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. Endocrine cells immunoreactive to
somatostatin, glucagon, gastrin, bombesin, neurotensin, substance P and
pancreatic polypeptide were detected in the gastro-intestinal tract of the
ostrich. The topographical distribution of those endocrine cells
immunoreactive to glucagon, bombesin, neurotensin and substance P differed
from that of the chicken. The results of this investigation inferred that at
least one of the gut peptides of the ostrich (secretin) is structurally
different from its counterparts in mammal and chicken. Molecular
heterogeneity of somatostatin was observed in endocrine cells situated in the
deep ventricular glands of the ostrich.
Peptides/ Endocrine system/ Anatomy/ Digestive system/ ostriches/ histology/
stomach/ intestines/ Gastrointestinal hormones

62. Bezuidenhout A; Burger W; Reyers F; and Soley J. Serum-Mineral And
Bone-Mineral Status Of Ostriches With Tibiotarsal Rotation. Onderstepoort
Journal of Veterinary Research 1994; 61(3): 203-206.
Tibiotarsal rotation in ostrich chicks is a serious problem that accounts for
considerable financial loss to ostrich farmers. Serum- and bone-mineral
analyses of 20 ostrich chicks with tibiotarsal rotation were compared with
serum- and bone-mineral analyses of eight normal ostrich chicks of comparable
age, sex and body mass, and raised under identical conditions. The serum-zinc
values were significantly higher and the bone-calcium and phosphorous values
significantly lower in the affected group than in the group of normal ostrich
chicks. The results indicated poor mineralization of bone with subsequent
reactive osteoid formation. [References: 6]
Struthio camelus/ Values/ Ostriches

63. Bezuidenhout A and Coetzer D. The major blood vessels of the wing of the
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
1986; 53(4): 201-203.
English; 7 ref
This is the first description of the arterial supply and venous drainage of
the ostrich wing. Both differed greatly from those in other species. The
radial artery formed the main blood supply, the ulnar artery was poorly
developed, and there was no deep ulnar vein. The basilic vein is the only
vein suitable for venipuncture, and the brachial artery the best site for
arteriopuncture (where it passes over the ventral aspect of the humerus
Anatomy/ Birds/ Blood specimen collection/ Injections/ Blood vessels/ Wing/
Ostrich/ Ostriches 

64. Bezuidenhout A; Penrith M; and Burger W. Prolapse of the Phallus and
Cloaca in the Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of the South African
Veterinary Association 1993; 64(4): 156-158.
The incidence of cloacal prolapse in ostrich chicks hatched and raised on the
Oudtshoorn Experimental Farm during the 1992-1993 breeding season was
investigated. The condition which occurred primarily in male chicks, affected
14,65% of the total number of chicks hatched. The mortality rate amongst
chicks with cloacal prolapse was very high. Although the pathogenesis and
aetiology of the condition is unknown, a species of Cryptosporidium was
present in large numbers in affected cloacas. Treatment with systemic
antibiotics was found to be effective in some cases.
Ostrich/ Cloaca Prolapse/ Cryptosporidium

65. Bezuidenhout A; Soley J; Groenewald H; and Burger W. Sperm-storage
tubules in the vagina of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Onderstepoort
Journal of Veterinary Research 1995; 62(3): 193-199.
English; 22 ref.; 9603
Sperm-storage tubules have been described in a number of species of birds.
The presence of these tubules in the Rhea has been mentioned, but no
description of these structures in ratites is available. The purpose of this
study was to determine the presence and morphology of sperm-storage tubules
in the vagina of the ostrich. The study was performed with the use of
conventional light- and electron-microscopic techniques. Sperm-storage
tubules were located in a 200-mm-wide band of the vagina adjacent to the
utero-vaginal junction. The tubules were mostly branched and slightly coiled
and lined by columnar epithelial cells. The cells contained a basal nucleus
and displayed extensive apical junctional complexes. TEM revealed sperm in
all the tubules examined. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ sperm-storage tubules/ vagina

66. Black, DG. Ostrich Examination . Sydney: Post Graduate Committee in
Veterinary Science, University of Sydney; [1994]; 38 p. 
The author states that the manual is designed as an aid to veterinarians
during the examination of ostriches. It contains information on handling and
restraint, examination techniques, common diseases and problems and basic
physiological data of chick and adults.

67. Blackshaw G and Wakeman B. Immobilization of an adult ostrich for
surgery. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 1971; 2(2): 11-12.
English; 4 ref; 9601
Pentobarbital/ anaesthesia/ Birds/ ostriches/ Immobilization by drugs

68. Blue-McLendon, A. Basic techniques of ratite restraint and handling.
Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/
Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 309-311. 
English; 4 ref.
The population of ratites has been rapidly increasing over the last five
years. The increased numbers of ratites has resulted in the need for more
veterinary services for these large birds. This increased need will require
the hospital staff to be knowledgeable about their handling, management, and
husbandry. Veterinarians and technicians dealing with medical and surgical
problems of ratites need to have an understanding of ratite anatomy and
physiology in order to safely handle the birds and to understand how to
collect laboratory samples, interpret radiographs, administer medications,
and perform surgical procedures. This information is available from various
sources. Proper physical restraint is necessary to thoroughly examine or
treat the bird and to prevent injury to the veterinary staff. Chemical
restraint may be needed in order to perform diagnostic sampling procedures.
The scope of this paper is to discuss methods for properly restraining
ratites in a field and clinical situation, collection of samples, and
management of the raitite patient in the hospital setting. (Author's
ratites/ restraint

69. Blue-McLendon, A. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in emus. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 326-327. 
English; 3 ref.; 9603
Cerebrospinal nematodes were diagnosed in emus in 1991 in birds located in
the Gulf Coast Region of Texas. Only emu chicks that hatched in the spring of
1991 were affected. Chandlerella quiscali, a filarid nematode that normally
affects grackle birds was found in the brain and spinal cord of the affected
emu chicks. (Author's abstract)
emus/ parasites

70. Blue-McLendon, A. Clinical examination of ratites. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 313-315. 
English; 4 ref.; 9603
With the growing numbers of ratites in the United States there is an increase
in the need for veterinary services for these large birds. Proper physical
restraint is necessary to thoroughly examine the bird and to prevent injury
to the veterinary staff. Chemical restraint is often needed in order to
perform diagnositic sampling procedures. Sites for venipuncture and
collection of samples for culture of microorganisms are similar to the
procedures used in other birds. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ restraint/ clinical examination/ physical exam/ sample collection

71. Blue-McLendon, A. Pediatric disorders of ostriches. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; 31 August-4
September 1993; Nashville. Lake Worth, FL: Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 1993 269-271. 
English; 8 ref.
Ostrich chicks less than three months of age suffer the highest mortality
than any other age group of ostriches. The principal pediatric problems
include yolk sacculitis, yolk sac retention, diarrhea, leg deformities, and
gastric impactions. There are also traumatic injuries that occur as a
consequence of handling and management practices. The purpose of this paper
is to familiarize veterinarians with the most common diseases and disorders
of neonatal and juvenile ostriches. (Author's abstract)
Neonatal and pediatric disorders discussed: edematous chicks; yolk sac
retention and infection; enteritis; impaction; gastric foreign bodies; leg
deformities; slipped tendons; and rolled toes.
ostriches/ chicks/ diseases

72. Blue-McLendon, A, Ambrus, S, Graham, D, and Craig, T. An outbreak of
cerebral nematodiasis in emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife
Veterinarians Annual Conference; November 15-19, 1992; Oakland.
[Philadelphia]: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; [1992] 191-192. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Discusses an outbreak, June 1991 in Texas, of cerebral nematodiasis in emus
between 2 and t months of age. The nematodes were found in histological
sections of the brain and spinal cord. The filarids found in the emu chicks
were determined to be Chandlurella quiscali.
emus/ cerebral nematodiasis/ Chandlurella quiscali

73. Blue-McLendon, A and Bailey, CA. Research on the growth rates of ostrich
chicks. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 131-132. 
English; 0 ref.
A pilot research project was conducted to determine the growth rate of
ostrich chicks starting at one day of age. Data was initially collected on a
daily basis until three weeks of age. Thereafter, weight measurements were
collected weekly or biweekly. It is possible to determine growth curves based
upon this information. Birds in the study were fed ad libitum although the
amount of feed consumed was measured starting at three months of age.
Information on feed conversion ratios can be calculated with data on weight
gain and feed consumption. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ growth/ feed conversion

74. Blue-McLendon, A, Dziezyc, J, Jensen, JM, and Millichamp, NJ. Bilateral
cataracts in an ostrich hen. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31-September 4, 1993; Nashville.:
Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 313-314. 
English; 2 ref.
Cataracts are not uncommon in mammalian and avian species. The causes of
cataracts in mammalian species include inherited, traumatically-induced,
metabolic, and toxin-induced cataracts. The incidence of cataracts in
ostriches is not well documented although leading ratite veterinarians report
diagnosing several cases annually. Presenting signs include poor daytime
vision and night-blindness. The purpose of this report is to discuss a case
involving bilateral cataracts with unilateral retinal detachment in an
ostrich hen. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ cataracts

75. Bodley M; Naude R; Oelofsen W; and Patthy A. Ostrich Trypsinogen:
Purification, Kinetic Properties And Characterization Of The Pancreatic
Enzyme. International Journal Of Biochemistry And Cell Biology 1995; 27(7):
English; 9601
Trypsinogen is a serine protease zymogen (ec. which has proved to be
of key significance in a family of about 20 structurally and functionally
related pancreatic digestive enzymes. this study was an endeavour to isolate,
purify and characterize a stable form of ostrich trypsinogen, which has thus
far not yet been accomplished. trypsinogen (anionic) was isolated and
purified by alkaline extraction of pancreatic acetone powder, followed by
toyopearl deae 650m, hydroxylapatite and lbti sepharose affinity
chromatography. the enzyme was chemically, physically and kinetically
characterized, using amidase and esterase activity and spectrofluorometric
determinations, effects of cacl2 and ph, among others, were examined.
purification of homogeneous anionic ostrich trypsinogen was achieved.
immunochemical analysis and spectrofluorometric reaction with sulphonyl ala
ala pro arg 7 amino 4 methlcoumarin indicated trypsin free ostrich
trypsinogen, with an average m(r) of 23,016 and a pi of 4.93. n terminal
sequence data revealed an unique activation peptide sequence, vpgdadddk.
certain concentrations of ca2+ enhanced trypsinogen activation, whilst others
appeared to have the opposite effect. the k(cat)/ k m values obtained at
different phs, using n alpha benzoyl dl arginine p nitroanilide, p
toluenesulphonyl arginine methylester and p toluenesulphonyl lysine
methylester, followed the ph profile activity trend closely, with maximum
catalytic activity at about ph 8 for both ostrich and bovine activated
trypsinogen. ostrich trypsin has significantly higher amidase activity than
bovine trypsin, while esterase activities of the two enzymes have an inverse
ratio. kinetic pk, values were 7.2 and 7.4 for ostrich and bovine activated
trypsinogens, respectively. the existence of ostrich trypsinogen in a now
homogeneous stable form, free of autocatalytic inducing impurities, together
with its characterization scenario will hopefully make a significant
contribution to the field of comparative biochemistry. this study also
confirms that ostrich trypsinogen is closely related to its serine protease
Ostrich trypsinogen/ immunochemical/ purification/ activation/ struthio
camelus/ anionic trypsinogen/ proteins/ assay

76. Boggs D and Birchard G. Relationship between haemoglobin O2 oxygen
affinity and the ventilatory response to hypoxia in the rhea and pheasant.
Journal of Experimental Biology 1983; 102: 347-352.
2 p. ref.

77. Bona GA; Licht P; and Papkoff H. Biological and binding activities of
pituitary hormones from the ostrich, Struthio camelus. Gen Comp Endocrinol
1983; 51(1): 50-60.
Biological and binding activities of adenohypophysial hormones purified from
the ostrich (ost), Struthio camelus, were compared to those of the
corresponding hormones derived from mammalian and other avian species. The
potency of ostrich prolactin was comparable to those of other avian
preparations and slightly less active than the ovine hormone when tested in
the pigeon crop-sac assay, but ostrich growth hormone (GH) was more potent
than several other avian preparations and was comparable to mammalian GH in
the rat tibia bioassays. Marked discrepancies were evident in the activities
of both ostrich gonadotropins (ostGn) when they were tested in a variety of
in vivo and in vitro bioassays and radioreceptor assays (RRAs). Both the
ostrich follicle-stimulating hormone (ostFSH) and luteinizing hormone (ostLH)
were among the most potent tested thus far in in vivo bioassays for total
gonadotropin in a lizard and a cockerel; a high sialic acid content may
account for these high potencies. OstFSH was also the most potent
nonmammalian Gn tested in two FSH specific mammalian bioassays, an in vivo
(ovarian augmentation) and an in vitro (cAMP production) rat bioassay; in
fact, ostFSH behaved more like a mammalian than an avian hormone in these
assays. However, the binding activity of ostFSH was not unlike that of other
avian FSH preparations when tested in either mammalian or nonmammalian
FSH-RRA systems. OstLH was more potent than other avian preparations in an in
vitro mammalian bioassay, but not in avian or amphibian LH bioassays; species
specificity was pronounced among these LH assays. Binding activities of ostLH
in mammalian and avian LH-RRAs were generally consistent with potencies in
the two species of bioassays. However, a marked discrepancy was apparent in
the behavior of ostLH in FSH-RRAs. Although ostLH had very low FSH activity
when tested by radioimmunoassay, by bioassay, or by FSH-RRA with avian
gonads, it was equipotent to ostFSH in competing for FSH-binding sites on the
mammalian gonad; in this respect it was more like turkey than chicken LH. The
ability of ostLH to antagonize the biological activities of ostFSH in the
stimulation of cAMP by rat seminiferous tubules confirms that ostLH binds to
the same functional receptors as FSH on the rat testis, even though it does
not induce the characteristic physiological response associated with FSH.
Animal/ Biological Assay/ Birds/ Bone and Bones drug effects/ FSH metabolism/
LH metabolism/ Pigeons/ Prolactin pharmacology/ Radioligand Assay/ Rats/
Somatotropin pharmacology/ Support, U.S. Gov't, Non P.H.S./ Pituitary
Hormones metabolism

78. Borgarenko L; Dzhuraev A; and Galina Z. Ostrich mortality due to
filariasis. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskie Nauki.
1982; 4: 89-90.
Russian; 2 ref; 9601
Two Rhea americana brought to the Dushanbe Zoopark from the Askaniya-Nova
reserve, USSR, in 1980 died in May of that year. Numerous Dicheilonema rheae
were present in the lungs and between the intercostal muscles. This parasite
was previously unknown in Tajikistan; it is described.
parasites/ helminths/ Birds/ Nematoda/ Dicheilonema rheae/ Rhea americana

79. Borst G and Lambers G. [Typhlohepatitis in ostriches (Struthio camelus)
caused by a Histomonas infection]. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 1985;
110(13): 536.
Acute typhlohepatitis was diagnosed in two juvenile ostriches (Struthio
camelus). Gross pathology and histologic examination revealed a striking
resemblance with histomoniasis in Galliformes.
Animal/ Birds/ Case Report/ English Abstract/ Bird Diseases pathology/ Liver
pathology/ Protozoan Infections pathology

80. Bowes V. Avian Tuberculosis in Ostriches. Canadian Veterinary Journal
1993; 34(12): 758.
English Note

81. Bradley, FA. A few answers to frequently asked questions about ostriches.
Poult Fact Sheet Coop Ext Ser Univ Calif. Oakland, Calif.: The Service; 1989;
2 p 
ostriches/ poultry farming/ exotics/ california

82. Bradley F. More ostrich facts and resources a supplement to PFS no. 7.
Poult Fact Sheet Coop Ext Ser Univ Calif. 1990; (12): 2 p.
English. Oakland, Calif: The Service
ostriches/ poultry farming/ exotics/ trade associations/ california

83. Bradley G; Naude R; Muramoto K; Yamauchi F; and Oelofsen W. Ostrich
(Struthio camelus) carboxypeptidase A: purification, kinetic properties and
characterization of the pancreatic enzyme. International Journal of
Biochemistry 1994; 26(4): 555-564.
Includes references.
Carboxypeptidase A(beta) and carboxypeptidase A(tau)-type from the pancreas
of the ostrich were purified by water extraction of acetone powder,
aminobenzylsuccinic acid affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The
final preparations were homogeneous when subjected to SDS-PAGE and PAGE. The
Mr values obtained from SDS-PAGE for CPA(beta) and CPA(tau)-type were 34,600
and 34,400, respectively. The effects of inhibitors (1,10 phenanthroline and
indole-3-acetic acid), pH and temperature on CPA activity were examined. Ki
values for CPI, PPA, D-phe, D-trp and aminobenzylsuccinic acid were
determined. Km, kcat and kcat/ Km values were determined for hipp-phe,
cbz-gly-phe, cbz- (gly)2-phe, cbz-gly-leu, cbz-(gly)2-leu and cbz-(gly)2-val.
N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis were performed for CPA(beta)
and CPA(tau)-type.
ostriches/ pancreas/ carboxypeptidase a/ purification/ enzyme activity/
kinetics/ enzyme inhibitors/ amino acid sequences/ n terminal amino acid

84. Bradley G; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and characterization of
serum albumin from the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Comp Biochem Physiol B
1985; 82(4): 829-835.
Ostrich serum albumin (OsSA) was purified by a combination of heat
fractionation and polyethylene glycol precipitation. Equilibrium
centrifugation revealed a relative molecular mass of 71,666 for the purified
monomer, whereas the presence of a dimeric form was confirmed by means of
PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. Compared to other species, relatively high levels
of proline, glycine, isoleucine and histidine together with lowered amounts
of half cystine, phenylalanine and arginine were observed in OsSA. A single
N-terminal aspartic acid was identified. Isolated chicken adipocytes revealed
a significantly lower in vitro lipolytic responsiveness towards added
glucagon when OsSA replaced bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the medium (Km =
6.359 and 1.135 nM, Vm = 36.70 and 46.72 nmol/ hr/ micrograms adipocyte DNA
for OsSA and BSA respectively).
Adipose Tissue metabolism/ Amino Acids analysis/ Animal/ Cattle/ Chickens/
Chromatography, Gel/ Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/ Comparative Study/
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/ Human/ Lipolysis drug effects/ Male/
Molecular Weight/ Rats/ Serum Albumin pharmacology/ Species Specificity/
Support, Non U.S. Gov't/ Birds blood/ Serum Albumin isolation and

85. Bradley R and Matthews D. Sub acute, transmissible spongiform
encephalopathies: current concepts and future needs. Revue Scientifique et
Technique 1992; 11(2): 605-634.
English; 26 ref; Office International des Epizooties
Nervous system diseases/ Cattle/ Sheep/ Cats/ Bovidae/ Antelopes/ Cervidae/
Mink/ Ostriches/ Disease transmission/ Bovine spongiform encephalopathy/
Spongiform encephalopathy

86. Breslow E; LaBorde T; Saayman H; Oelofsen W; and Naude R. Binding and
spectroscopic properties of ostrich neurophysins. Probing the role of residue
35 at the monomer monomer interface. International Journal of Peptide and
Protein Research 1992; 39(4): 388-396.
Binding and spectroscopic properties of ostrich neurophysins were examined
with emphasis on the behavior of Tyr-35, a residue that provides a potential
probe of the monomer-monomer interface and of allosteric interrelationships
between this region and the binding site. Mesotocin-associated ostrich
neurophysin was found to bind oxytocin and related peptides with affinities
comparable to the mammalian proteins, but induced a significantly different
optical activity in bound peptides than the mammalian proteins.
Gel-filtration studies indicated higher dimerization constants for the
ostrich neurophysins than for the bovine neurophysins. Consistent with this,
Tyr-35 was found to be largely buried, as monitored by tyrosine titration and
lack of reactivity towards tetranitromethane under non-denaturing conditions.
Reaction of Tyr-35 of the mesotocin-associated protein with tetranitromethane
under denaturing conditions, followed by refolding, allowed isolation of an
active product with an altered interface region as partially evidenced by its
titration properties and consistent with its markedly altered CD spectrum.
Comparison of the CD spectra of the modified and native proteins and analysis
of pH effects indicated the contribution of Tyr-35 to an unusual 237 nm band
in the mesotocin-associated protein. Small shifts in the 350 nm CD band of
nitrated Tyr-35 on binding peptide and apparent effects of nitration on the
induced optical activity in bound peptide provided evidence of at least weak
structural communication between Tyr-35 and the binding site. However, no
significant effect of nitration on binding affinity was observed, suggesting
that, in the mesotocin-associated protein, the region around residue 35 is
not a stringent modulator of the thermodynamic behavior of the binding site.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Binding Sites/ Birds/ Cattle/ Chromatography, Gel/
Molecular Sequence Data/ Spectrum Analysis methods/ Tyrosine chemistry/
Neurophysins chemistry

87. Broadbent R. Favus in an ostrich. Veterinary Record 1994; 135(22): 536.
Trichophyton mentagrophytes was identified in a scraping taken from a
ringworm-like lesion on the neck of a blue neck hen recently imported from
Zimbabwe. Treatment first with natamycin (Mycophyt) and then with
enilconazole emulsion (Imaverol) at 3-day intervals produced total
resolution. It is suggested that the fungus came asymptomatically with the
bird from Harare.
skin diseases/ therapy/ dermatophytes/ dermatomycoses/ hosts/ infections

88. Brom T and Dekker R. Molt of wing and tail-feathers in the ostrich,
Struthio camelus. Beaufortia 1990; 40(6): 103-109.
Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio
camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could
be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings
and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted of
93 feathers of two different generations. Moult in the tail proceeds
asymmetrically and seems to be fully irregular. The phylogenetic significance
of these findings is discussed.
Description/ Phylogenetic Significance Phylogeny

89. Brown T; Roberts W; and Page R. Acute hemorrhagic enterocolitis in
ratites: Isolation of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and reproduction
of the disease in ostriches and turkey poults. Avian Diseases 1993; 37(2):
English;12 ref.
Two emus died with acute hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Eastern equine
encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was isolated in Vero cells from non-pooled
samples of brain and intestine. Enterocolitis with splenic and hepatic
necrosis was reproduced by intramuscular or oral inoculation of this isolate
in two ostriches and three turkey poults. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus/ turkeys

90. Bruning D. The Greater Rhea chick and egg delivery route. Natural History
1973; 82: 68-75.

91. Bruning D. Social structure and reproductive behavior in the Greater
Rhea. The Living Bird 1974; 13: 251-294.

92. Budras K and Berens von Rautenfeld D. Functional and topographic anatomy
of the lymph heart and lymphatic system in the pelvic region of water-fowl
and ratite birds. Anatomischer Anzeiger 1984; 156(3): 231-240.
The topography of the lymph system and of the lymph heart can be determined
by injections of India ink, Berlin blue, Latex or contrast media. For the
direct injection of marker medium into the lymphatic system of adult male
birds, the lymphatic copulatory organ was chosen. In embryos and chicks, the
foot pads are suited for an indirect injection of marker medium. Following
the injections, the marker medium was passed on to the lymph heart via the
lymph vessels of the pelvic limbs and by the truncus thoracoabdominalis.
Efferent lymph vessels of the lymph heart empty into the pelvic venous system
and into the lymphovenous sinus durae matris. The lymphovenous sinus durae
matris is also suited for the injections to visualize the lymph heart. The
formation of lymph and the course it takes to erect the lymphatic copulatory
organ is described.
Birds physiology/ English Abstract/ Lymphatic System physiology/ Pelvis/
Species Specificity/ *Birds anatomy and histology/ *Lymphatic System anatomy
and histology

93. Budras K; Hullinger R; Rautenfeld D von; and Berens von Rautenfeld D.
Lymph heart musculature in birds. Journal-of-Morphology 1987; 191(1): 77-87.
37 ref., 3 pl
The lymph heart is a paired organ located dorsal to the transverse process of
the first two free caudal vertebrae. They propel lymph in the embryo, and
this function persists in adults of many species. They degenerate in fowl,
and are only vestigial in pigeon (corpora lymphospongiosa phalli). The
authors examined domestic duck and goose, also emu and rhea. Muscle cells
differed in structure from myocardial and skeletal muscle cells, and most
closely resembled smooth muscle. Innervation of the lymph heart is described.
Tissue ultrastructure/ Duck/ Goose/ Lymphatic system/ Bird/ Lymph heart/
Muscle tissue/ Ultrastructure 

94. Budras K and Meier U. The epididymis and its development in ratite birds
(ostrich, emus, rhea). Anatomy and Embryology 1981; 162(3): 281-299.
English; 37 ref; 9603
The epididymis of ratitae is subdivided into a main part and an appendix
epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis consists of the ductus aberrans and
ductuli aberrantes. The ductus aberrans is the cranial continuation of the
ductus epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis is cranially attached to the
adrenal gland. In the main part of the epididymis the largest part of the
rete testis is found.
The rete testis is composed of an intratesticular rete (also named tubuli
recti), an intracapsular rete (with a longitudinal cistern and a true rete),
and an extratesticular rete (predominantly consisting of approximately 20
longitudinal channels). The rete testis develops most likely embryonally from
buds of the glomerular capsules of the mesonephros. The ductuli efferentes
proximales also arise from these capsules, while the ductuli efferentes
distales develop from the proximal and distal tubules and
intermediate-segments of the mesonephros. The ductus epididymidis originates
from the Wolffian duct and meanders dorsolaterally through the epididymis.
ostriches/ rheas/ emus/ epididymis

95. Budras K; Weyrauch K; and Marks G. Mesonephric origin of steroid-hormone
producing interrenal nodi in the epididymis of the Emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 1987; 16(3):
German; 9 ref
Blastocytes of interrenal noduli separate postnatally from the vascular pole
of mesonephric corpuscles; the latter neither have contact to the rete testis
nor are transformed into ductuli efferentes distales, but degenerate. In the
epididymis, the blastocytes transform into nodi interrenales reaching 3 mm in
diameter. Light- and electron microscopic results and the detection of
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and steroid dehydrogenase suggest that
these nodi produce a steroid hormone. (Author's abstract)
Male genitalia/ Dromaius novahollandiae/ Casuariiformes/ Tissue
ultrastructure/ Birds/ Epididymis 

96. Burchak A and Vekua A. The fossil ostrich Struthio dmanisensis, new
species from the Lower Pleistocene of eastern Georgia (USSR). Acta Zoologica
Cracoviensia 1990; 33(1-14): 121-132.
Struthio dmanisensis sp. n. has been described on the basis of a femur from
the Lower Pleistocene deposits of Dmanisi in eastern Georgia. The bone is
larger and stouter than in the present-day Ostrich. Its stoutness suggests
affinity to S. pannonicus.
Struthio Pannonicus/ Femur/ Description/ Taxonomy

97. Burger, H. Diseases of ostriches in the Schonbrunn zoo. Ippen, R and
Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII.
Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 1976;
Innsbruck.; 1976? 73-75. 
German; 3 ref; 9601
animal diseases/ zoo animals/ Birds/ ostriches 

98. Burger, WP, Naude, TW, Vanrensburg, IBJ, Botha, CJ, and Pienaar, ACE.
Avocado (Persea-Americana) Poisoning in Ostriches Colegate, SM and Dorling,
PR. Plant - Association Toxins. 1615 E Speedway/ Tucson/ AZ 85706: Univ
Arizona Press; 1994; 546-551. 
English Article

99. Burger W; Naude T; Vanrensburg I; Botha C; and Pienaar A. Cardiomyopathy
in Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus) Due to Avocado (Persea-Americana Var
Guatemalensis) Intoxication. Journal of the South African Veterinary
Association 1994; 65(3): 113-118.
English Article
Nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of
ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing
Hass and Fuerte cultivars. Foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars
dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe
cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. In the hens, which had received a lower
dose, milder lesions occurred. Macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches
resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and ventral body. The
cardiomyopathy was characterised by degeneration and necrosis of myocytes, a
marked infiltration of heterophils and in one case, early fibroplasia.
Avocado Poisoning/ Persea Americana Var Guatemalensis/ Ostrich/ Struthio
Camelus/ Domestic Hen/ Cardiomyopathy

100. Burroughs, R. Ostrich medicine and surgery guidelines. Ostrich workshop
for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island
Ostrich Ranch; [1992]9 p. 
Brief guidelines on clinical diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, therapeutics
(immunity, antibiotic therapy, internal parasistes, external parasites, some
aspects of surgery and anesthesia), general surgical considerations and
problem-specific clinical signs.
ostriches/ antibiotics/ parasites/ anesthesia

101. Bush M; Hughes JJr; Ensley P; and James AJr. Fracture repair in exotics
using internal fixation. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
1976; 12(6): 746-753.
English; 9601
Liver/ fractures/ surgery/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ Rhea/ Felidae/

102. Bush M; Locke D; Neal L; and Carpenter J. Pharmacokinetics of
cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species. American Journal of
Veterinary Research 1981; 42(6): 1014-1017.
English; 17 ref; 9601
Plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and
cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes were studied. The
species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus v virginianus), pigeons
(Columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp), greater sandhill cranes
(Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). In the 1st
phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given IM in a dose of 100 mg/ kg
of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (mean 18 mu g/ ml) at 0.5
hour and were measureable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The
biological half-life of cephalothin was 16 to 54 minutes; the half-life
varied directly with increased species body weight, with the exception of the
ducks studied. In the 2nd phase, cephalexin monohydrate was given orally in
doses of 25, 35 and 50 mg/ kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached
peak (av.20 mu g/ ml) at 0.5 to 1 hour and were measurable 2.5-5.5 hours
after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalexin was 36 to
126 minutes. In the 3rd phase, differences in plasma concentrations and the
half-lives of cephalexin between fed quail and fasted quail were
insignificant. Dosage regimens for cephalothin of 100 mg/ kg 4 times a day,
and for cephalexin of 35 to 50 mg/ kg 4 times a day would be expected to
establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in large birds
(pigeons, cranes, and emus). These same doses, administered every 2 to 3
hours, would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma
concentrations in smaller birds (quail, ducks). (Author's abstract)
emus/ pharmacolokinetics/ antibiotics/ cephalosporins/ cephalothin/

103. Busse, A. Role of the primordial kidney in the prenatal development of
the interrenal organ in the emu.: Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin der Freien
Universitat Berlin; 1985. 101pp.
8pp. of ref., 28 fig. 
Birds/ Struthioniformes/ Thesis/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Embryonic
development/ Kidney 

104. Buttemer W and Dawson T. Body temperature, water flux and estimated
energy expenditure of incubating emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology, A Comparative Physiology 1989; 94(1): 21-24.
19 ref
Body temperature of incubating male emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) varied
less than that of non-incubating birds and was on average 37.8°C throughout
the 56-day incubation period. Rate of water efflux of incubating birds was
less than half of that estimated for non-incubating, water-deprived emus at
the same season. Based on changes in body mass during their incubation fast,
the daily energy expenditure of incubating emus is about 60% of the daily
minimal metabolism expected for inactive non-passerine birds of the same
Energy exchange/ incubation/ emus 

105. Button C; Barton N; Veale P; and Overend D. A survey of Libyostrongylus
douglassi on ostrich farms in eastern Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal
1993; 70(2): 76.
4 ref
During June and July 1992, the prevalence of Libyostrongylus douglassi on
ostrich farms in eastern Victoria, Australia, was investigated. Faecal
samples from approximately 450 birds from Gippsland and north-eastern
Victoria were tested for nematode ova, and the positive samples cultured. L.
douglassi larvae were cultured from 13 (22%) of the 59 Gippsland farms and 4
(36%) of the 11 north-eastern farms. The results indicated that L. douglassi
is well established in eastern Victoria, and that the frequency with which
ostriches are traded makes it highly likely that the prevalence of this
parasite will increase.
disease prevalence/ ornamental birds/ epidemiology/ parasites/ helminths 

106. Cadman H; Kelly P; Dikanifura M; Carter S; Azwai S; and Wright E.
Isolation and characterization of serum immunoglobulin classes of the ostrich
(Struthio camelus). Avian Diseases 1994; 38(3): 616-620.
English Note; 8 ref.
Immunoglobulins were separated from ostrich sera by ammonium sulfate
precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. Two classes of immunoglobulin
could be identified, corresponding to IgG and IgM of other species, based on
elution profiles from ion-exchange columns and molecular mass estimation on
gel-filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). On SDS-PAGE, the heavy chains of IgG and IgM were
shown to have molecular masses of 67.5 kDa and 65 kDa, respectively, and the
light chains common to both were shown to have a molecular mass of 27 kDa.
The ostrich immunoglobulins were not recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal
antibodies against immunoglobulins of many species of animals tested, nor by
antibodies against chicken immunoglobulins. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ immunoglobulins

107. Cadman H; Kelly P; Zhou R; Davelaar F; and Mason P. A serosurvey using
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in
ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Zimbabwe. Avian Diseases 1994; 38(3):
English; 6 ref.
Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-ostrich IgG was raised and used
in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits to detect antibodies
reactive with 11 poultry pathogens in sera from 149 ostriches from nine farms
around Zimbabwe. Antibodies were detected to turkey rhinotracheitis virus
(99%), Newcastle disease virus (23%), avian reovirus (19%), infectious bursal
disease virus (15%), avian encephalomyelitis virus (15%), Mycoplasma
gallisepticum and/ or M. synoviae (11%), reticuloendotheliosis virus (10%),
Salmonella enteritidis (8%), avian leukosis virus (3%), infectious bronchitis
virus (2%), and Pasteurella multocida (<1%). Although evidence of prior
infection with turkey rhinotracheitis and newcastle disease virus was present
on all farms tested, there was marked variation between farms in the
prevalence of exposure to other poultry pathogens. (Author's abstract)
osriches/ infectious diseases/ ELISA

108. Cajal J. The lesser rhea in the Argentine puna region: Present
situation. Biological Conservation 1988; 45(2): 81-91.
The American ostriches Rhea americana and Pterocnemia pennata comprise an
important item of the wildlife trade in Argentina. In addition to the trade
in animal products, their eggs are also collected for food by local settlers.
Very little is known about the distribution, densities, and ecology of these
species. The present paper deals with habitat use, diet and population
density of the subspecies P. p. garleppi which is located in the Andean
region, between 3000 and 4000 m. These animals are entirely herbivorous and
occupy open grasslands on the plains as well as rocky slopes and ravines with
dense shrub cover. Studies reveal very low population densities which
fluctuate considerably from year to year.
habitat utilization/ population density/ diets/ Pterocnemia pennata garleppi/
Argentina, Andes Mountains.

109. Campodonico, P and Masson, C. Breeding and production of ratites .
Maisons-Alfort, France: CIRAD-EMVT; 1992; 98 pp. 
French; 117 ref. 
The plumage, body weight, conformation and voice patterns of the ostrich,
cassowary, rhea and emu and the natural habitats of these birds are
described. Details are given of behaviour, diseases, nutrition, reproductive
season and performance in captivity, AI, laying performance, incubation,
hatching and management, breeding history and the production of feathers,
meat, skins, eggs and cooking oil. Their potential for use as a tourist
attraction is discussed, and economic aspects are considered.
plumage/ body weight/ reproduction/ meat production/ behaviour/ management/
ostriches/ cassowaries/ rheas/ emus/ tropics/ breeding/ animal production/
ratites/ production 

110. Campodonico P and Masson C. Nutrition and reproduction of ostriches. 3.
Nutrition. Bulletin des G.T.V. 1990; (No. 4): 73-76.
Recommendations are given for the nutrition of the 4 main struthioniformes in
captivity (ostrich, rhea, emu and cassowary) based on information from 52
zoos worldwide followed by examples of diets provided in ostrich farms.
Struthionidae/ nutrition/ Ostriches 

111. Campodonico P and Masson C. Ostrich farming. Bulletin des G.T.V. 1990;
(No. 5): 65-73.
The structure of ostrich feathers, the effects of age and season on the
plumage, and a technique for collecting feathers are described. Weights and
values of feathers exported from South Africa are tabulated for years during
the period 1856-1986. In 1986, the value of the feathers exported was R 5 600
000. In 1982, 1 000 000 kg of ostrich meat was produced in South Africa, with
a value of R 1 200 000. The birds are slaughtered at 14-16 months of age
(95+/ -5 kg body weight). Brief descriptions are given of the production and
marketing of the skins, eggs and carcass fat of ostriches and other ratites,
ostrich riding, the manufacture of craft products, and the tourist potential
of ostrich farms.
Animal production/ South Africa/ ostriches/ Tropics/ feathers/ production/

112. Campodonico P and Masson C. Ostrich husbandry. Bulletin des G.T.V. 1990;
(No. 2 ): 59-73.
The first part of this series on ostrich husbandry summarizes knowledge on
the geographical distribution of ostriches, emus, rheas and cassowaries,
their adaptability to captivity, diseases and parasites and their treatment,
and anaesthesia.
anaesthesia/ anthelmintics/ drug therapy/ parasitoses/ ostriches/ diseases/
Struthioniformes/ birds/ parasites/ general account

113. Camus A; Cho D-Y; Poston R; Paulsen D; Oliver J; Law J; and Tully T.
Chlamydiosis in commercial rheas (Rhea americana). Avian Diseases 1994;
38(3): 666-671.
English; 11 ref.
Mild to marked splenomegaly was observed in three of four rheas that died
acutely in three unrelated commercial ratite facilities in Southeastern
Louisiana. Mortalities occurred within a 5-week period in birds ranging from
2 months to 3 years of age. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis with
mononuclear cell infiltrates, typical of chlamydiosis in other avian species,
was present on histopathologic sections. The diagnoses were confirmed by
demonstration of inclusion bodies in splenic impression smears and
fluorescent-antibody testing performed on Vero cell cultures.
Chlamydia/ rheas/ histopathology

114. Capua I; Gough R; Scaramozzino P; Lelli R; and Gatti A. Isolation of an
adenovirus from an ostrich (Struthioccamelus) causing pancreatitis in
experimentally infected guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Avian Diseases 1994;
38(3): 642-646.
English; 9 ref.
An adenovirus was isolated from the pancreas, kidney, and lung of a dead
4-month-old ostrich (Struthio camelus). Experimental infection of week-old
guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was carried out in order to study
transmission. Of the infected keets, six out of 15 died; these exhibited
pancreatitis, presence of a hemorrhagic liquid in the abdominal cavity,
kidney degeneration, and pulmonary lesions. The remaining birds, euthanatized
on day 21 postinoculation, showed chronic pancreatitis. The virus was
reisolated from the pancreas, lung, and kidney of the infected keets.
(Author's abstract)
ostriches/ guinea fowl/ adenovirus

115. Carter S. Ostriches and rhea on a small farm in Ohio. Small Farm Today
1994; 11(4): 36-38.
ostriches/ rhea/ livestock farming/ small farms/ ohio 

116. Carter S. Poultry researchers turn attention to ratites. Small Farm
Today 1994; 11(4): 42-44.
ostriches/ rhea/ emus/ animal husbandry/ animal breeding/ agricultural

117. Caughley G and Grice D. A correction factor for counting emus from the
air and its application to counts in Western Australia. Australian Wildlife
Research 1982; 9(2): 253-260.
The authors used the mathematics of the mark-recapture model to derive a
factor correcting counts of emus (Dromaeus novaehollandiae ) surveyed from
the air. The emus were neither marked nor recaptured, the correction factor
being derived from the number of emu groups counted independently by two
observers simultaneously scanning the same transect. The analysis suggests
that about 68% of emu groups on the transect are counted by a given observer
during a standard survey, and that his counts must therefore be multiplied by
1 multiplied by 47 before they estimate true density of groups. Having
determined independently the mean size of emu groups as 3 multiplied by 75 at
that time of the year, we applied this factor to counts from a survey of
1,480,000 km super(2) in Western Australia. Overall density was 0 multiplied
by 074 emus km super(-2), being highest in the pastoral zone at 0 multiplied
by 103 km super(-2) and lowest in unoccupied land at 0 multiplied by 008 km
super(-2). The difference probably reflects availability of drinking water.
emus/ Australia/ surveys/ abundance/ Dromaeus novaehollandiae/ methodology

118. Cavagna G; Heglund N; and Taylor C. Mechanical work in terrestrial
locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. American
Journal of Physiology 1977; 233(5): R243-261.
The work done during each step to lift and to reaccelerate (in the forward
direction) and center of mass has been measured during locomotion in bipeds
(rhea and turkey), quadrupeds (dogs, stump-tailed macaques, and ram), and
hoppers (kangaroo and springhare). Walking, in all animals (as in man),
involves an alternate transfer between gravitational-potential energy and
kinetic energy within each stride (as takes place in a pendulum). This
transfer is greatest at intermediate walking speeds and can account for up to
70% of the total energy changes taking place within a stride, leaving only
30% to be supplied by muscles. No kinetic-gravitational energy transfer takes
place during running, hopping, and trotting, but energy is conserved by
another mechanism: an elastic "bounce" of the body. Galloping animals
utilize a combination of these two energy-conserving mechanisms. During
running, trotting, hopping, and galloping, 1) the power per unit weight
required to maintain the forward speed of the center of mass is almost the
same in all the species studied; 2) the power per unit weight required to
lift the center of mass is almost independent of speed; and 3) the sum of
these two powers is almost a linear function of speed.
Birds/ Dogs/ Goats/ Haplorhini/ Kangaroos/ Mathematics/ Rodentia/ Species
Specificity/ Turkeys/ *Biomechanics/ *Energy Metabolism/ *Locomotion 

119. Chakravarty I. A case history of mycotic infection (aspergillosis) in an
emu (Dromiceius novaehollandies) in Delhi zoo. Indian Veterinary Journal
1976; 53(11): 881-882.
English; 6 ref; 9601
The case is presented of a female emu with congestion of the lungs, pleural
and adjoining thoracic muscles studded with numerous whitish nodules and
darkened and slightly enlarged liver at post-mortem. Histopathology revealed
Mycoses/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ Aspergillus/ Fungi/ Birds/
Struthioniformes/ Aspergillus on emu/ emu

120. Chang P; Chang C; Liu M; and Wang K. Bow leg syndrome in young ostriches
(Struthio camilus). Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science
1988; 14(1): 17-21.
Chinese; 13 ref
Nutritional disorders/ Zoo animals/ Ostriches/ Bone diseases

121. Chauvet M; Levy B; Michel G; Chauvet J; and Acher R. Precursors of
mesotocin and vasotocin in birds: identification of VLDV and MSEL
neurophysins in chicken, goose, and ostrich. Biosci Rep 1986; 6(4): 381-385.
Precursors of neurohypophysial hormones are small proteins processed into
nonapeptide hormones and neurophysins during axonal transport to the
neurohypophysis. In mammals, oxytocin is associated with VLDV-neurophysin and
vasopressin with MSEL-neurophysin. In birds, mesotocin and vasotocin are
found instead of mammalian oxytocin and vasopressin. From goose, chicken and
ostrich posterior pituitary glands, two types of neurophysins related to
mammalian VLDV- and MSEL-neurophysins, respectively, have been identified by
their N-terminal sequences. It is assumed that, as in mammals, hormonal
peptide and the first 9 residues of the corresponding neurophysin are encoded
by a common exon and that mesotocin and vasotocin, evolutionary predecessors
of oxytocin and vasopressin, are associated in the precursors with
VLDV-neurophysin and MSEL-neurophysin, respectively.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Animal/ Cattle/ Chickens/ Comparative Study/ Geese/
Horses/ Human/ Oxytocin isolation and purification/ Pituitary Gland analysis/
Rats/ Sheep/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/ Swine/ Whales/ Neurophysins isolation
and purification/ Oxytocin analogs and derivatives/ Protein Precursors
isolation and purification/ Vasotocin isolation and purification

122. Chiou S; Lo C; Chang C; Itoh T; Kaji H; and Samejima T. Ostrich
crystallins. Structural characterization of delta crystallin with enzymic
activity. Biochemical Journal 1991; 273(Pt 2): 295-300.
Lens crystallins from the African ostrich (Struthio camelus) were isolated
and characterized. Four crystallin fractions corresponding to alpha-, delta/
beta- and beta-crystallins similar to those of duck crystallins were
isolated, but epsilon-crystallin was found to be absent. The native molecular
masses and subunit structures of the purified fractions were analysed by gel
filtration. SDS/ PAGE and isoelectric focusing, revealing various extents of
heterogeneity in each orthologous crystallin class. An ion-exchange
chromatographic method was used for the large-scale preparation of
delta-crystallin suitable for structural and enzymic studies. It was
unexpectedly found that the purified native delta-crystallin of ostrich lens
possessed high argininosuccinate lyase activity, in contrast with chicken
delta-crystallin. The c.d. spectra indicated a predominant beta-sheet
structure in alpha- and beta-crystallins, and a significant contribution of
alpha-helical structure in the delta-crystallin fraction. The estimate of
secondary structures from c.d. spectroscopy for each crystallin class bears a
resemblance to that of duck crystallins, except that ostrich delta-crystallin
possesses much less helical content than duck delta-crystallin. Comparison of
crystallin compositions and structures from aquatic and terrestrial birds
revealed distinct differences.
Amino Acids analysis/ Chromatography, Ion Exchange/ Crystallins isolation and
purification/ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/ Isoelectric Focusing/
Lens, Crystalline enzymology/ Protein Conformation/ Urea/ Argininosuccinate
Lyase metabolism/ Birds/ Crystallins chemistry/ Lens, Crystalline chemistry

123. Chirino-Trejo M and Wheler C. Saskatchewan: conjunctivitis associated
with Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus in an ostrich. Canadian Veterinary
Journal 1989; 30(9): 759.
English; 1 ref
Bacterial diseases/ Eye diseases/ Ostriches/ Conjunctivitis 

124. Cilliers S; Hayes J; Maritz J; Chwalibog A; and Dupreez J. True and
Apparent Metabolizable Energy Values of Lucerne and Yellow Maize in Adult
Roosters and Mature Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus). Animal Production 1994;
59(Part 2): 309-313.
English Article
In an experiment involving 30 roosters and 15 mature male ostriches the
apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values, corrected for zero nitrogen
retention (AME(n)), were determined by balance method for maize and lucerne
meal. A group of 10 roosters received maize as the sole dietary component.
For the second group of 10 roosters a blend of 750 g/ kg maize and 250 g/ kg
lucerne was prepared. The diet of the third group consisted of 500 g/ kg
maize and 500 g/ kg lucerne meal. The ostrich basal diet consisted of 1000 g/
kg lucerne, and was blended in the ratios 50 lucerne: 50 maize and 25
lucerne: 75 maize. Each dietary treatment was given to five ostriches,
individually housed in metabolism crates. Food intake and excreta collection
was carried out over a period of 5 days after the ostriches had been
accustomed to the diets for 7 days. For roosters food intake and excreta
collection lasted for 72 h after an adaptation period of 24 h. The AME(n)
value for maize was 14.49 (s.e. 0.046) MJ/ kg in roosters while in ostriches
AME(n) values of 14.3 (s.e. 1.81) and 14.5 (s.e. 0.845) MJ/ kg for the 500 g/
kg inclusion and 250 g/ kg inclusion respectively were found. In roosters
lucerne meal yielded AME(n) values of 4.49 (s.e. 0.506) and 4.05 (s.e. 0.321)
at 250 g/ kg and 500 g/ kg inclusion levels respectively. For the ostriches a
value of 8.9 (s.e. 0.755) MJ/ kg was found for lucerne. True ME, corrected
for zero nitrogen retention, (TME(n)) was computed by regressing gross energy
output on gross energy input over all feeding levels. Maize yielded values of
14.65 (s.e. 0.0455) and 14.9 (s.e. 0.351) for roosters and ostriches
respectively while corresponding values for lucerne were 4.03 (s.e. 0.118)
and 8.6 (s.e. 0.296) MJ/ kg. It was concluded that the ostriches were capable
of digesting a high starch diet such as maize to the same extent as adult
roosters but ostriches were capable of digesting a high fibre ingredient such
as lucerne meal much more efficiently.
Lucerne/ Maize/ Metabolizable Energy/ Ostriches/ Poultry

125. Cilliers S; Preez Jd; Maritz J; and Hayes J. Growth curves of ostriches
(Struthio camelus) from Oudtshoorn in South Africa. Animal Science 1995;
61(Part 1): 161-164.
English; 4 ref.
Growth results of 43 ostrich males and females were used to compile growth
parameters of a flock that is representative of Oudtshoorn birds, using the
Gompertz model. Growth results comprised 19 recordings of body weight for
each individual commencing from 1-day-old to day 520. Individual fits of data
to the growth model were exceptionally good, resulting in low CV values of
0.02 and 0.03 for the mean values of all estimates of mature live weight for
male and females respectively. The estimated mean mature body weights for the
flock were 119.2 kg for males and 122.3 kg for females. Rates of maturing
were 9100 and 8500 for males and females respectively which corresponded to
ages of 180.83 and 199.2 days at which maximum gain in weight were achieved.
None of these parameter estimates differed significantly between sexes.
Results in the present study suggested substantial adjustments to growth
parameters for Oudtshoorn ostriches published by du Preez, Jarvis, Capatos
and de Kock, 1992. (Author's abstract)
growth/ ostriches

126. Clench M and Mathias J. The Avian Cecum - A Review. Wilson Bulletin
1995; 107(1): 93-121.
English Review
The ceca, intestinal outpocketings of the gut, are described, classified by
types, and their occurrence surveyed across the Order Aves. Correlation
between cecal size and systematic position is weak except among closely
related species. With many exceptions, herbivores and omnivores tend to have
large ceca, insectivores and carnivores are variable, and piscivores and
graminivores have small ceca. Although important progress has been made in
recent years, especially through the use of wild birds under natural (or
quasi-natural) conditions rather than studying domestic species in captivity,
much remains to be learned about cecal functioning. Research on periodic
changes in galliform and anseriform cecal size in response to dietary
alterations is discussed. Studies demonstrating cellulose digestion and
fermentation in ceca, and their utilization and absorption of water,
nitrogenous compounds, and other nutrients are reviewed. We also note
disease-causing organisms that may be found in ceca. The avian cecum is a
multi-purpose organ, with the potential to act in many different ways-and
depending on the species involved, its cecal morphology, and ecological
conditions, cecal functioning can be efficient and vitally important to a
bird's physiology, especially during periods of stress.

127. Clifford B. Caring for young chicks. Canadian Ostrich 1996; 5(3): 26-29,
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Last article in a series. Discusses what is required for a brooder facility.
ostriches/ chicks/ brooder facility

128. Clifford B. An introduction to ostrich raising. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(10): 14, 16, 17.
Part one of a series. An ostrich farmer discusses the basics of ostrich
farming. This part discusses the different way of entering the industry
giving the pros and cons of each method: buying guaranteed fertile eggs;
buying day old chicks; buying 3 month old chicks; buying yearling pairs;
buying pre-breeder pairs and buying proven breeder pairs.
ostriches/ farming

129. Clifford H and Monteith G. A three phase seed dispersal mechanism in
Australian quinine bush (Petalostigma pubescens Domin). Biotropica 1989;
21(3): 284-286.
6 ref
P. pubescens is a tree 5-6 m tall that occurs across northern Australia and
into Papua New Guinea. Its fruits are eaten by emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). During passage through the bird, the fleshy exocarp is
removed and the stony endocarp is voided in the faeces. As the faeces dry
out, the endocarp explodes, flinging its segments and seeds a considerable
distance. The seeds bear an ant-attracting elaiosome and are carried off by
ants. Following agricultural activity, the emu has been displaced from most
of SE Queensland and so the dispersal of P. pubescens may be severely
Broadleaves/ Petalostigma pubescens/ seed dispersal/ Seeds/ EMUS/ Birds/
ecology/ Dromaius/ Australia/ Queensland/ seed characteristics/ elaiosomes 

130. Clubb, SL, Homer, BL, Pisani, J, and Head, C. Outbreaks of bordetellosis
in psittacines and ostriches. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994;
Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 63-68. 
English; 6 ref. 
Bordetella sp. have long been recognized as significant pathogens of the
upper respiratory system in many mammalian species as well as poultry.
Gerlach reports that psittacines and finches are also susceptible to
infection with Bordetella but gives no description of the disease in these
Bordetella avium was isolated from cockatiel chicks exhibiting nestling
mortality, rhinitis, sinusitis and temporomandibular rigidity ("lock
jaw"syndrome). The clinical syndrome was reproduced by inoculation of the
isolate into clinically healthy cockatiel chicks. Bordetella bronchiseptica
and B. avium was isolated from a group of ostrich chicks exhibiting stunting,
tracheitis, impaction and mortality. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ diseases/ bordetellosis

131. Coddington C and Cockburn A. The Mating System Of Free Living Emus.
Australian Journal Of Zoology 1995; 43(4): 365-372.
English; 9601
Despite their pivotal role in interpretation of the complex mating systems of
the ratites, the mating system of free living emus (dromaius novaehollandiae)
has not been characterised. here we report observations on an introduced but
free ranging population of emus at tidbinbilla nature reserve in the
australian capital territory. emus combined monogamy, polyandry and
promiscuity. all initially unpaired males paired with and incubated a clutch
for females whose primary mates were preoccupied with incubation. however,
females were also promiscuous, and most copulations we observed were extra
pair. females fight vigorously among themselves for access to unpaired males.
coupled with observations on cassowaries, these data suggest that there is no
simple correlation between habitat (grassland/ forest) and the mating system
in ratites. instead, the resolution of the complex conflicts of interest
between the sexes appears to determine the predominant mating systems
exhibited by a species.
Island brown kiwi/ apteryx australis mantelli/ organization

132. Conroy A and Gaigher I. Venison, aquaculture and ostrich meat
production: action 2003 South Africa. South African Journal of Animal Science
1982; 12(2): 219-233.
South Africa

133. Coody, D. Ostriches : your great opportunity. Lawton, Okla.: D. Coody;
36 p. 
English : ill
Ostriches/ Ostrich farms and farming

134. Cooper J and Gimbi A. Locomotor diseases in captive young ostriches.
Veterinary Record 1994; 134(13): 336.
3 ref
An outbreak of disease in captive ostriches on a farm in Tanzania is
reported. In January 1992, 2- to 8-week old ostriches hatched from eggs
collected in the wild showed a staggering gait or were found recumbent.
Affected birds were unwilling or unable to lift their heads and movement of
the neck was sometimes accompanied by tremors. anorexia was a common feature
and, in the early stages, diarrhoea was sometimes seen. Dehydration often
followed. Spoon feeding was carried out and physiotherapy was applied. A few
birds appeared to respond but within 24 to 48 hours relapsed and continued to
deteriorate. Of 90 ostriches on the farm, nearly 50 showed clinical signs of
disease over a 3-month period. Clinical examination showed the affected birds
to be in reasonable condition apart from those individuals that had been
recumbent and anorexic for more than 48 hours. Two birds had fractures of the
legs. Soft, pliable bones were a feature in the majority of cases.
Radiographs of live and dead birds showed poor bone density, thin cortices
and fractures. PM findings included soft bones, pressure sores, subcutaneous
bruising and impacted stomachs. Histopathological examination revealed minor
changes including mononuclear cell infiltration of the kidneys of 2 birds.
Analysis of the diet of broiler mash gave the following results: crude
protein 16.8%, ether extract 7.12%, dry matter 89.9%, calcium 0.88% and
phosphorus 0.39%. The condition was diagnosed as a nutritional and metabolic
disorder, primarily attributable to a calcium deficiency. After the diet was
supplemented with bonemeal, no new cases occurred. Of the birds already
affected, only those with minor clinical signs recovered while the remainder
became progressively worse and died. A calcium deficiency appears to have
been the prime cause of the problem but this may have been exacerbated by the
relatively high protein content of the diet.
nutritional disorders/ metabolic disorders/ birds/ bone diseases/ fractures/
ostriches/ deficiency diseases/ calcium 

135. Cooper S and Palmer T. Observations On The Dietary Choice Of Free
Ranging Juvenile Ostriches. Ostrich 1994; 65(3-4): 251-255.
English; 9601
The dietary selection of juvenile ostriches in an east african savanna was
determined using penned and free ranging chicks. the young ostriches
displayed an innate preference for selected plant species and showed little
change in diet composition with increasing experience. the most heavily
utilized foods were newly emergent grass leaves and the foliage of the woody
forbs indigofera schimperi (leguminosae) and orbs aspilia mossambicensis
(compositae). while the diet composition of the ostrich is similar to that of
grant's gazelle, ostriches differ in that they eat some silica rich plants
not utilized by ungulates; thus ostriches may be a useful addition to mixed
species game ranching in africa.

136. Cornick J and Jensen J. Anesthetic management of ostriches. Journal of
the American Veterinary Medical Association 1992; 200(11): 1661-1666.
English; 28 ref
Several anaesthetic induction protocols used to facilitate intubation and
anaesthetic maintenance with isoflurane in 7 adult ostriches and 1 juvenile
ostrich were evaluated. Induction protocols included i.v. administration of
Telazol (zolazepam/ tiletamine) i.v. administration of Valium/
Ketaset(diazepam/ ketamine) with and without Rompun (xylazine), i.v.
administration of xylazine/ ketamine, i.m. administration of Wildnil
(carfentanil) or xylazine/ carfentanil, and mask induction with Aerrane
(isoflurane). General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 100%
oxygen for various procedures, including proventriculotomy (6 birds), tibial
(1 bird) or mandibular (1 bird) fracture repair, and drainage of an
iatrogenic haematoma (1 bird). Heart rate and respiratory rate varied greatly
among birds. The arterial blood pressure values recorded from 6 of the birds
during maintenance of general anaesthesia were higher than values recorded
for most mammalian species, but were comparable to values reported for awake
chickens and turkeys.
Poultry/ Blood pressure/ Adverse effects/ Induction anaesthesia/ Maintenance
anaesthesia/ Zolazepam/ Tiletamine/ Ketamine/ Xylazine/ Carfentanil/
Isoflurane/ Anaesthesia/ ostriches 

137. Cornick-Seahorn J; Martin G; Tully T; and Morris J. Tourniquet-induced
hypertension in an ostrich. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association 1995; 207(3): 344-346.
Monitoring of ratites during general anesthesia should be performed with the
same standard of care that is applied to mammalian species. Because of the
paucity of information regarding arterial blood pressures in awake and
anesthized ostriches, interpretation of these values in the individual
ostrich can be difficult. Tourniquet-induced hypertension during general
anesthesia, as defined by a 30% increase in systolic or diastolic arterial
pressures compared with the first values recorded after incision, may develop
in ostriches.
ostriches/ anesthesia/ tourniquet induced hypertension

138. Corrado, A. Studies on Newcastle disease virus isolated from an ostrich
= Studio di un ceppo di virus della malattia di Newcastle isolato dallo
struzzo (Struthio camelus). S.l.: s.n; 1984?; 36 p 
English, Italian

139. Costa N; Mcdonald D; and Swan R. Age-Related-Changes in Plasma
Biochemical Values of Farmed Emus (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Australian
Veterinary Journal 1993; 70(9): 341-344.
English Article
Blood samples were collected from 40 emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) of 4
different age groups ranging from 1 week to 14 months. Plasma values of
glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase,
aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and
magnesium were measured. Fourteen-month-old birds had lower plasma glucose
values and enzyme activities and higher plasma protein values than younger
birds. One-week-old birds had higher cholesterol and uric acid values than
other age groups. Plasma calcium, phosphorus and magnesium values did not
differ across the age profiles sampled.

140. Cracraft J. Continental drift, palleoclimatology, and the evolution and
biogeography of birds. Journal of Zoology 1973; 169: 455-545.
English; 333 Ref.; 9603
An analysis is presented of the influence that late Mesozoic and Tertiary
paleogeography and paleoclimatology may have had on the evolution and
biogeography of birds. Many intercontinental connections, especially in the
Southern Hemisphere, persisted until the late Cretaceous and/ or early
Tertiary. Moreover, climates at these times were warmer and more equable than
in the late Tertiary, and birds could breed in and disperse through high
latitudes. It is concluded that a number of avian orders and families had
their origin in Gondwanaland and predrift configuration of the continents
were major determinants of their biogeography. Penguins, ratites, galliforms,
and suboscines among others are the best examples. Tropical-subtropical
Eurasia was probably the centre of origin for the oscines, and primitve
stocks entered the New World mostly through Beringia and mostly prior to the
Miocene (but also via a North Atlantic land connection prior to the early
Eocene). Continental drift and paleoclimatolgy have clearly influenced the
evolution and biogeography of birds, and future advances in the systematics
of the higher taxa will undoubtedly provide further confirmation of this.
(Author's abstract)
ratites/ biogeography/ evolution

141. Cracraft J. Phylogeny and evolution of the ratite birds. Ibis 1974;
116(4): 494-521.
English; 95 ref.
Postulated evolutionary trends by the author (using skeletal characters) are
used to construct a theory of relationships. The author used the premise that
phylogenetic affinity can be demonstrated only by shared character-states and
that primitive character-states held in common by different taxa provide no
information. Character analysis - evolutionary trends in the palaeognath
skeleton - looked at cranial and postcranial characters. (KL)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ cassowaries/ rheas/ kiwis/ tinamous

142. Craig-Schmidt M; Brown A; and Smith P. Unlocking the emu oil mystery:
findings could boost alternative agriculture industry. Highlights of
Agricultural Research, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 1994; 41(4):
A discussion of emu production in USA and the quality of emu meat, with
emphasis on fat composition. There are about 500 000 emus on about 10 000
ranches in the USA. Oil from the emu has cosmetic uses and there are
potential therapeutic/ pharmaceutical applications.
oils/ animal production

143. Crawford E and Schmidt-Nielsen K. Temperature regulation and evaporative
cooling in the ostrich. American Journal of Physiology 1967; 212: 347-353.

144. Crawford M. The oldest birds, the newest agribusiness. Small Farm Today
1992; 9(4): 36.
ostriches/ emus/ rhea/ livestock enterprises/ agribusiness

145. Crome F. Some observations on the biology of the Cassowary in northern
Queensland. Emu 1976; 76: 8-14.

146. Crome F and Moore L. Cassowaries in northeastern Queensland (Australia):
Report of a survey and a review and assessment of their status and
conservation and management needs. Australian Wildlife Research 1990; 17(4):
This is a report on the distribution, status and conservation of the southern
cassowary between Cooktown and Townsville, based on a field, public and
literature survey. The status of birds in 77 regions is given according to a
scoring system and the decline and/ or loss of cassowaries in several of them
is noted. Cassowary habitat and the factors controlling the distribution of
the birds are discussed; plant species diversity and history are considered
the most important. We consider the species threatened in this region, and
its decline, predators, disease, movements and the conservation and
management requirements are discussed.
Behavior/ Habitat Preference

147. Cross R and Russell A. Electron-Microscopy of Biodeterioration in
Ostrich Skins. Electron Microscopy 1994; 3A and 3B: 1343-1344.
English; 9603
ostriches/ skin

148. Cullen L; Goerke M; Swan R; Clark W; Nandapi D; and Colbourne C. Ostrich
anaesthesia - xylazine premedication followed by alphaxalone/ alphadolone and
isoflurane. Australian Veterinary Journal 1995; 72(4): 153-154.
English; 12 ref.
Describes the anesthesia procedures used at Murdoch University Veterinary
Hospital on 9 ostriches. Two ostriches were three months old (7.5 to 12 kg)
and seven birds were 4 to 8 months old (34 to 71 kg). Regurgitation, a
complication of ostrich anesthesia, was prevented by raising the neck at the
thoracic inlet and the esophagus obstructed by a tube with an inflated condom
ostriches/ anesthesia

149. Curro, TG, Langenberg, J, and Paul-Murphy, J. A review of lameness in
long-legged birds. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association
of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 265-270. 
English; 18 ref.; 9606
Lameness is a common problem in captive long-legged bird species such as
ratites, cranes, herons, ibis, and storks. The legs of these birds are prone
to traumatic injury. They are adapted to running, as horses are, with little
supportive soft tissue, especially distally from the mid-tibiotarsus. Most
limb injuries involve tibiotarsal, tarsometatarsal, and phalangeal bones, the
joints of the hock and foot, and the tendons and ligaments that connect these
structures. Vascular, peripheral and central nerve, and muscular injuries are
also seen. Although trauma is the most common etiology for lameness, other
etiologies must be considered. The diagnostic workup may include testing to
identify possible infectious (bacterial and viral), endocrinologic,
developmental, musculoskeletal, nutritional, environmental, and hereditary
causes of lameness. Therapy is dependent on the suspected etiology and
clinical signs. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ lameness/ legs

150. Dani, SU, Coordenação/ edição. A ema (Rhea americana): biologia, manejo
e conservação. Andrade, Marco Antônio de, Colaboração. Belo Horizonte, Minas
Gerais Brasil: fundação ACANGÚA; 1993; 136 p. (Coleçao Manejo da Vida
Silvestre; v. Número 1).
Portuguese, illustrated. KL+
On the biology, management and conservation of Rhea americana. There are
descriptions of original breeding techniques and facilities.

151. Davies S. Emus. Australian Natural History 1963; 14: 225-229.

152. Davies, SJJF. The natural history of the emu in comparison with that of
the other ratites. Proceedings of the 16th International Ornithological
Congress Canberra: Australian Academy of Science; 1976 109-120. 

153. Davis C. Vitamin A in the ostrich. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12): 36.
Discusses the implications of vitamin A deficiency and daily requirements.
Refers also to vitamins D, E and C.
ostriches/ vitamin A/ vitamin D/ vitamin C/ vitamin E

154. Dawson T and Herd R. Digestion in the emu: low energy and nitrogen
requirements of this large ratite bird. Comparative Biochemistry and
Physiology, A 1983; 75(1): 41-45.
English; 27 ref; 9601
Maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy was 284 kJ/ kg0.75 daily and
maintenance requirement for nitrogen was 0.09 g/ kg0.75 daily for 4 adult
emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 2 to 4 years old weighing 28 to 48 kg.
energy requirements/ nitrogen/ requirements/ birds 

155. Dawson T; Herd R; and Skadhauge E. Osmotic and ionic regulation during
dehydration in a large bird, the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): an important
role for the cloaca-rectum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology
1985; 70(3): 423-436.
38 ref
Water deprivation/ Urine/ Water metabolism/ Electrolytes/ Struthioniformes/
Dehydration/ Kidney physiology

156. de Boer L. Do the chromosomes of the kiwi provide evidence for a
monophyletic origin of the ratites? Nature 1980; 287(5777): 84-85.
The extensive literature on the origin of the ratites focuses mainly on three
questions: are the ratites mono- or polyphyletic, did they evolve from flying
ancestors, and are they primitive or advanced? Opinion tends to accept a
common descent from flying ancestors for the large ratites (for a summary of
ideas see ref. 1). They would have evolved on Gondwanaland some time in the
Cretaceous and have become dispersed over the southern continents after its
fragmentation. However, the position of the small New Zealand kiwis, in many
respects the most pecular of all birds, is still a matter for conjecture. The
chromosome complements of the large ratites have been found to be remarkably
uniform. The chromosome set of the kiwi, described here, clearly links up
with these, which may be recorded as another indication for monophyly of all
ratites. It also indicates that we are dealing here with very ancient
Chromosomes ultrastructure/ Karyotyping/ Sex Chromosomes ultrastructure/
*Birds genetics/ *Evolution 

157. de Graaff, G and van Rensburg, DJ. Proceedings of a symposium on the
Kalahari ecosystem.; Oct 11-12, 1983; Pretoria. Koedoe; 1984 333pp. 
ref. at ends of chapters
This proceedings of a symposium held at Pretoria on 11-12 Oct. 1983 contains
25 contributions on the Kalahari ecosystem; the history, geology, soils and
vegetation dynamics of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park; pans, rivers and
artificial waterholes in SW Kalahari; effects of fire on an Acacia erioloba
community; descriptions of habitat selection, plant digestibility,
adaptation, food or behaviour ecology, or effects of climate on movement of
ungulates, ostriches, herbivorous mammals, coleopterous fauna, invertebrates,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, rodents, canids, hyaena, lions, leopards and
antelopes. Relevant chapters are abstracted separately.
Conferences/ Kalahari ecosystem

158. Deeming C. The effects of microbial contamination on hatchability of
ostrich eggs. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(5): 16-18.
Discusses the problem of microbial contamination of ostrich eggs, how it
occurs, why the high incidence and preventing contamination.
ostriches/ eggs

159. Deeming C. Sex and the single chick. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(9): 36-37.
The author explains why the sex ratio of chicks is something which the
ostrich industry has to take very seriously. Explores different types of sex
determination, sex ratios and the implications for the ostrich industry. 
ostriches/ sex determination/ sex ratio

160. Deeming C. When to help ostrich chicks to hatch. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(7): 18-21.
Describes the correct hatching position, hatching sequence and when to help
with hatching. It is recommended that the hatching process be as natural as
possible. Ostrich do not help chicks to hatch which is a good lesson to be
learned by ostrich farmers.
ostriches/ hatching

161. Deeming D. Designing an efficient hatchery. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(5):
There are many important points to consider when planning your new hatchery.
These all apply irrespective of the building you wish to use or design or of
the finances available to you. The aim of a good hatchery design is to
achieve a simple flow of eggs through the facility with little cross over
between eggs and chick allowing the production of top quality birds with a
good survivability. Areas discussed include hatchery designs, location of
hatcheries, what to do prior to incubation, incubation and hatching, other
essential rooms and hatcheries and hatchability. Diagram of an imaginary
hatchery showing the principles of hatchery design.
ostriches/ hatchery

162. Deeming D. Factors Affecting Hatchability During Commercial Incubation
of Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus) Eggs. British Poultry Science 1995; 36(1):
English Article
1. A batch of 320 ostrich eggs from 9 different farms in Zimbabwe were
incubated in a single stage operation and the fate of each was recorded. 2.
Hatchability was only 37.2% and the result of high rates of infertility and
contamination (22.2% and 22.8% respectively); it varied between eggs from
different farms. 3. Embryonic mortality was high at the start and end of
incubation, a pattern similar to that of other domestic birds. 4. Mortality
of late stage embryos was related to percentage water loss and mass specific
water vapour conductance of the shell, with extremes of the ranges causing
the highest mortality. 5. Microbial contamination of the eggs was a
significant problem and varied in eggs from different farms indicating that
more attention is needed in both breeder bird and nest management.

163. Deeming D. The Hatching Sequence of Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus) Embryos
with Notes on Development as Observed by Candling. British Poultry Science
1995; 36(1): 67-78.
English Article
1. The hatching sequence of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was determined by
observing embryos during candling, those in the process of hatching and in
dead-in-shell eggs. 2. Candling showed that there was a progressive increase
in dark shadowing within the egg but fine details were not easily seen.
Nevertheless candling is considered to be an important method of assessing
development of ostrich eggs during incubation. 3. The ostrich embryo adopts a
hatching position and follows a hatching sequence different from that of the
fowl. During internal pipping, the air space is pulled towards the beak in
the former but the beak moves to the air space in the latter. The right foot
has an important role in breaking the shell during hatching. 4. The hatching
process is considered to reflect an adaptation to the egg having a hard,
brittle shell. 5. Malpositions in the ostrich may have been misinterpreted in
the past because of the unusual hatching position. The commonest malposition
described here was head-in-the-small-end.

164. Deeming D. Possible Effect of Microbial Infection on Yolk Utilization in
Ostrich Chicks. Veterinary Record 1995; 136(11): 270-271.
English Note

165. Deeming D and Ayres L. Factors Affecting the Rate of Growth of Ostrich
(Struthio-Camelus) Chicks in Captivity. Veterinary Record 1994; 135(26):
English Article
A set of 120 ostrich eggs was imported into the United Kingdom under class 1
quarantine restrictions. The chicks hatched were initially reared in mixed
size groups and weighed daily to monitor their health. Ten days after
hatching the chicks were separated into four groups, based on their weight,
which were kept under identical conditions, fed ad libitum and weighed daily.
At the end of the 35 day quarantine period the growth rates of the chicks
were correlated with their weight on day 10: the heaviest chicks remained the
heaviest. In addition, the degree to which the chicks lost weight and the
period for which they did so was also related to their weight on day 10.
However, the smallest chicks on day 10 grew more quickly than the largest
chicks. Chicks which had been helped to pip and hatch showed poor survival
rates and low rates of growth. The growth rate of the ostriches appeared to
be influenced by environmental factors.

166. Deeming D; Ayres L; and Ayres F. Observations on the commercial
production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in the United Kingdom: incubation.
Veterinary Record 1993; 132(24): 602-607.
Two sets of ostrich eggs (60 and 120 eggs) were imported into the United
Kingdom under class 1 quarantine restrictions. Single stage incubation was
carried out and the eggs were weighed before and during incubation in order
to control weight loss. In the two hatches the weight losses during the
incubation of viable eggs were 13.4 per cent and 11.4 per cent, respectively.
The development of the eggs was followed by candling and although only dark
shadows were observed a pattern could be recognised. For the first set of
eggs the average length of incubation was 45.9 days with an interval of 12.7
hours between pipping and hatching. The second set of eggs was incubated at
higher temperatures than the first and the main incubation period was 43.3
days with hatching 19.2 hours after pipping. Larger eggs took longer to
Eggs/ Embryo, Non Mammalian growth and development/ Fertility/ Great Britain/
Humidity/ Quarantine/ Temperature/ Birds embryology/ Incubators veterinary

167. Deeming D; Ayres L; and Ayres F. Observations on the commercial
production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) in the United Kingdom: rearing of
chicks. Veterinary Record 1993; 132(25): 627-631.
Two sets of ostrich eggs (60 and 120 eggs) were imported into the United
Kingdom under class 1 quarantine restrictions. The eggs were incubated and
observations were made on the growth, survival and sex ratio of the chicks
hatched. The chicks decreased in weight for five days after hatching before
they began a sustained period of exponential growth. They reached a
liveweight of 4 kg five weeks after hatching. Female chicks grew
significantly faster than male chicks. The survival rates of the chicks to
three months of age were 66.7 per cent and 78.3 per cent, respectively, for
the two sets of eggs, and mortality restricted mainly to the first four weeks
of rearing. All the birds which died showed poor rates of growth before they
died. The sex ratio of both groups was skewed 2:1 towards males.
Body Weight/ Eggs/ Great Britain/ Quarantine/ Sex Ratio/ Survival Rate/
Animal Husbandry/ Animals, Newborn growth and development/ Birds growth and

168. Deeming D and Dick A. Ingestion of Metal Objects by Ostriches
(Struthio-Camelus). Veterinary Record 1995; 137(4): 99-100.
English Note

169. Degen A; Duke G; and Reynhout J. Gastroduodenal Motility and Glandular
Stomach Function in Young Ostriches. Auk 1994; 111(3): 750-755.
English Note

170. Degen A; Kam M; and Rosenstrauch A. Time activity budget of ostriches
(Struthio camelus) offered concentrate feed and maintained in outdoor pens.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1989; 22(3-4): 347-358.
English; 28 ref
The time-activity budget of eight, 5-6 month-old growing ostriches (mean body
weight 57.4+/ -14.5 kg) that were offered only concentrate feed and were
maintained on packed ground in 4 outdoor pens (3X6 m each) was studied.
Ostriches were kept in pairs matched for age and weight. Ostriches were
active for about 12 h during the day and sat for 12 h at night. They spent
20.4+/ -14.0% of the 12-h active day sitting, 61.5+/ -12.5% walking, 5.5+/
-3.2% standing, 6.6+/ -3.6% eating concentrate feed, 5.0+/ -1.7% foraging
(pecking the ground) and 1.1+/ -0.4% drinking. Each pair of ostriches usually
behaved in synchrony. Sitting was mostly done with their necks straight up
and their legs folded under their bodies, and on occasion with their necks
and heads prone on the ground. Most time spent walking was with their necks
straight up and sometimes with their heads in an S-shape more or less
parallel or close to the ground. They usually walked at a rate of about 1 m/
s along the edges of their pens. Each ostrich ate 1911+/ -266 g DM feed/ day
and spent 46.4+/ -25.3 min eating and pecked at their feed 2830+/ -394 times,
therefore they ate 41.2+/ -5.7 g DM/ min feeding and 0.7+/ -0.1 g DM/ peck.
They also consumed 129.2+/ - 25.4 g DM of earth, spent 35.3+/ -13.3 min/ day
foraging and pecked at the ground 1957+/ -737 times/ day, therefore they ate
3.7+/ -1.4 g DM earth/ min foraging and 0.1+/ -0.0 g DM/ peck. Total water
influx, which was estimated using tritiated water, was 10.1+/ -3.4 litre/
day. Furthermore, it was estimated that 1.0+/ -0.1 litre/ day were obtained
from preformed and metabolic water from feed and 9.1+/ -3.1 litre/ day from
drinking. They spent 8.2+/ -3.3 min/ day drinking, during which time they
took 315+/ -106 sips.
Feeding behaviour/ Ostriches 

171. Degen A; Kam M; Rosenstrauch A; and Plavnik I. Growth rate, total body
water volume, dry matter intake and water consumption of domesticated
ostriches (Struthio camelus). Animal Production 1991; 52(1): 225-232.
English; 36 ref
Growth rate, total body water volume (TBW), DM intake (DMI) and water intake
were estimated in ostriches from hatching to 350 days old (about 100 kg). A
Gompertz equation was used to describe the sigmoidal growth curve and
estimated mature body mass (Mmb) to be 104.1 kg from this equation. Highest
average daily (ADG) gain was 455 g which occurred between 70 and 98 days old.
Time to 0.5 Mmb and to grow from 0.25 to 0.75 Mmb per Mmb0.25 were 46.8 and
39.7 days, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were 1.07 MJ/ kg0.63
daily and energy requirements for kg mb increase were 0.260 MJ/ kg1.09; these
values were derived from a non-linear regression model. TBW as a fraction of
mb decreased from 0.84 at 35 days old to 0.57 at 322 days old, indicating a
concomitant increase in the fraction of body lipid content. Mass specific DMI
decreased from 0.061 g/ g mb to 0.020 g/ g mb at 322 to 350 days old, while
mass specific water influx decreased from 0.21 ml/ g mb to 0.046 ml/ g mb.
Ratio of DMI to ADG increased from 1.07 to 17.1; the ratio of water intake to
DMI remained relatively constant at about 2.3.
Growth/ ostriches/ Body water/ Feed intake

172. Degen A; Weil S; Rosenstrauch A; Kam M; and Dawson A. Seasonal
Plasma-Levels of Luteinizing and Steroid-Hormones in Male and Female Domestic
Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 1994;
93(1): 21-27.

173. Des Voigue M. Ostrich farming: lessons learned. Small Farm Today 1994;
11(4): 33-34.
ostriches/ exotics/ livestock farming/ small farms

174. Dewit J. Mortality of Rheas Caused by a Synchamus-Trachea Infection.
Veterinary Quarterly 1995; 17(1): 39-40.
English Article
Over the last 3 years, chronic respiratory distress occurred occasionally in
young birds on a farm with about one hundred Rheas americana. The sick Rheas
died after 1 to 2 months, Post-mortem examination of a 7-week-old Rhea showed
severe tracheitis, This tracheitis was caused by Synchamus trachea worms,
which were present in large numbers, Therapy with fenbendazole cured the
respiratory distress of the other Rheas within a few days.

175. Dhillon, AS. High mortality in young ostriches related to management.
Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/
Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 423-424. 
English, 0 ref.; poster presentation
Ostrich chicks face high mortality during the growing cycle. Results of 1993
production of five farms, designated A-E, are compared and given in Table 1.
In addition, some management practices are summarized. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ chicks/ mortality

176. Dhillon A. Histomoniasis in a captive great rhea (Rhea americana).
Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 1983; 19(3): 274.
4 ref
Birds/ Histomonas meleagridis/ Rhea americana/ USA/ Aviary birds/

177. Dhillon A. Important pet bird cases seen at Western Washington
Diagnostic Laboratory. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference
1983; 32: 112.
Case reports/ Psittaciformes/ Pheasant/ Quail/ Swan/ Struthioniformes/
Heterakis/ Pasteurella haemolytica/ Aviary birds

178. Dierenfeld, ES and Traber, MG. Vitamin E status of exotic animals
compared with livestock and domestics. Packer, L and Fuchs, J, Editors.
Vitamin E in health and disease. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1993;
English; 157 ref. 
Vitamin E deficiency has long been recognized as a health problem in zoo
animals. This review focuses on 3 areas for which comparative data from
livestock and domestic animals are particularly useful: pathological and
clinical deficiency signs; plasma and tissue concentrations; and dietary
evaluation. Comparative data for domestic horses and zoo Perissodactyla
(e.g., rhinoceros, elephants), domestic ruminants and zoo Artiodactyla (e.g.,
camels, giraffes), domestic swine and non-human primates, domestic carnivores
(dogs, cats) and exotic carnivores (e.g., lions, tigers) and domestic poultry
and zoo avifauna (e.g., ostriches, parrots) are presented.
Vitamin deficiencies/ Poultry/ Fowls/ Pigs/ Horses/ Vitamin E/ nutritional
state/ zoo animals/ reviews/ livestock/ domestic animals

179. Dominquez de Tena M; Hernandez Rodriguez S; Becerra Martell C; Calero
Carretero R; Moreno Montanez T; and Martinez Gomez F. Struthiolipeurus nandu
1950 (Mallophaga; Philopteridae) parasitising an ostrich (Struthio camelus)
in the Cordoba zoo, Spain. Revista Iberica de Parasitologia 1976; 36(3-4):
Spanish; 9601
zoo animals/ ostriches/ Mallophaga 

180. Doornenbal E. Avian tuberculosis. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2): 70-71.
Caused by Mycobacterium avian a very slow growing organism. Mainly diagnosed
in adult birds. Discusses the symptoms and lesions, tests, mode of action and
spread, incidence, diagnosis and treatment, and control and prevention.
ostriches/ avian tuberculosis

181. Doornenbal E. Clostridial enteritis. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 16-17.
Bacterial infection of the intestine and stomach caused by Clostridium
perfringens type A, B and/ or D. Occurs mainly in young ostriches from one
week to four months old. Predisposing factors are described with some
solutions - egg cleanliness, stress, nutrition, pen use, cleanliness and
rotation, water quality, and lack of competition for clostridium.
Ostriches/ clostridial enteritis/ Clostridium perfringens

182. Doornenbal E. Let's hatch them. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 31-32.
Provides information on hatcher temperature, relative humidity, when to move
eggs into hatcher and candling. Diagrams of candling for normal egg at
piping, breech/ backward chick and sideways chick. Discusses assisting
malpositioned chicks.
ostriches/ hathcing

183. Doornenbal E. Reducing chick mortality. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(8):
Looks at the common reasons for early chick mortality and methods of
correcting the problem: wet chicks and stress. Other problems discussed are:
diarrhea, respiratory problems, nutritional muscular dystrophy, crooked legs,
toxic fish meal, gastric stasis and impaction.
ostriches/ chicks/ mortality

184. Doornenbal E. Ultrasonography. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(5): 52-53.
Explains ultrasonography in lay terms and lists some situations that could
require an ultrasound to make a proper diagnosis.
ostriches/ ultrasonography

185. Doughty R. Ostrich farming American style. Agricultural History 1973;
46(2): 133-145.

186. Drawer K. The ostrich as a farm animal. VMN Vet Med Nachrichten 1976;

187. Drenowatz, C, Editor. The ratite encyclopedia: Ostrich, emu, rhea. 1st
ed. San Antonio: Ratite Records; 1995; 478 pp. 
English; bibliography at back for some chapters; 9606
Covers a wide variety of subjects written by researchers, veterinarians and
ranchers. Subjects covered: history and geography (C. Drenowatx, J. Sales,
D.V. Sarasqueta and A. Weilbrenner); anatomy of ostriches, emus & rheas
(B.A. Hopkins and G.M. Constantinescu); ratite genetics (B. Gallaway, J.C.
Patton, K. Coldwell and W. Sealey); ratite reproduction (P.C. Smith); the
ratite egg (D.C. Deeming); incubation & hatching (J. Brake and B.
Rosseland); candling (L. Kinder); ostrich breeder management (S. Barron);
ostrich chick rearing (S. Dunn); ostrich meat (C. Morris); ostrich feathers
(J. Sales); emu breeder management (V. Brackett); emu chick rearing (P.
Jodoin); working emus (K. Robinson); emu meat (L. Thompson); emu oil (S.
Birkbeck); raising rheas (M.L. Stropes and C. Ramsey); free-range rheas (K.
Bader); rhea oil (D. Fezler); ratite meat (H. Schmeider, W.J. Stadelman, R.L.
Adams, R.F. Ghiselli, K.W. McMillin and J. Berry); farm design and layout (S.
Flowers and R. Gurss); transportation and handling (L. Hague); microchip
identification (J.R. Wade and J.A. Mayhall); diseases of ratites (A. Raines);
working with your veterinarian (T. Coble); basic nutrition of ratites (D.H.
Sigler); biosecurity (R. Terry); record-keeping & managment (C. Elrod);
insurance (A. Fairly); tax considerations (W.G. Miller and D.L. Sisson); and
legal aspects (J.W. Ledbetter).
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ meat/ feathers/ oil/ chicks/ housing/
farming/ nutrition/ eggs/ incubation/ hatching/ reproduction/ genetics/
diseases/ record keeping

188. Drew, M. Ostrich medicine and surgery: The basics. California and Nevada
Veterinary Medical Associations' Joint Scientific Seminar and Exposition;
October 25-27, 1991; Reno, Nevada. 325-357. 
Gives a general description of ostriches (4 subspecies), emu, rhea (2
species) and cassowary (3 species). Discusses ostrich management including
nutrition, management of adults, hatchery and incubation management, and
chick managment. Clinical medicine for ratites is reviewed with discussion of
restraint and anesthesia, hematology and serum chemistry, pediatrics,
reproductive disease and problems, sexing, parasitic diseases, viral
diseases, bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, traumatic injuries, abdominal
surgery, and orthopedics. Tables on- 1) Incubation and hathcer environmental
condition recommendation; 2) Drugs and dosages for ratite immoblization; 3)
Hematology for ostriches; 4) Serum chemistry for ostriches; and 5) Serum
chemistry values for emus. There is an extensive bibliography.
Ostriches/ Emus/ Rheas/ Cassowaries/ Ratites/ Hematology/ Serum chemistry/
Ostrich management/ Parasitic diseases/ Viral diseases/ Bacterial Diseases/
Traumatic injuries/ Fungal diseases/ Surgery/ Pediatrics/ Immoblization

189. du Preez J; Jarvis M; Capatos D; and de Kock J. A note on growth curves
for the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Animal Production 1992; 54(1): 150-152.
English; 4 ref
The Gompertz equation was fitted to body weight data of ostriches raised
under farm conditions on ad lib. feeding. The birds were from parents
originating from Oudtshoorn in South Africa, Namibia or Zimbabwe. Body weight
at hatching was 0.81-0.85 kg for males and 0.78-0.85 kg for females. Mature
weights, estimated from the Gompertz curve, were 94.2-102.1 kg for males and
92.6-104.9 kg for females. Ages of max. daily gain were 92-163 and 114-175
days for the 2 sexes resp. There were significant differences for most growth
parameters among birds differing in origin.
Body weight/ ostriches/ Growth curve

190. Duewer L; Madison M; and Christensen L. The 'exotic' sector: ostriches
and emus. Agricultural Outlook 1994; (AO-208): 15-17.
Raising flightless birds not native to the USA is still an exotic
agricultural enterprise. However, the raising of these birds, mostly
ostriches and emus, for feathers, hides, and meat is growing. In the USA, the
ostrich industry began to expand in 1985, with between 40 000 and 60 000
currently being farmed. Most of the farms are in Texas and California, but
there is at least one farm in every state. Emu numbers in the USA range from
75 000 to 100 000 on 5000 farms located mainly in Texas. The ostrich and emu
industries are now in the breeder phase of development. In this phase, the
price paid for birds reflects continued high prices for breeding stock rather
than the value of meat, hides, feathers or oil. When a sufficiently large
number of breeding animals is developed or new investors are no longer
available, breeding stock prices are likely to decrease.
plumage birds/ hides and skins/ meat/ emus/ ostriches/ production/ trends/

191. Echols R. Ostrich facility construction. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12):
Part I. Lists 11 considerations before starting the construction of anostrich

192. Echols R. Chicks through breeders. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(6): 46-47.
Part two of a series on record keeping. Covers keeping complete records on
the birds from the time they hatch until they become breeders or leave the
farm. Discusses the first few weeks, three months to breeding age, breeders,
dead birds and using data to market your ostriches.
ostriches/ managment/ record keeping

193. Echols R. Improve egg hatchability with good records. Canadian Ostrich
1994; 3(7): 42-43.
Part three of a series on record keeping. Article expands on using
operational data to improve egg hatchability. Suggests that a veterinarian
may have to be consulted to help analyze all of the data to find a solution
to a problem. Discusses egg collecting and incubation data, calculating
dates, dead eggs, egg weights adn hatching data.
ostriches/ managment/ record keeping

194. Echols R. Ostriches and record keeping. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(5):
Article gives an overview of some of the information that is currently
recorded by many ostrich farms and explains the purpose or reason for why the
data is kept. Discusses operational, marketing, problem solving and research
data. Part one of a series on record keeping.
ostriches/ managment/ record keeping

195. Eden F; Hendrick J; and Gottlieb S. Homology of single copy and repeated
sequences in chicken, duck, Japanese quail, and ostrich DNA. Biochemistry
1978; 17(24): 5113-5121.
English; 31 ref; 9601
Chromatography/ DNA/ fowls/ birds 

196. Edwards W; Gregory D; and Vanhooser S. Heavy metal poisoning in
ostriches from proventricular foreign bodies. Veterinary and Human Toxicology
1992; 34(3): 254-255.
Cases of iron, zinc, lead and copper poisoning in ostriches are discussed.
Metallic proventricular foreign bodies are a potential source of heavy metal
poisoning in ratites. Tissue levels of heavy metals and trace elements
supporting these diagnoses are reviewed.
Birds/ Foreign Bodies complications/ Kidney chemistry/ Liver chemistry/
Poisoning metabolism/ Bird Diseases etiology/ Foreign Bodies veterinary/
Metals poisoning/ Proventriculus 

197. El Mekawi S; Yagil R; and Meyerstein N. Effect of oxidative stress on
avian erythrocytes. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
1993; 4(3): 199-211.
Avian erythrocytes differ from mammalian erythrocytes in being nucleated and
oval. In the circulation, chicken cells survive for only 35 days, compared to
120 days for human cells. In humans, red cell oxidation processes, involving
methemoglobin formation, have been correlated with cellular aging. This study
compared oxidative resistance of two avian red cells (chicken and ostrich) to
that of discoid enucleated human cells. Reduced glutathione levels (GSH) and
methemoglobin were higher in chicken and ostrich cells than in human cells.
SOD levels were higher in human cells. Diamide exposure diminished
intracellular GSH levels it, all species, with the greatest effect on human
cells. Regeneration potential was high for all cells. Ostrich cells were more
sensitive to hydrogen peroxide when hemoglobin oxidation was involved; BHP
exposure affected GSH depletion and methemoglobin production in ostrich cells
more than in the others. Lipid peroxidation was found to be highest in the
human cells. Chicken cells were only slightly more resistant than human
cells. Our data suggest that the extensive. complex oxidation by BHP cannot
represent in vivo aging processes. In addition, the milder, selective
oxidation by diamide affects human cells (endowed with long life span) more
than avian cells. It is concluded that in vitro oxidation by diamide and BHP
cannot be correlated with red cell survival.

198. Emerick B. Various floor surfaces used for "ratite" chicks.
Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 70-73.
Discusses pros and cons of various floor surfaces (it should be noted that
the author is involved with one of the commercial floor surfaces - LRB
system). Also discusses cleaning floor areas.
ratites/ floor surfaces/ chicks

199. Ensley P; Launer D; and Blasingame J. General anesthesia and surgical
removal of a tumor-like growth from the foot of a double-wattled cassowary.
Journal-of-Zoo-Animal-Medicine 1984; 15(1): 35-37.
1 ref
Etorphine/ Halothane/ Ketamine/ Restraint of animals/ Zoo animals/
Anaesthesia/ Aviary birds/ Struthioniformes 

200. Estonius M; Hjelmqvist L; and Jornvall H. Diversity of vertebrate class
I alcohol dehydrogenase. Mammalian and non-mammalian enzyme functions
correlated through the structure of a ratite enzyme. European Journal of
Biochemistry 1994; 224(2): 373-378.
Class I alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from ostrich liver in
order to evaluate enzyme variability between two independent lines, mammalian
forms of class I alcohol dehydrogenase as a group, and a sufficient number of
the enzyme from the most recent animal class (Aves, birds) as another.
Between the two enzyme groups, patterns are consistent and mutually similar.
This indicates conserved metabolic and catalytic properties of class I
alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting its metabolic role to be distinct, in spite
of its protein variability. The new structure has a microheterogeneity
(position 112, Arg/ Cys) in a variable Zn-binding loop. In addition, it also
establishes further native variants at active-site positions, including one
thus far unique residue at the inner part of the substrate-binding pocket
(Ala141), and a replacement at position 271 (giving His271), which is also
the site of a human alcohol dehydrogenase gamma 1/ gamma 2 isozyme
variability. The data correlate with functional differences in catalytic
properties, the ostrich enzyme having a comparatively high Km for ethanol
(5.9 mM at pH 10), and emphasize the importance of single positions in
substrate and coenzyme binding, paralleling isozyme variability with protein
variability within the class I enzymes.
Alcohol Dehydrogenase isolation and purification/ Amino Acid Sequence/ Birds/
Conserved Sequence/ Horses/ Isoenzymes isolation and purification/ Kinetics/
Liver enzymology/ Mice/ Molecular Sequence Data/ Molecular Weight/ Papio/
Rabbits/ Rats/ Sequence Homology, AminoAcid/ Substrate Specificity/ Alcohol
Dehydrogenase genetics/ Alcohol Dehydrogenase metabolism/ Isoenzymes
genetics/ Isoenzymes metabolism/ Mammals genetics/ Phylogeny/ Variation
Genetics/ Vertebrates genetics

201. Estonius M; Hjelmqvist L; and Jornvall H. Mammalian and non-mammalian
enzyme functions correlated through the structure of a ratite enzyme.
European Journal of Biochemistry 1994; 224(2): 373-378.
Class I alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from ostrich liver in
order to evaluate enzyme variability between two independent lines, mammalian
forms of class I alcohol dehydrogenase as a group, and a sufficient number of
the enzyme from the most recent animal class (Aves, birds) as another.
Between the two enzyme groups, patterns are consistent and mutually similar.
This indicates conserved metabolic and catalytic properties of class I
alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting its metabolic role to be distinct, in spite
of its protein variability. The new structure has a microheterogeneity
(position 112, Arg/ Cys) in a variable Zn-binding loop. In addition, it also
establishes further native variants at active-site positions, including one
thus far unique residue at the inner part of the substrate-binding pocket
(Ala141), and a replacement at position 271 (giving His271), which is also
the site of a human alcohol dehydrogenase gamma(1)/ gamma(2) isozyme
variability. The data correlate with functional differences in catalytic
properties, the ostrich enzyme having a comparatively high K-m, for ethanol
(5.9 mM at pH 10), and emphasize the importance of single positions in
substrate and coenzyme binding, paralleling isozyme variability with protein
variability within the class I enzymes. [References: 32]
Dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase/ Liver enzyme/ Cdna cloning/ Gene/
Isozymes/ Binding/ Subunits

202. Evans T; Litthauer D; and Oelofsen W. Purification and primary structure
of ostrich insulin. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research
1988; 31(5): 454-62.
Insulin has been isolated from ostrich pancreas by a procedure of acid
ethanol extraction, adsorption onto SP-Sephadex, gel permeation
chromatography and HPLC. The primary structure of the ostrich insulin is
identical to that reported for the chicken hormone. The isoelectric point as
determined by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing was significantly
higher than that of the bovine hormone.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chromatography, DEAE Cellulose/ Chromatography, Gel/
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/ Molecular Sequence Data/ Pancreas
analysis/ Peptide Fragments analysis/ Species Specificity/ Trypsin/ Birds
metabolism/ Insulin isolation and purification

203. Ewing M; Yonzon M; Page R; Brown T; and Davidson W.
Deletrocephalus-Dimidiatus Infestation in an Adult Rhea
(Pterocnemia-Pennata). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(2): 441-443.
English; 8 ref.
Infection with the nematode Deletrocephalus dimidiatus was found in the
distal small and proximal large intestines of, 30-month-old female rhea that
had died after a prolonged illness. Numerous strongyle-like eggs were found
on fecal flotation. Possible treatments include fenbendazole (60 ppm in
water) and ivermectin (200 mg/ kg). preventive measures such as artificial
incubation, segregation of chicks from adults, and placing chicks in
uncontaminated environments may help slow or stop the transmission of the
Rheas/ nematodes

204. Fedak M and Seeherman H. Reappraisal of energetics of locomotion shows
identical cost in bipeds and quadrupeds including ostrich and horse. Nature
1979; 282: 713-716.

205. Feder F. Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in the nandu (Rhea
americana). Anatomischer Anzeiger 1972; 132(3): 250-265.
Beak anatomy and histology/ Bursa of Fabricius anatomy and histology/ Cecum
cytology/ Crop, Avian anatomy and histology/ Duodenum cytology/ Esophagus
anatomy and histology/ Esophagus cytology/ Intestines anatomy and histology/
Liver anatomy and histology/ Pancreas anatomy and histology/ Stomach, Avian
anatomy and histology/ Tongue anatomy and histology/ Tongue cytology/ *Birds
anatomy and histology/ *Digestive System anatomy and histology

206. Ferguson, M, Dobbs, S, and Barber, D. Ostrich production and economics .
Regina, Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food; 1993; 14 p. 
Provides a brief introduction to ostriches including physical description,
behaviour, breeds for agriculture purposes, and end products. Six
alternatives for entering the ostrich industry are given with advantages and
disadvantages of each alternative. Discusses buying birds, breeding, eggs,
incubation, hatching, chicks, diseases and feed costs. Table 1, Ostrich Feed
Costs, provides data on breeding birds, chicks and grower annual cost.
Building and equipment costs such as fencing and pens, brooder building etc.
are reviewed. Table 2, Ostrich Building and Equipment Requirements, supplies
costs for different aged birds. There is a section on break even prices for
ostrich production - sale of fertilized eggs, day old chicks, six month old
chicks, and one, two, and three year old birds. Tables 3, 4 and 5 give
detailed costing. Finally there is a brief scetion on marketing. Table 6 is
on ostrich production costs and break even prices for commercial production
(14 month old birds) with lower breeding stock prices.

207. Ferreira A; Litthauer D; Saayman H; Oelofsen W; Crabb J; and Lazure C.
Purification and primary structure of glucagon from ostrich pancreas splenic
lobes. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 1991; 38(1):
Glucagon is a highly conserved polypeptide hormone which appears to play a
more important role in regulation of glycaemia in birds than insulin. Ostrich
glucagon was isolated and purified from ostrich pancreas splenic lobes using
an adapted acid ethanol extraction procedure, gel filtration, ion exchanges,
and HPLC steps. The purified glucagon fraction appeared to contain small
quantities of a more acidic contaminant (polyacrylamide gel isoelectric
focussing, PAGE) but appeared homogeneous on SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis
and sequence analysis showed identity with the duck hormone. Identity with
the duck hormone was confirmed by liquid phase as well as gas phase
sequencing. The ostrich glucagon preparation seemed to have a higher Km than
the porcine homologue in stimulating glycerol release from isolated chicken
Adipose Tissue cytology/ Adipose Tissue drug effects/ Adipose Tissue
metabolism/ Amino Acid Sequence/ Amino Acids analysis/ Chromatography, Gel/
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/
Glucagon chemistry/ Glucagon pharmacology/ Glycerin metabolism/ Ion Exchange/
Molecular Sequence Data/ Pancreas metabolism/ Spleen metabolism/ Birds
metabolism/ Glucagon isolation and purification/ Pancreas chemistry/ Spleen

208. Fezler D. Rhea oil. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(2): 48-50, 61.
Rhea oil is the rendered and refined fat (adipose tissue) of rheas. Adipose
is mainly deposited around the stomach and intestine, across the rump and on
both sides of the breast bone. About 3 to 15 pounds of fat can be harvested
from a yearling male or about 10% of body weight. Four proposed grades for
rhea oil are listed with potential uses: non-food grade - cutting fluid,
leather conditioner; food grade - nutritional supplementation; cosmetic grade
- skin preparations; pharmaceutical grade - burn and post-operative creams,
analgesic creams, parenteral medications. The fatty acid profile of rhea oil
is discussed (two basic profiles) and the potential to use of the profile as
diagnostic tool. The various potential uses of the oil are discussed.
rhea oil

209. Fezler D. Rhea oil: The most versatile and useful product of the Rhea
americana. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12): 53,55.
Lists five potential uses for the oil: nutritional supplementation, machining
cutting fluid, leather conditioning and penetrating oil, cosmetics and
analgesic, anti-inflammatory product. Discusses the refining challenge,
grades, processing and properties of rhea oil. Table of grades and potential
uses. Graph of fatty acid comparison of rhea and emu oil.
rheas/ emus/ rhea oil/ emu oil

210. Fiedler H and Perron R. Yew Poisoning in Australian Emus
(Dromaius-Novaehollandiae, Latham). Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche
Wochenschrift 1994; 107(2): 50-52.
German Article
Six, four month old, captive bred emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were found
dead in their pen without any previous indications of illness. Postmortem
examination revealed the cause of death to be taxine poisoning after
ingestion of leaves and green berries from a Yew bush (Taxus baccata) growing
outside the perimeter fencing but encroaching through the wire. After
longstanding access to the Yew bush, an unidentified stimulus prompted these
young birds to sample this toxic plant. Pathological findings included
changes in the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and most parts of the digestive
system as would be expected from the quoted sources concerning taxine
poisoning in other species. Considering the varied artificial environments in
which taxa are kept and the relative infrequency of autopsies carried out on
birds, the incidence of taxine poisoning in avian species is considered to be
probably much higher than that evidenced by reference to the published

211. Finger, J. A guide to the theory and practice of ostrich incubation. 2nd
ed. ed. 63 p. 
English; ill
Ostriches/ Eggs Incubation

212. Fischer F. General Pattern and Morphological Specializations of the
Avian Cochlea. Scanning Microscopy 1994; 8(2): 351-364.
English Review
In different bird species, there is a common pattern in the hair-cell
morphology and innervation of the basilar papilla; the absolute values,
however, are species-specific, In the barn-owl papilla, an extreme being
case, the basal high-frequency part of the papilla is greatly expanded. In
this behaviorally most important frequency range of the barn owl, the number
of afferent nerve terminals to neural hair cells is extensively increased.
Instead of about 2 afferent terminals as in other species, up to 20 afferents
are present. In the bird species studied (chicken, starling, emu, barn owl),
the area of the afferent nerve terminals correlates well with the best
hearing range. There is a continuous transition from neural to abneural, and
from apical to basal in the morphological hair cell parameters. Thus, the
only precise and functionally relevant classification of avian hair-cell
types (tall hair cells versus short hair cells) must be based on whether the
hair cells have an afferent innervation or not. The differentiation of the
evolutionarily-new short-hair-cell type is apparently essential in the
high-frequency area of the papilla. This probably functionally supportive
type has lost its afferent innervation; its function must therefore be within
the papilla itself.
Bird/ Chicken/ Barn Owl/ Emu/ Starling/ Hair Cell/ Basilar Papilla/

213. Fitzgerald S and Moisan P. Mycotic rhinitis in an ostrich. Avian
Diseases 1995; 39(1): 194-196.
English; 5 ref.
A 2-year-old female ostrich had become gradually emaciated over a 4-month
period and subsequently died. Gross necropsy revealed a granulomatous mass
ailing the right nasal passageways. Microscopically, the mass contained
numerous thin, regular-diameter, septate, branching fungal hyphae consistent
with Aspergillus sp. and foreign plant material. This appears to be the first
report of a mycotic granuloma limited to the nasal cavities of an ostrich or
any other ratite species. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ Aspergillus/ granuloma

214. Fockema A; Malan F; Cooper G; and Visser E. Anthelmintic efficacy of
fenbendazole against Libyostrongylus douglassi and Houttuynia struthionis in
ostriches. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1985; 56(1):
English; 1 ref
Fenbendazole at 15 mg per kg body mass was 99.7% effective against adult and
82.5% effective against 4th-stage larvae of Libyostrongylus douglassi. It
removed scolices and strobila of Houttuynia struthionis from 4 of 5 treated
birds, while in the other there were only degenerating scolices.
Benzimidazoles/ Struthio camelus/ Fenbendazole/ Ostrich/ Anthelmintics/
Birds/ Nematoda/ Cestoda/ Libyostrongylus douglassi/ Ostriches/ Houttuynia
struthionis/ Chemotherapy 

215. Foggin, CM. Pathology of ostrich eggs and investigation of incubation
problems. Ostrich workshop for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe.
Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich Ranch; [1992]11 p. 
Covers: routine of egg post mortem (when to do a post mortem, external
examination, and procedure); egg pathology (normal egg, infertile eggs,
embryonic death/ dead-in-shell and microbiology); investigating incubation
problems on the farm (records, inspection of facilities and egg
post-mortems); and relating egg pathology to cause (early death, mid-term and
weak hatch or failure to hatch).
ostriches/ egg pathology

216. Foggin, CM. Veterinary problems of ostriches. Ostrich workshop for
veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich
Ranch; [1992]45 p. 
Discusses virus diseases, bacterial diseases, fungus diseases, parasitic
diseases, nutritional diseases, limb deformities, toxic conditions,
miscellaneous conditions and congenital deformities. Also describes a general
approach to the sick ostrich and post mortem.
ostriches/ viral diseases/ Newcastle disease/ avian pox/ influenza/ bacterial
diseases/ omphalatis/ septicemia/ intestinal infection/ pneumonia/
conjunctivitis/ arthritis/ abscesses/ anthrax/ antibiotics/ fungal diseases/
aspergillosis/ candidiasis/ mycotic dermatitis/ Libyostrongylus douglassi/
Codiostomum struthionis/ Houttuynis struthionis/ feather mites/ ticks/ lice/
biting flies/ Vitamin A deficiency/ Vitamin D deficiency/ Vitamin E
deficiency/ Vitamin C deficiency/ Vitamin B deficiency/ calcium and
phosphorus deficiency/ Manganese deficiency/ Zinc deficiency/ Selenium
deficiency/ Anorexia/ Impaction/ limb deformities/ mycotoxicosis/
Furazolidone poisoning/ Salt poisoning/ Botulism/ Trauma/ Ruptured arteries/
Foreign bodies/ Prolapse/ Egg binding/ Capture myopathy/ Heat stroke/
Subcutaneous emphysema/ Feather pecking

217. Foggin C and Honywill J. Observations on the artificial incubation of
ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) eggs with special reference to
water loss. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 1992; 23(2): 81-89.
English; Harare : Zimbabwe Veterinary Association
ostriches/ incubation/ relative humidity/ weight losses/ egg hatchability

218. Fowler J; Bauck L; Cribb P; and Presnell K. Surgical correction of
tibiotarsal rotation in an emu. Companion Animal Practice 1987; 1(5): 26-30.
6 ref
Aviary birds/ Zoo animals/ Struthioniformes/ Surgery 

219. Fowler, ME. Clinical anatomy of ratites. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992;
New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 307-309. 
English; 1 ref.; 9603
Avian practitioners may be asked to provide medical care for numerous species
of birds. Ratites (ostrich, emu, rhea, cassowary and kiwi) have become
popular in private ownership during the past few years. A ratite-rearing
industry provides an alternative to other livestock enterprises.
Practitioners should have a basic understanding of ratite anatomy in order to
protect themselves from the bird's offensive and defensive blows with the
feet, and to understand how to collect laboratory samples, administer
medication, evaluate radiographs, perform surgery and distinguish between
normal and abnormal organs at necropsy. A limited amount of material can be
covered in this presentation; for more information refer to reference 1.
(Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ anatomy

220. Fowler, ME. Clinical anatomy of ratites. Fowler, ME. Zoo and wild animal
medicine . 3rd. ed. ed. Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1993;
1 ref.
zoo animals/ skeletomuscular system/ respiratory system/ cardiovascular
system/ reproductive organs/ digestive system/ anatomy/ rheiformes/ birds/

221. Fowler, ME. Clinical anatomy & physiology of the ratites. Arizona,
California & Nevada Joint Veterinary Conference; September 27-30, 1993;
Reno, Nevada.; [1993] 503-504. 
English; 0 ref.; 9606
Provides a brief discussion of ratite anatomy and physiology for
veterinarians to collect blood, restrain the birds safely, and conduct a
necropsy. Sections include: skeleton, collecting blood samples, medication
procedures, respiratory system, digestive system, adn reproductive system.
ratites/ anatomy/ physiology

222. Fowler M. Comparative clinical anatomy of ratites. Journal of Zoo and
Wildlife Medicine 1991; 22(2): 204-227.
English; 38 ref
Ratites, particularly the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae), have become popular as livestock. This paper provides a
single source of information based on the author's dissections of the
ostrich, emu, and rhea (Rhea americana), selected data accumulated from
museum specimens, and additional information extracted from the literature.
The musculoskeletal, digestive, and reproductive systems are emphasized
because of their importance in clinical medicine and management of these
animals. All ratites have heavily muscled legs for running and defence
against enemies. Unique characteristics are a noncarinate sternum and lack of
breast muscles. Stomach and intestinal morphology is highly variable among
the families represented. All male ratites have an intromittent organ
(phallus), and ostrich and emu females have a diminutive organ.
Apterygiformes/ Rheiformes/ Casuariformes/ Rhea/ Struthioniformes/ ostriches/
anatomy/ emu 

223. Fowler M. Ostrich diseases. Foreign Animal Disease Report 1990; 18(2):
Birds/ Ostriches/ Diseases 

224. Frank R and Carpenter J. Coronaviral enteritis in an ostrich (Struthio
camelus) chick. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1992; 23(1): 103-107.
English; 16 ref
Diarrhoea/ Case reports/ Struthioniformes/ Enteritis/ Coronaviridae/

225. Frankenhuis M and de Villeneuve V. Avian heart disease in the Blijdorp
Zoological Gardens; partial heart block in a nandu (Rhea americana) (author's
transl). Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 1982; 107(2): 59-62.
Bird Diseases pathology/ Birds/ English Abstract/ Heart Block diagnosis/
Heart Block pathology/ Myocardium pathology/ *Animals, Zoo/ *Bird Diseases
diagnosis/ *Heart Block veterinary

226. Frapple P and Hagan R. Taking the emu to market. Journal of Agriculture
1992; 33(3): 91-94.
emus/ hides and skins/ meat/ marketing/ blacks/ poultry farming/ carcass
composition/ food processing/ meat quality/ western australia

227. Frazier K; Herron A; Hines M; Gaskin J; and Altman N. Diagnosis of
Enteritis and Enterotoxemia Due to Clostridium-Difficile in Captive Ostriches
(Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 1993;
5(4): 623-625.
English Note

228. Freire J. Parasitological fauna of the Rio Grande do Sul. Revista da
Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinaria da Universidade Federal do
Rio Grande do Sul. 1967 68 1970; 9: 111-149.
Portuguese; 9601
The insect, helminth and protozoan parasites recorded from livestock and
domestic animals of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, are tabulated with appropriate
references. Helminths are recorded from cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, dogs,
cats, Putorius putorius, chickens, guinea-fowl, turkeys, pigeons and
parasites/ domestic animals/ checklists/ helminths 

229. Freitag S and Robinson T. Phylogeographic Patterns In Mitochondrial Dna
Of The Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Auk 1993; 110(3): 614-622.
We assayed restriction-site differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within
and among populations of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus) throughout much of
its African distribution. Little genetic diversity was evident among samples
drawn from localities throughout southern Africa (S. c. australis), while
deep divisions in the mtDNA gene tree exist between representatives of the
eastern (S. c. molybdophanes and S. c. massaicus) and northern African
subspecies (S. c. camelus). The low mtDNA variability within australis and
the presence of widespread mtDNA genotypes in this subspecies suggest
considerable historical interconnectedness among populations, either through
gene flow and/ or recent colonization from smaller source populations. The
strong phylogeographic structuring evident in eastern and northern Africa
aligns with the currently accepted subspecies designations. Data indicate
that the Ethiopian system of the Great Rift Valley has been effective in
disrupting east-west gene flow between molybdophanes and camelus, while
ecological differences and behavioral/ reproductive cues have contributed to
maintaining the genetic and phenotypic discreteness of molybdophanes and
massaicus in east Africa. Although contemporary Ostrich populations are
effectively divided into southern and northern populations by a belt of
Brachystegia woodland, arid-corridor links in the recent evolutionary past
appear to have allowed for periodic contact between australis and massaicus
populations. Consequently, the development of subspecific differences between
these two taxa has occurred within the context of shallow evolutionary
separation. [References: 35]
Restriction endonucleases. Sequence relatedness./ Natural populations.
Geographic populations. Gene trees./ Differentiation. Systematics. Evolution.

230. Frolka, J. Aetiology of perosis in the emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae).
Ippen, R. and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht
des XXIV. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere ; 19.
Mai bis 23. Mai 1982; Veszprem. Berlin, German Democratic Republic:
Akademie-Verlag Berlin; 1982 77-90. 
34 ref
Birds/ Bone diseases/ Nutritional disorders/ Mineral metabolism disorders/
Amino acids/ Nutritional deficiency/ Avian perosis/ Struthioniformes/ Zoo

231. Frolka, J. Rearing the African ostrich (Struthio c. camelus). Ippen, R
and Schroder, HD, Editors. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des
25. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere ; 11. Mai
bis 15. Mai 1983; Wien . Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie Verlag;
1983 73-79. 
German; 25 ref. 
Birds/ Struthioniformes/ Nutrition/ Feed/ Body weight/ Ostrich/ Zoo animals

232. Frolka, J and Zavadil, R. Infection with nematodes of the genus
Cyathostoma in emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae) and cranes (Grus antigone).
Ippen R and Schroder HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des
XXIII Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 24-28
Juni, 1981; Halle-Saale.; 1981 215-224. 
German; 14 ref; 9601
Emus have been bred successfully at the Lesna zoo in Czechoslovakia since the
early 1930's. Cyathostoma infections have built up over the years and
affected animals may die of suffocation if anthelmintic treatment is not
given in time. Thiabendazole at 200 mg/ kg body-weight for 3 days at the
first appearance of symptoms, and repeated after 21 to 28 days in heavy
infections, prevented death of young birds. In 1980, 18 emus born between
February and May showed first symptoms in June. They received four 3-day
treatments of 15 mg/ kg mebendazole (Mebenvet-granulate 10%) in that year,
and some were cured after each treatment. Following the last treatment in
November of all 18, no more infections were noted. Similar infections
occurred in cranes. Single treatment with 30 or 40 mg Nilverm within 48 h of
the appearance of symptoms did not give full control and did not prevent all
deaths. In 1978, thiabendazole (200 mg/ kg) in July and repeated in August
was fully effective. In 1980 thiabendazole treatment proved unsatisfactory
and mebendazole was used.
DRUG THERAPY/ anthelmintics/ mebendazole/ thiabendazole/ Helminths/
Respiratory diseases/ zoo animals/ parasites/ Cyathostoma/ Birds/ Nematoda/
Struthioniformes/ Gruiformes/ Grus antigone/ Dromiceius novaehollandiae/ zoo/
tetramisole hydrochloride

233. Frost, P. Physical aspects of incubation in ostriches. Ostrich workshop
for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island
Ostrich Ranch; [1992]16 p. 
Looks at allometric relationships (basic principles, body size and metabolic
rate, body size and egg mass, body size, egg size and incubation time, body
size and clutch mass and egg mass and shell mass), heat flux, gas exchange
and water loss. Table 1 has some physical parameters of ostrich eggs and
ostriches/ incubation

234. Fuss F and Gasser C. Cruciate ligaments of the avian knee: insight into
a complex system. Journal of Morphology 1992; 214(2): 139-151.
The avian cruciate ligaments were examined in Gallus domesticus, Anas
platyrhynchos, Meleagris gallopavo, and Struthio camelus australis. The
ligaments proved to be deviated around the intercondylar groove (cranial
cruciate) and around the medial femoral condyle (caudal cruciate). Four
functionally different fiber groups could be differentiated: fibers taut only
in maximal extension, fibers taut only in maximal flexion, fibers taut in
ranges from an intermediate position to an extreme position, and fibers taut
throughout the entire range of motion (guiding bundles). Hence the cruciates
serve the guiding of the joint and the restriction of motion, whereby the
majority of the cranial cruciate fibers are taut in extension while those of
the caudal cruciate are in flexion. No differences were found between the
species examined with respect to fiber arrangement and function. The avian
mechanical model proved to be more complex than the relatively simple
mammalian four-bar link model as the avian guiding bundles change their shape
due to deflection during motion.
chickens/ turkeys/ ducks/ anas platyrhynchos/ ostriches/ knees/ ligaments/
morphology/ species differences/ comparisons/ models

235. Gajadhar A. Cryptosporidium species in imported ostriches and
consideration of possible implications for birds in Canada. Canadian
Veterinary Journal 1993; 34(2): 115-116.
9 ref
Cryptosporidial infection in ostriches imported to Canada from Botswana is
reported and the possible implications for native birds and traditional
livestock in Canada are discussed. Faecal samples from 165 ostriches obtained
within 1-5 days of their arrival in Canada were analyzed and cryptosporidial
oocysts were found in 14 samples. It is not known whether Cryptosporidium
causes disease in ostriches and clinical illness was not observed in any of
the ostriches passing cryptosporidial oocysts. However, natural infections of
cryptosporidiosis are widespread among birds and have been associated with
disease. As anticoccidial drugs do not prevent or reduce disease, control
measures appear to be the only method of preventing avian cryptosporidiosis.
cryptosporidiosis/ oocysts/ protozoal infections/ birds/ Apicomplexa/
Cryptosporidiidae/ Struthionidae/ Cryptosporidium/ ostriches/ Canada/
imported infections

80(4): 316-319.
Oocysts of a Cryptosporidium sp. were found in the feces of 14 of 165 (8.5%)
ostriches imported into Canada. The genus identity of the oocysts was
confirmed by morphology. The mean (+/ -SD) size of 40 oocysts was 4.6 (0.53)
x 4.0 (0.42) mum (range 3.9-6.1 x 3.3-5.0 mum) with a shape index (length/
width ratio) of 1.15 (range 1.00-1.38). In cross-transmission experiments,
this Cryptosporidium sp. failed to infect suckling mice, chickens, turkeys,
or quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A comparison of oocyst structure and
host susceptibility indicates that the Cryptosporidium sp. from ostriches is
different from C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, and Cryptosporidium sp. of
bobwhite quail. [References: 13]
Birds. Chickens. Baileyi. Mammals

237. Gallatin L. Factors affecting decisions regarding alternative
agricultural enterprises by farmers and ranchers in Oklahoma.
Dissertation-Abstracts-International.-A,-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences 1990;
50(9): 2756.
Thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1989, 118pp., available from University
Microfilms, Inc
A telephone survey was conducted with Oklahoma farmers and ranchers
concerning their perceptions and concepts of alternative agricultural
enterprises. The first group included 383 farmers and ranchers stratified
proportionally in four districts, in order to be able to generalize the
findings statewide. The second group included farmers and ranchers that were
identified as being involved in some type of alternative agricultural
enterprise. The study was intended to provide information regarding (1)
interest and/ or involvement in alternative agricultural enterprises; (2)
types of alternative enterprises producers have adopted; (3) profitability of
enterprises as rated by Oklahoma alternative agricultural producers; (4)
factors that encouraged or discouraged adoption of alternative agricultural
enterprises; (5) information sources used by farmers and ranchers and the
rated effectiveness of these sources; and (6) demographic information about
the two groups in the study. Oklahoma farmers and ranchers were found to have
interest or involvement in alternative agricultural enterprises in all areas.
Enterprises most often identified were: tomatoes, sweetcorn, squash, okra,
green beans, cucumbers, peppers, peaches, watermelons, cantaloupe, apples,
strawberries, pecans, Christmas trees, Angora goats, and catfish. Those
enterprises rated most profitable were mushrooms, sesame, trout, alligators,
emu, dogs and feed production. The genuine desire to produce the commodity
and high potential for profit were the encouraging factors most often
mentioned. Most often noted as discouraging factors were high start up costs
and markets. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets and other farmers were the
information sources most often used by adopters. The alternative agricultural
group had an average of 2.7 alternative agricultural enterprises per
Information services/ Profitability/ Constraints/ Diversification/ farm
surveys/ farmers' attitudes/ USA/ Oklahoma/ Sweetcorn 

238. Gamble K and Honnas C. Surgical correction of impaction of the
proventriculus in ostriches. Compendium of Continuing Education for
Practicing Veterinarians 1993; 15(2): 235-245.
ostriches/ proventriculus/ surgical operations/ anesthesia

239. Gandini G; Burroughs R; and Ebedes H. Preliminary investigation into the
nutrition of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) under intensive conditions.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1986; 57(1): 39-42.
English; 10 ref
Twenty ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks up to 8 weeks of age were fed on
isocaloric diets containing protein at 14, 16, 18 and 20%. The highest mean
body weight gain was obtained from the 20%-protein diet; however, this result
was not significantly different. Feed conversion favoured the 18%-protein
group. During the 7th and 8th week of the experimental period some chicks
developed leg deformities. Clinical signs, radiological findings and
responses to calcium supplementation suggested an insufficient amount of Ca
in the experimental diets.
Protein intake/ Weight/ Ostriches/ Feed conversion efficiency

240. Gandini G and Keffen R. Sex determination of the South African ostrich
(Struthio camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1985;
56(4): 209-210.
English; 4 ref
Sexing by inspection of the cloaca is described, as carried out on 227 birds
aged from 4 days to 8 months and weighing 0.8-54 kg. Sexing in the field by
this method is quick and easy.
Sex diagnosis/ Ostriches 

241. Gandini G; Keffen R; Burroughs R; and Ebedes H. An anaesthetic
combination of ketamine, xylazine and alphaxalone alphadolone in ostriches
(Struthio camelus). Veterinary Record 1986; 118(26): 729-730.
English; 7 ref
Ostrich chicks required large, frequent doses of alfaxalone-alfadolone.
However, induction with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine considerably
reduced the amount of steroids required. Recovery was smoother and as rapid
as with steroids alone.
Birds/ Zoo animals/ Injectable anaesthetics/ Anaesthesia/ Ostrich/ Ketamine/
Xylazine/ Anaesthetic combination/ Anaesthetics/ Alphaxalone alphadolone

242. Gaukrodger D. The emu at home. Emu 1925; 25: 53-57.

243. Gavora J. Learning from poultry: Basic principles of genetic improvement
of poultry as it may apply to ostrich breeding. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2):
50, 52, 54-55.
Domestication is a genetic change which is discussed in the article. Genes
and chromosomes, major components of genetic improvement, genetic selection,
inbreeding, crossbreeding and the future of poultry breeding are all
ostrich/ gentics/ breeding

244. Geissler H and Geringer J. Diagnosis of aspergillosis using agar gel
precipitation in zoo and pet birds. Tierarztliche Umschau 1977; 32(7):
German; 1 tab.; 12 ref; 9601
A str. of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a dead nandu (Rhea americana)
was used for antigen production and Agapornis roseicollis and Melopsittacus
undulatus were used as experimental animals in the experiments described.
immunology/ Aviary birds/ IMMUNODIFFUSION TESTS/ Mycoses/ zoo animals/ birds/
Aspergillus fumigatus/ Fungi/ Psittaciformes/ Aspergillus/ Aspergillus
fumigatus on nandu/ nandu/ Aspergillus fumigatus on birds/ agar gel
precipitation test

245. Gerlach H. The Ostrich - A New Agricultural Animal. Tierarztliche
Umschau 1995; 50(2): 111-115.
English Article
An overview of the potential for the breeding of ostriches on farms in
Germany is given. Peculiarities of their anatomy, methods of restraint and
anaesthesia of interest to the practitioner are discussed. Problems of
incubating eggs and the more common diseases are described.
Ostrich/ Breeding/ Failure of Hatching/ Infectious Diseases/ Anatomy/
Anesthesia/ Germany

246. Gibson L. A guide to DNA sexing and DNA fingerprinting of ratites.
Ratite Journal 1994; 2(10): 6,8,10,30,40,71.
Discusses both techniques in lay terms. Describes sex determination in birds
(male has two Z chromosomes, femal a Z and a W chromosome). Problem with
ratites is that the Z and W chromosomes are not distinctly different as in
other birds. The sexing test developed by the author's company is described.
DNA fingerprinting with respect to flock management is discussed.
ratites/ DNA sexing/ DNA fingerprinting

247. Gilsleider E. Ratite Orthopedics. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet
Medicine 1994; 3(2): 81-91.
English Article
Bones/ Developmental Diseases/ Emu/ Fractures/ Orthopedics/ Ostrich/ Ratite

248. Gilsleider, E. Surgical corrections of ratite musculoskeletal defects.
Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and
American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians Annual Conference; November
15-19, 1992; Oakland. [Philadelphia]: American Association of Zoo
Veterinarians; [1992] 174-175. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Discusses surgical correction of angular limb deformity (ALD) and tibiotarsal
torsion (TT).
ratites/ orthopedics/ angular limb deformity/ tibiotarsal torsion

249. Gobbel T. Are Ostriches Agriculturally Useful Animals - Significant
Considerations with Regard to Production. Berliner und Munchener
Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1995; 108(6): 238-239.
German Note

250. Gobbel T. Ostrich - Farm-Animals. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift
1994; 101(3): 88-91.
German Article
Since more than 100 years ostriches have been used as farm animals in South
Africa. At present there are ca. 200 000 ostriches in 350 farms. Well known
have been ostrich feathers which had formerly been equally precious (around
1900) as gold. Today, however, ostrich meat and leather are much appreciated.
Since more than 10 years experiments with ostriches have been also carried
out in other countries of the world, mainly in hot areas e. G. Australia,
USA, Israel and Italy. Maybe the African ostrich will soon also belong to the
daily life of animals bred and marketed in Germany. Since 1993 ca. 30 ostrich
farms (with about 500 animals) have been known in Germany and a further 100
ostrich breeders in neighbouring countries. An additional many interested
persons are looking forward to earn money through sales of eggs, chicks and
breeding pairs. However, not everybody is farmer, some are rather well-to-do
part-time or hobby-farmers who are speculating with these exotic wild birds.
Anyway, at present business with breeding stock is booming. South Africa has
prohibited the export and there are only few offers overhere. A mature
breeding ostrich at the age of 2-3 years costs about 10 000 DM. Since the
animals use to live in small family units (one cock, two hens) the start of
the breeding business begins at ca. 30 000 DM. Ostriches, however, can be
used in many ways. Even after the decline of the breeding stock business
sales of meat, leather, eggs and feathers can be economical. It will be
important, however, how the market for ostrich products will develop
overhere. At present a number of questions as to ostrich farming remain to be
answered i.e. keeping, feeding, hatching and rearing as well as legal
(delails). It is (anpasted), however, that most of the problems will be
solved within the next 2 to 3 years. This demonstrates that ostriches can
also be successfully kept in the North European climate. However, the main
products (meat and leather) finally will compete worldwide with other
producer countries e.g. Texas, Australia, Italy and Israel, places where
conditions for ostrich production are by far better. This has consequences
for the economics: Fresh ostrich meat produced in Germany even at high
production rate and low breeding stock prices should at least cost 40 DM per
kg. The market size at these prices can presently only vaguely be estimated.
Based on the development of deer as farm animals the market for ostrich meat
will probably only be 250 tons fresh ostrich meet ''made in Germany'' within
the next 10 years with 50 farms and 15 ostrich hens each. More, at present,
is hardly likely. There is rather the risk that present highly exaggerated
,,collectors prices'' for breeding stock will rapidly fall once some ostrich
owner loose interest and try to get rid of their animals at any cost. For
some it will be even difficult to retrieve at least the interest for the high
investment (2400 DM/ year per breeding farm). In the end the real market
value of an ostrich, based on income for meat and leather, should be about
1500 DM. Therefore, every ''ostrich fan'' should ask himself whether he
really needs the income from ostrich breeding, wants to keep the birds for
the ,,optical supplementation of his farm'' only or whether he can afford not
to practise exact financial calculation.

251. Gobbel T. Ostriches--an agricultural domestic animal? Deutsche
Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1994; 101(3): 88-91.
Since more than 100 years ostriches have been used as farm animals in South
Africa. At present there are ca. 200 000 ostriches in 350 farms. Well known
have been ostrich feathers which had formerly been equally previous (around
1900) as gold. Today, however, ostrich meat and leather are much appreciated.
Since more than 10 years experiments with ostriches have been also carried
out in other countries of the world, mainly in hot areas e. G. Australia,
USA, Israel and Italy. Maybe the African ostrich will soon also belong to the
daily life of animals bred and marketed in Germany. Since 1993 ca. 30 ostrich
farms (with about 500 animals) have been known in Germany and a further 100
ostrich breeders in neighbouring countries. An additional many interested
persons are looking forward to earn money through sales of eggs, chicks and
breeding pairs. However, not everybody is farmer, some are rather well-to-do
part-time or hobby-farmers who are speculating with these exotic wild birds.
Anyway, at present business with breeding stock is booming. South Africa has
prohibited the export and there are only few offers over here. A mature
breeding ostrich at the age of 2-3 years costs about 10 000 DM. Since the
animals use to live in small family units (one cock, two hens) the start of
the breeding business begins at ca. 30 000 DM.
ostriches/ Agriculture economics/ Animal Husbandry/ Germany/ Meat economics

252. Goltenboth R. Notes on the prophylaxis and therapy of diseases of birds
in zoos. Kleintier Praxis 1973; 18(1): 6-10.
German; 9601
The diseases of birds in zoos are reviewed. 4 emus infected with Syngamus
were successfully treated with thiabendazole (Thibenzol) at 200 mg/ kg
body-weight as a bolus. This eradicated the infection in 10 days. Stomach
worms in ducks, geese, toucans and turakos are treated with capsules
containing carbon tetrachloride (which is toxic) or with Concurat. The
treatment of tapeworm infections with "tapeworm capsules for hens"
(Vemie) is much less toxic.
helminths/ DRUG THERAPY/ control/ anthelmintics/ thiabendazole/ carbon
tetrachloride/ toxicity/ parasites/ birds/ zoo birds/ tetramisole

253. Graham, DL. Endoventricular mycosis: An avian pathologist's perspective.
Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/
Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 279-282. 
English; 4 ref.; 9603
Fungal infections, primary or secondary, of the upper alimentary tract of
birds are well recognized as occurring in the oropharynx, exophagus, and
crop, and are commonly diagnosed and treated. However, consideration is not
commonly given to the possibility of fungal invasion of the koilin lining of
the ventriculus. Fungal invasion and infection of the ventricular koilin
lining occurs in a variety of psittacine passerine, ratite, and miscellaneous
other avian species. This paper presents observations on the lesions of
endoventriuclar mycosis observed in the course of examining more than 14,000
diagnostic submissions over a 13 year period. (Author's introduction)
Small section of the paper deals with endoventricular mycosis in ostriches.
The author concludes that with young ostriches with gastric impaction, the
possible complication of endoventricular mycosis might be anticipated.
ostriches/ mycosis/ ventriculus

254. Gray D and Brown C. Saline Infusion Induced Increases In Plasma
Osmolality Do Not Stimulate Nasal Gland Secretion In The Ostrich (Struthio
Camelus). Physiological Zoology 1995; 68(1): 164-175.
English; 9601
Nasal gland activity was monitored in five freshwater and five saltwater
acclimated adult ostriches given an intravenous infusion of 1,500 mosm/ kg
sodium chloride for 90 min at 5 ml/ min. the hyperosmotic infusion increased
the plasma osmolality from 303.4 +/ 6.9 to 353.3 +/ 13.1 mosm/ kg in the
freshwater birds and from 299.4 +/ 16.2 to 328.8 +/ 15.4 mosm/ kg in the
saltwater acclimated animals. none of the freshwater ostriches produced any
observable nasal secretion. two of the saltwater birds did show signs of
glandular activity, but this was of short duration (5 10 min) and yielded
insignificant volumes of fluid. the nasal glands of ostriches do not appear
to play a quantitatively important role in the elimination of the
administered saline load changes in plasma concentrations of arginine
vasotocin (avt) in response to the hyperosmotic infusion were also determined
plasma avt levels increased in parallel with the elevations in plasma
osmolality (from 5.4 +/ 0.3 to 19.4 +/ 8.6 pg/ ml in the freshwater ostriches
and from 7.7 +/ 4.2 to 16.7 +/ 6.0 pg/ ml in the saltwater acclimated birds).
the correlations between plasma osmolality and plasma avt indicated osmotic
sensitivities for avt release of 0.25 and 0.21 pg/ ml per mosm/ kg in the
freshwater and saltwater birds, respectively these values are similar to
those found in other avian species, which suggests that an enhanced
sensitivity for avt release is nor a means by which ostriches cope with
osmotic stress.
Gulls larus dominicanus/ arginine vasotocin avt/ salt gland/ pekin ducks/
angiotensin ii/ renal function/ volume/ serum/ water/ osmoregulation

255. Gray D; Naude R; and Erasmus T. Plasma arginine vasotocin and
angiotensin II in the water deprived ostrich (Struthio camelus). Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology, A Comparative Physiology 1988; 89(2): 251-256.
English; 33 ref
In ostrich chicks, water deprivation for 5 days increased plasma arginine
vasotocin (AVT) from 10.2 +/ - 1.1 to 32.3 +/ - 3.9 pg/ ml and increased
plasma angiotensin II (AII) from 44.3 +/ - 2.5 to 143.1 +/ - 27.8 pg/ ml. The
correlation between plasma osmolality and plasma AVT was highly significant
and indicated a sensitivity of 0.54 pg/ ml per mOsm/ kg with a threshold for
release of 271.3 mOsm/ kg. Rehydration by drinking reduced plasma osmolality
and plasma AVT to basal values after 2.5 h but plasma AII remained increased.
Vasotocin/ Blood/ Water deprivation/ Ostriches/ Angiotensins 

256. Gregory D; Edwards W; and Stair E. A case of monensin poisoning in
ostriches. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 1992; 34(3): 247.
A clinical case of monensin poisoning in ostriches is presented. Analytical
results and histopathologic changes in intercostal muscles and liver
supported the ionophore toxicity diagnosis.
Poisoning metabolism/ Bird Diseases chemically induced/ Birds/ Monensin

257. Greve J and Harrison G. Conjunctivitis caused by eye flukes in
captive-reared ostriches. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association 1980; 177(9): 909-910.
Birds/ Conjunctivitis etiology/ Trematode Infections complications/ *Animals,
Zoo/ *Bird Diseases etiology/ *Conjunctivitis veterinary/ *Trematode
Infections veterinary

258. Grey P. Braced for life. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(4): 36-39.
Tells the story of "Brandy", a Red ostrich hen that injured its
ligament on the outer side of the right hock and was fitted for a brace. The
brace was designed by a certified prosthetist/ orthotist.
ostriches/ ligament injury/ brace

259. Grey P. Buyer and seller beware. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(3): 10, 11,
As a buyer you should be comfortable with the management of the birds by the
seller. Obtain as much information about the birds you are considering. The
information you need will depend on whether buying chicks (parents, breed,
sex, age) or breeders (egg production, fertility and hatching rates). The
seller should have records on each bird. Ask about other producers who have
bought the seller's birds so that you can talk to them about their level of
satisfaction. There should be a clean bill of health; insist on this even at
your own expense. Key elements of a purchase and sale agreement include: a
clear statement of the purchase price and how payment will be made;
conditions of delivery and the passing of title and risk of loss; a time
limit allowng verification of sex, age, and identification; whether or not
there are guarantees of future performance; and conditions of replacement.
ostriches/ purchasing/ selling

260. Grey P. Four on a floor. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 10-12, 14.
Discusses the importance of the type of flooring used for ostriches. Various
floorings are reviewed including where they are useful. Recommends asking
three questions before starting: 1) Is the flooring for adults of chicks; 2)
How long the birds will be spending on the floor; and 3) Will the birds'
situation be changing with the weather. Specifics to think about are texture,
temperature, cushioning, moisture, ammonia, dust, impaction, and clealiness.
Ostriches/ flooring

261. Grey P. The ins and outs of custom incubating. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(4): 12-14.
Be comfortable with custom facility taking in your eggs, they are not all
alike. Tour facility, get explanation of procedures and techniques and
understand terms of agreement. Gives pointers on what to look for.
ostriches/ incubation

262. Grey P. Protecting your assests: What you should know about ostrich
mortality insurance. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 46-48.
Lists three brokers who can get ostrich mortality insurance. Describes the
two types of mortality policies; all-risk and named-perils. Discusses the
premium a farmer can expect to pay and deciding on whether to ensure.
ostriches/ insurance

263. Grice D; Caughley G; and Short J. Density and distribution of emus.
Australian Wildlife Research 1985; 12(1): 69-73.
Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae ) are most abundant in areas used for
extensive sheep grazing. Their density is lower in grain-growing areas, lower
still in areas used for extensive cattle grazing, and lowest in those areas
that are not used for any commercial purpose (mainly deserts). This pattern
of emu density appears to be linked to climatic factors determining the
availability of food during breeding, to the availability of naturally
occurring and artificially stored surface water, and to the prevalence of
emus/ population density/ rangelands/ Australia/ food availability/ climatic
conditions/ food availability/ water availability

264. Griffiths G and Buller N. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in
semi-intensively farmed emus. Australian-Veterinary-Journal 1991; 68(3):
8 ref
During the June to July breeding seasons of 1988 and 1989 an outbreak of
disease with sudden death, slowness of movement, profuse, bright green
diarrhoea and dehydration affected emus reared on semi-intensive farms in
Western Australia. Emus 10-to-12 months-old and approaching sexual maturity
were affected but sporadic deaths occurred in adults on one farm. Mortality
was approximately 5% in affected groups. Gross PM lesions included
petechiation of fat covering abdominal walls and omentum, haemorrhagic
serosal surface of the gastro-intestinal tract and congested duodenum and
colon. The gizzard lining separated from the underlying haemorrhagic mucosa.
One mature female and pericarditis, perihepatitis and an enlarged congested
spleen. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed large numbers of
Gram-positive bacteria, sometimes with associated thromboemboli and focal
areas of necrosis in the wall of the proventriculus, small intestine and
colon and in blood vessels of the liver, kidney, lung and spleen. E.
rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung and
gut wall. Eight isolates were serotyped; serotype 21 was isolated from all 3
farms, serotype 1b from one farm. The mortalities ceased after the treatment
of affected birds with penicillin and the movement of flocks to larger
paddocks with more feeding and drinking points. The possibility that
management factors may have precipitated the outbreaks is discussed.
Bacterial diseases/ Diarrhoea/ Intensive husbandry/ Erysipelothrix
rhusiopathiae/ emus/ Australia/ birds 

265. Grimes, JE and Arizmendi, F. Case reports of ratite chlamydiosis and
update on the Chlamydias. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference
of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena,
Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians;
1994 133-140. 
English; 10 ref.
Chlamydial infections were diagnosed in 7 dead rheas of various ages from six
different geographical regions of Texas during May, July, August, October,
and December 1993 by examinations of visceral organ tissues. Sudden death was
the most common occurrence, with little evidence of clinical disease. Gross
lesions were fibrinous airsacculitis, hepatomegaly, peritonitis, pulmonary
congestion, and a most remarkable splenomegaly. Histopathologic examination
revealed chronic necrotizing hepatitis and necrotizing splenitis with
plasmacytosis. Serologic testing of rheas associated with some of the rhea
deaths revealed that infection was widespread. Chlamydiae were isolated from
a cloacal swab from an adult female ostrich which had low serologic titers.
In the updating on the Chlamydias, there is a newly recognized species,
Chlamydia pecorum, found in cattle and sheep. Infections of C. trachomatis
are now known to also occur in swine, and koalas are now known to be infected
by C. pneumoniae.
rheas/ chlamydiosis/ ostriches

266. Grimes J and Arizmendi F. Salmonella typhimurium aggllutinins in exotic
bird sera in the USA. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 1995;
7(2): 270.
English; 4 ref.; 9603
The survey was done to obtain additional data on psittacine bird sera
(previous survey published by the authors in 1992) and include other types of
exotic birds. Of the 17 ostriches tested, 1 tested positive. For emus there
were no positive tests (0/ 7). 
ostriches/ emus/ salmonella

267. . Order Casuariiformes Griner, LA. Pathology of Zoo Animals. [San
Diego]: Zoological Society of San Diego; 98-104. 
English; 0 ref; 9606
The book reviews necropsies performed over a fourteen-year period at the San
Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park. This chapter (9), gives a brief
overview of the two families (emus and cassowaries) of this order. Discusses
the findings of the necropsies and provides statistics in tables. Most emu
mortality, 94.4% occured in birds under six months of age. One table lists by
year (1966 to 1977) the sex and age of the 109 emus necropsied. A second
table indicates by year, conditions (aspergillosis, perosis, enteric
pathogens, omphalitis, and other) in emu neonates and perinates. Finally
there is a table on less common diseases in young emus. There is a discussion
under the headings: infectious diseases; and stress, trauma and malnutrition. 
For cassowaries, there is a table on diseases by species (double-wattled,
single-wattled, and Van Oort's double-wattled cassowary). There is a brief
discussion of the diseases.
emus/ cassowaries/ diseases

268. . Order Rheiformes Griner, LA. Pathology of Zoo Animals. [San Diego]:
Zoological Society of San Diego; 107-116. 
English; 0 ref; 9606
The book reviews necropsies performed over a fourteen-year period at the San
Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park. This chapter (11), gives a brief
overview of the rhea which is followed by discussion under the broader
headings of Darwin's rheas, diseases of adult Darwin's rheas, and diseases of
common rheas. 
Under Darwin's rheas the discussion is under the headings malnutrition and
infectious diseases. One table provides statistics on the sex and age of the
birds necropsied. A second table indicates common diseases of rhea chick up
to six months of age between the years 1972 and 1977.
For diseases of adult Darwin's rheas, the discussion is under the headings:
stress, trauma and malnutrition; infectious diseases; and systemic diseases.
Diseases of common rheas are discussed under: stress, trauma and
malnutrition; infectious diseases and parasites; and systemic diseases.
rheas/ diseases

269. . Order Struthioniformes Griner, LA. Pathology of Zoo Animals. [San
Diego]: Zoological Society of San Diego; 94-97. 
English; 0 ref; 9606
The book reviews necropsies performed over a fourteen-year period at the San
Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park. This chapter (8), gives a brief
overview on ostriches and discusses the findings of the necropsies under the
headings: stress, trauma and malnutrition; infectious diseases and parasites;
and systemic diseases. A table shows the sex and age of necropsied ostriches.
ostriches/ diseases

270. Grone A; Swayne D; and Nagode L. Hypophosphatemic rickets in rheas (Rhea
americana). Veterinary Pathology 1995; 32(3): 324-327.
Rickets was diagnosed in 11 rheas (Rhea americana) from 4 flocks in Ohio,
USA. The rachitic birds had pliable bones with prominent valgus or varus
deformation of the femoral bone and/ or the tibiotarsal bone, marked
thickening of the metaphyseal plates and frequent fractures.
Histopathologically, bones of rachitic birds showed marked retention of
cartilage core within the growth plate, mainly because of a significant
lengthening of the hypertrophied zone of the growth plate in relation to the
remaining zones. Feed analysis showed that rachitic birds were fed on diets
which had higher calcium/ phosphorus ratios (1.38 up to 4.32) than
non-rachitic birds (0.65). Rachitic birds had hypophosphataemia (3.0 to 4.7
mg/ dl) and mild hypocalcaemia compared to non-rachitic birds, which had
serum phosphorus concentrations of 8.5 to 8.7 mg/ dl. 25- (OH)-vitamin D
concentrations were similar in rachitic and non-rachitic birds.
calcium/ phosphorus/ rickets/ hypophosphatemic rickets/ hypocalcaemia/
hypophosphataemia/ bones/ deficiency/ pathology/ blood/ rhea ; birds 

271. Grubb B. Use of ketamine to restrain and anesthetize emus. Veterinary
Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 1983; 78(2): 247-248.
English; 5 ref; 9601
Injectable anaesthetics/ Aviary birds/ Zoo animals/ anaesthesia/ ketamine/
Struthioniformes/ Dromiceius novaehollandiae

272. Grubb B; Jorgensen D; and Conner M. Cardiovascular changes in the
exercising emu. Journal of Experimental Biology 1983; 104: 193-201.
Cardiovascular variables were studied as a function of oxygen consumption in
the emu, a large, flightless ratite bird well suited to treadmill exercise.
At the highest level of exercise, the birds' rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)
was approximately 11.4 times the resting level (4.2 ml kg-1 min-1). Cardiac
output was linearly related to VO2, increasing 9.5 ml for each 1 ml increase
in oxygen consumption. The increase in cardiac output is similar to that in
other birds, but appears to be larger than in mammals. The venous oxygen
content dropped during exercise, thus increasing the arteriovenous oxygen
content difference. At the highest levels of exercise, heart rate showed a
3.9-fold increase over the resting rate (45.8 beats min-1). The mean resting
specific stroke volume was 1.5 ml per kg body mass, which is larger than
shown by most mammals. However, birds have larger hearts relative to body
mass than do mammals, and stroke volume expressed per gram of heart (0.18 ml
g-1) is similar to that for mammals. Stroke volume showed a 1.8-fold increase
as a result of exercise in the emus, but a change in heart rate plays a
greater role in increasing cardiac output during exercise.
Body Weight/ Heart physiology/ Organ Weight/ Oxygen blood/ Species
Specificity/ *Birds physiology/ *Blood Pressure/ *Cardiac Output/ *Exertion/
*Heart Rate/ *Oxygen Consumption

273. Gruss B; Malan F; Roper N; Du Plessis C; and Ashburner A. The
anthelmintic efficacy of resorantel against Houttuynia struthionis in
ostriches. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1988; 59(4):
Resorantel at a dosage rate of 130 mg kg-1 live body mass was found to be
highly effective against Houttuynia struthionis in ostriches when dosed alone
or in combination with fenbendazole or levamisole.
Anilides therapeutic use/ Anthelmintics therapeutic use/ Birds parasitology/
Cestode Infections drug therapy/ Drug Evaluation/ Drug Therapy, Combination/
Fenbendazole administration and dosage/ Fenbendazole therapeutic use/
Levamisole administration and dosage/ Levamisole therapeutic use/ Anilides
administration and dosage/ Anthelmintics administration and dosage/ Bird
Diseases drug therapy/ Cestode Infections veterinary

274. Guittin P. Reproduction and growth of the ostrich. Pratique Medicale and
Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie 1983; 18(1): 43-46.
French; 4 ref; 9601
Zoo animals/ Reviews/ ostrich1

275. Gupta B and Trapp A. Traumatic proventriculitis in a rhea (Rhea
americana). Avian Diseases 1971; 15(2): 408-412.

276. Haddane, B. Clinical contribution to artificial rearing of ostriches at
the National Zoological Park of Rabat, Morocco. Ippen R and Schroder, HD.
Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 25. Internationalen
Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere ; 11. Mai bis 15. Mai 1983;
Wien. Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie Verlag; 1983 81-84. 
Artificial rearing/ Birds/ Rickets/ Limb bones/ Disease prevention/ Ostrich/
Zoo animals

277. Hagen H and Hagen W. The African ostrich - a farm animal in Germany?
Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1996; 103(3): 98-100.
German; 26 ref; 9606
Farming of the ostrich - a non domesticated species - cannot be done
species-conforming; it is even a cruelty to the animals. Keeping in captivity
leads to a steady rank order stress; the biology of their reproduction is
heavily impaired and their typical moving requirements can only be poorly
satisfied. The specific habit of food intake cannot be performed accordingly,
and the early deprivation, caused by the absence of parents during the
weanling period, creates extremely abnormal behaviour.
Summing up, all these deficiencies constitute the fact of cruelty to animals
according to the German Animal Protection Act. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ farming

278. Hallam, MG. The Topaz introduction to practical ostrich farming. Harare,
Zimbabwe; 1992; 149 p. 
This book provides a good overview. There is a introduction followed by
general information on the ostrich (includes diagram of lower portion of the
ostrich leg). Chapter 3 covers the history of the ostrich industry. The
chapter on reproduction covers the ostrich nest, reproduction in the hen,
reproduction in the male, selective breeding, management of breeding birds,
and factors affecting egg productivity. Chapter 5 discusses egg storage
including collection of eggs, methods of collection, cleaning eggs, storage
of eggs, fumigation, and cracked eggs. Other chapters cover incubation and
hatching (table on incubation trouble-shooting with symptoms of the trouble,
probable causes and suggested corrective measures); nutrition (recommended
levels of vitamins in the ration); veterinary problems of ostriches (viral,
bacterial, fungal, parasitic and nutritional diseases, limb deformities and
toxic conditions); management systems; general facilities and chick raising;
ostrich handling techniques; sexing ostriches; flaying, curing and grading
ostrich skins; feathers and plucking; record keeping; and markets and the
marketing of ostrich based products. The appendices include a bibliography
(as of June 1989) and sample ostrich record sheets.
ostrich/ reproduction/ diseases/ breeding/ records/ incubation/ hatching/ egg
storage/ sexing

279. Halverson J. DNA fingerprints & profiles: What every breeder should
know. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(9): 6,16.
DNA fingerprints (RFLP) and DNA profiles (PCR) are discussed in layman terms
indicating benefits and drawbacks.
ratites/ breeding

280. Halverson, J. What do I tell my clients about DNA fingerprinting.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; August 31 - September 4, 1993; Nashville.: Association of
Avian Veterinarians; 1993 27-29. 
English; 3 ref.; 9606
The relevance of DNA fingerprinting to the avian veterinarian and the bird
owner is illustrated. One case report concerns allegedly incorrect results of
DNA sex testing, another concerns proof of indentity of an escaped pet bird,
and the last involves some suspicious results. (Author's abstract)
Case III deals with an four samples which had the same DNA fingerprint but
different microchip numbers. There had been a question about the sex of the
bird and the veterinarian had submitted four samples to the company to test
its reliability.
ostriches/ DNA fingerprinting/ sexing

281. Handford P and Mares M. The mating systems of ratites and tinamous: An
evolutionary perspective. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1985; 25:

282. Hanley, RS, Woods, LW, Stillian, DJ, and Dumonceaux, GA. Serpulina-like
spirochetes and flagellated protozoa associated with a necrotizing typhlitis
in the rhea (Rhea americana). Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994;
Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 157-162. 
English; 21 ref.
Severe necrotizing typhlitis and enterocolitis have been observed in eight
rheas (Rhea americana) from four ranches. Rheas with histories of depression
and anorexia were presented to the California Veterinary Diagnostic
Laboratory System (CVDLS) for necropsy. Necropsies revealed varying degrees
of necrotizing typhlitis and enterocolitis. Bacteriologic, parasitologic and
histologic examinations revealed the presence of spirochetes and
trichomoas-like organisms in the lumen and mucosa of the ceca of the birds.
The remaining rheas in three flocks were treated with Flagyl (metronidazole)
and antibiotic therapy. Prior to treatment, flock mortality averaged 50%.
After treatment, no further deaths occurred in the flocks.
A retrospective review of rhea submissions from the previous 3 years revealed
41% (13 of 31) or the rhea chick submissions between 6 and 52 weeks of age
were diagnosed with enteritis associated with spirochetsial etiology,
protozoal etiology, or both. Because of swift onset and high mortality
associated with the combined infection of the spirochetes and Trichomonas
species, earlly detection and treatment is crucial. (Authors' interpretive
rheas/ typhlitis/ enterocolitis

283. Hart A and Lendrem D. Vigilance and scanning patterns in birds. Animal
Behaviour 1984; 32(4): 1216-1224.
The authors present a new approach to the analysis of scanning patterns in
feeding birds. They estimate the probability of a bird detecting a predator
from the frequency distribution of inter-scan intervals and the proportion of
time spent scanning. This method avoids several unrealistic assumptions
implied in earlier analyses of vigilance data, and can accommodate predators
attacking randomly or using prey behavior to time an attack. The practical
application of this approach is illustrated using data for feeding and
vigilance in the ostrich (Struthio camelus ). The analysis is discussed with
reference to the hunting tactics of predators and Pulliam's (1973) model of
feeding and vigilance in birds.
ostriches/ Struthio camelus/ feeding behavior/ anti predator behavior/

284. Hartley T; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of trypsin from the pancreas of the ostrich Struthio
camelus. Comp Biochem Physiol B 1987; 86(4): 705-710.
Cationic trypsin was isolated and purified from the pancreas of the ostrich
(Struthio camelus) by affinity chromatography on a Trasylol-Sepharose column.
External activation of trypsinogen was required before trypsin could be
isolated. The final preparation was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and by
sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation studies, resulting in Mr values of
24,547 and 22,091, respectively. The Mmin value obtained from amino acid
analysis was 22,450. A mean sedimentation coefficient of 2S was obtained by
sedimentation velocity centrifugation. Results obtained from N-terminal and
amino acid analyses were similar to those from trypsins of other species. The
effects of pH, temperature and inhibitors (LBTI, KBPTI and PMSF) on the
tryptic activity were examined. The effect of calcium ions and enzyme
concentration on the rate of self-digestion of ostrich trypsin was also
Amino Acids analysis/ Cattle/ Chromatography, Affinity/ Enzyme Activation/
Kinetics/ Molecular Weight/ Trypsin metabolism/ Trypsinogen isolation and
purification/ Trypsinogen metabolism/ Birds metabolism/ Pancreas enzymology/
Trypsin isolation and purification

285. Hastings, MY. A history of ostrich farming: its potential in Australian
agriculture. Farrell, DJ, Editor. Recent advances in animal nutrition in
Australia 1991. Armidale, Australia: University of New England; 1991;
English; 18 ref. 
The main constraining factors in ostrich production are: infertile eggs,
embryonic mortality and post hatching leg deformities. The major areas that
require further research are the nutrition of breeding birds and chicks, and
incubation techniques and equipment.
Nutrient requirements/ ostriches/ Conferences/ Australia/ Recent advances in
animal nutrition in Australiaget/ Breeding 

286. Hastings, MY. Ostrich farming. Winchelsea, Vic.: M.Y. Hastings; xiv, 94
English; ill
Ostrich farms and farming/ Ostrich farms and farming Australia/ Ostriches/
Ostriches Australia

287. Hawkey C; Pugsley S; and Knight J. Abnormal heterophils in a king shag
with aspergillosis. Veterinary Record 1984; 114(13): 322-324.
English; 9 ref
Blood samples collected from a female king shag (Phalacrocorax albivenier)
shortly before it died from Aspergillus fumigatus infection showed terminal
heterophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, and greatly increased
concentrations of fibrinogen. An unusual change in heterophil morphology was
noted: about half of the heterophils contained strongly basophilic, spherical
granules of irregular size in addition to the normal oval eosinophilic
granules. Cells of this type have not previously been observed in birds. It
is suggested that heterophil morphology may be a useful indicator of severe
infection in birds. Since this report was prepared, abnormal heterophils have
been identified in a number of other birds (including various Psittaciformes,
goose, flamingo, penguin, ostrich, pheasant, owl and others) with clinical
sign associated with infection.
Birds/ Zoo animals/ Pelecaniformes/ Phalacrocorax albivenier/ Haematology/
Aspergillus/ Abnormal neutrophils/ Neutrophils/ Abnormal in aspergillosis/
Aspergillus fumigatus/ Hosts/ UK/ Zoological gardens/ Infection/
Complications/ Blood disorders

288. Heerden JV; Dauth J; Jarvis M; Keffen R; Denny J; Dreyer M; and Kriek N.
Blood chemical and electrolyte concentrations in the ostrich Struthio
camelus. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1985; 56(2):
English; 1 ref
In 49 healthy ostriches aged 1-3 years, kept under semi-extensive conditions,
the mean values of blood samples collected after capture and physical
restraint were: sodium, 150.6 +/ - 4.3 mmol/ litre; potassium, 3.5 +/ - 0.9
mmol/ l; chloride, 103.9 +/ - 3.5 mmol/ l; phosphorus, 1.7 +/ - 0.4 mmol/ l;
total magnesium, 0.8 +/ - 0.2 mmol/ l; total calcium, 2.5 +/ - 0.2 mmol/ l;
iron, 16.2 +/ - 22.6 µmol/ l; alkaline phosphatase 479 +/ - 251 U/ l; alanine
transaminase 2.9 +/ - 2.5 U/ l; lactate dehydrogenase, 1041.4 +/ - 399.2 U/
l; creatine kinase, 1529 +/ - 732; gamma glutamyltransferase, 0.48 +/ - 1.2
U/ l; aspartate transaminase, 237 +/ - 136 U/ l; urea, 0.5 +/ - 0.2 mmol/ l;
creatinine 36.6 +/ - 13 µmol/ l; total protein, 40.4 +/ - 4.9 g/ l; albumin,
20 +/ - 2.3 g/ l; glucose 9.7 +/ - 2.4 mmol/ l.
Haematology/ Normal values/ Ostrich/ Blood chemistry

289. Heerden JV and Keffen R. A preliminary investigation into the
immobilising potential of a tiletamine/ zolazepam mixture, metomidate, a
metomidate and azaperone combination and medetomidine in ostriches (Struthio
camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1991; 62(3):
English; 8 ref
Ostrich chicks (n=34) were successfully immobilized with i.m. injections of a
tiletamine/ zolazepam mixture at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/ kg; with metomidate at
dosages of 15 and 20 mg/ kg and with metomidate/ azaperone combination at
respectively 20 and 6.6 mg/ kg, and 10 and 3.3 mg/ kg. Unsatisfactory
immobilization with violent body movements and self traumatization were
observed in an adult ostrich after the intramuscular administration of a
tiletamine/ zolazepam mixture. Anaesthesia was achieved by the administration
of metomidate in combination with azaperone. Medetomidine administered at 0.1
mg/ kg did not result in immobilization of ostrich chicks (n=4). It was
concluded that findings in ostrich chicks should not necessarily be
extrapolated to adult birds.
Anaesthesia/ Tiletamine/ Zolazepam/ Metomidate/ Azaperone/ Medetomidine/ Drug
combinations/ Immobilization/ ostriches/ anaesthetics 

290. Heever LVd and Marais S. Specific serological identification of ostrich
meat and meat products. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
1975; 46(3): 261-263.
English; 9601
Using aqueous urea solution extracts of heated ostrich muscle as antigen for
the production of precipitating rabbit anti-ostrich serum, it was possible to
specifically identify raw, heated (70-95 deg C) and air dried-salted ostrich
meat by means of gel immunodiffusion tests. The serum did not react with
chicken, turkey or horse meat or with beef in any form. The soluble proteins
extracted from ostrich meat heated to temperatures of 70 deg C for 30 minutes
appear to constitute at least two closely related antigenic determinants of
which only one is thermostable at temperatures above 70 deg C.
Food inspection/ Antigens/ Immune serum/ Proteins/ Poultry meat/ Horse meat/
Beef/ meat/ ostriches/ rabbits/ test for species of origin

291. Henrickson R. Cryptococcosis in man and captive exotic animals. Journal
of Zoo Animal Medicine 1973; 3(1): 27-30.
English; 24 ref; 9601
A general account of the history of Cryptococcus neoformans, its habitat,
association with birds nest, presence in soil, and symptoms of cryptococcosis
in man, is followed a report of an experiment in which disseminated
cryptococcosis was induced in marmoset monkeys by feeding with 100 million
yeast cells. The sp. was isolated from the tissues of 2 adult male peccaries
(Tayassu tajacu) shortly after signs of paralysis were seen, and from the
soil of their pen and that of a rheas which had previously inhabited the
peccary pen. Dyspnoea and a large, nasal, cryptococcal granuloma developed in
a 1-yr-old female nouflon sheep housed adjacent to the peccary pen.
experimental infection/ soil/ monkeys/ sheep/ Cryptococcus neoformans/
Cryptococcus neoformans on monkey/ Cryptococcus neoformans on peccary/
Cryptococcus neoformans in soil/ Cryptococcus neoformans on sheep/ peccary

292. Herd R. Estimating food intake by captive emus, Dromaius
novaehollandiae, by means of sodium-22 turnover. Australian-Wildlife-Research
1985; 12(3): 455-460.
21 ref
The rate of 22Na turnover was measured in 4 captive emus each fed on 3 diets.
There was a close relationship between 22Na turnover and the intake of
dietary sodium (r = 0.92), DM (r = 0.93), gross energy and metabolizable
energy (r = 0.94). DM intake, estimated from 22Na turnover, accounted for 89%
of the variation in actual DM intake, and suggested that 22Na turnover could
provide a reliable method for estimating food consumption by populations of
free-living emus. However, estimates of food consumed by individual animals
may not be reliable.
Feed intake/ Emus/ Estimation 

293. Herd R and Dawson T. Fiber digestion in the emu, Dromaius
novaehollandiae, a large bird with a simple gut and high rates of passage.
Physiological-Zoology 1984; 57(1): 70-84.
53 ref
The ability to digest plant fibre was examined in the emu, a large ratite
bird widely distributed in Australia. Emus digested between 35 and 45% of the
neutral- detergent fibre (NDF) in their diets (NDF content 26 to 36%).
Hemicellulose was more digestible than cellulose or lignin. The digestion and
metabolism of 14C- labelled cellulose and significant volatile fatty acid
production showed that fermentative digestion was involved in NDF digestion.
Energy from the digestion of NDF contributed up to 63% of the standard
metabolism and 50% of maintenance requirements for energy on the
highest-fibre diet. The considerable NDF digestion was achieved despite the
rate of passage of feed residues through the tract being rapid and the
gastrointestinal tract being simple in structure; the distal small intestine
(ileum) was the main site of fermentation. The mean retention time of the
fluid phase of the diet in 11 emus was 4.1 +/ - 0.2 h and that of the
particulate phase was 5.5 +/ - 0.4 h. The ability of the emu to digest and
metabolize plant fibre may assist its survival during periods of decreased
food quality and abundance in the interior of Australia.
Birds/ Digestion/ Fibre/ Australia 

294. Herrick J. Will Ratites Fly. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association 1994; 205(8): 1116.
English Editorial

295. Hicks, KD. Ratite reproduction. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of
the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans.
Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 318-325. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
This paper focuses on an overview of ratite reproduction including: behavior,
anatomy, physiology, productivity, the egg, reproductive failure,
reproductive disease and incubation. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ ratites/ reproduction/ anatomy/ physiology/ disease

296. Hicksalldredge K; Alldredge B; Speer B; Bluemclendon A; Beavers D; Wade
J; Mauer R; Butler T; Robertson P; and Owen K. Facts About Ratites. Journal
of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1994; 205(12): 1661-1662.
English Letter

297. Hines MI; Styer E; Baldwin C; and Cole JJ. Combined adenovirus and
rotavirus entiritis with Escherichia coli septicemia in an emu chick
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(3): 646-651.
English; 20 ref.
A 2-week-old emu chick (Dromaius novaehollandiae) of approximately 200 g body
weight was presented for necropsy with a history of weakness, diarrhea,
pallor of the head, and acute death. Hemorrhagic enteritis with mild
hepatomegaly was noted on gross examination. Microscopic examination revealed
necrohemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional intranuclear basophilic viral
inclusion bodies in intestinal epithelia cells; splenic lymphoid necrosis and
fibrin exudation; hepatocellular vacuolar change; and multiple clusters of
small gram-negative bacilli in the liver, spleen, yolk sac, and intestine.
Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained fecal specimens and
thin sectins of small intestine revealed clusters of viral particles
consistent with adenovirus and rotavirus. Attempts at viral isolation from
pooled tissue speicimens were unsuccessful. Escherichia coli was isolated
from specimens of liver and intestine and from an abdominal swab.
emus/ hemorrhagic enteritis/ septicemia/ adenovirus/ rotavirus/ Escherichia

298. Hirsch K and Grau C. Yolk formation and oviposition in captive emus.
Condor 1981; 83(4): 381-382.
English; 15 ref.; 9603
Found that there was a delay in the total time of egg formation. Yolk was
deposited for 26 days with the eggs laid 10 days later. They were not able to
determine whether the delay in egg formation was due to holding the mature
ovum within the follicle (delaying ovulation) or slow passage through the
oviduct. (KL)
emus/ eggs

299. Hoberg E; Lloyd S; and Omar H. Libyostrongylus Dentatus N-Sp (Nematoda,
Trichostrongylidae) from Ostriches in North-America, with Comments on the
Genera Libyostrongylus and Paralibyostrongylus. Journal of Parasitology 1995;
81(1): 85-93.
English Article
Libyostrongylus dentatus sp. n. is described from ostriches on farms from
North Carolina and Texas. Nematodes were recovered from the posterior
proventriculus and under the koilon lining of the gizzard; the parasites
occurred in mixed infections with Libyostrongylus douglassii. The species is
distinguished from congeners by the presence of a prominent, dorsal,
esophageal tooth; in males by the structure of the dorsal ray and spicules;
and in females by small eggs (52-62 mu m in length), a sublateral vulva
situated at 93% of the body length from the anterior, and a strongly curled,
digitate, tail with cuticular inflations at the anus. Conflicts in the
generic diagnoses of Libyostrongylus and Paralibyostrongylus were apparent,
based on the structure of the dorsal ray or position of rays 3-5 of the
copulatory bursa. These can only be resolved based on phylogenetic analyses
of the 11 nominal species referred to these genera. 

300. Honnas C; Bluemclendon A; Zamos D; Parson E; and Jensen J.
Proventriculotomy in Ostriches - 18 Cases (1990-1992). Journal of the
American Veterinary Medical Association 1993; 202(12): 1989-1992.
English Article
Over a 3-year period, proventriculotomy was performed on 18 ostriches to
relieve impaction of the proventriculus. Diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal
palpation, abdominal radiography, and in some cases, exploratory
proventriculotomy. In addition to proventriculotomy, an esophagotomy was
performed in 5 birds that were debilitated to allow force-feeding during the
postoperative period. The median age of ostriches treated surgically for
proventricular impaction was 7.5 months (range, 3 months to 18 years).
Impactions consisted of sand, rocks, or gravel in combination with grass,
leaves, wood, or other fibrous materials. In 7 birds, small pieces of wire or
nails were also removed from the proventriculus. In 1 bird, a large metal
punch was removed via the proventriculotomy. Six ostriches died at the
hospital in the immediate postoperative period. Four of these died within 24
hours of surgery. All 4 birds were emaciated and in a severely weakened
condition at admission, and they continued to deteriorate after surgery. One
bird died 8 days after surgery as a result of complications associated with a
septic joint unrelated to the proventriculotomy procedure. Another bird was
euthanatized 6 days after surgery because its condition failed to improve and
the owners did not want to pursue further treatment because of expense.
Follow-up information was obtained for 12 surviving ostriches 1 week to 29
months (median, 5.5 months) after they were discharged from the hospital.
Four of the 12 birds died within 30 days of discharge from the hospital. The
remaining 8 birds (44%) were alive at follow-up evaluation (median, 10.5
months after surgery; range, 5 to 29 months). In the birds that survived
long-term, complications associated with the proventriculotomy or
esophagotomy were not observed.
Avian Species/ Proventriculus/ Surgery

301. Honnas C; Jensen J; Cornick J; Hicks K; and Kuesis B. Proventriculotomy
to relieve foreign body impaction in ostriches. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 1991; 199(4): 461-465.
English; 5 ref
A study was made of the symptoms diagnosis, diagnostic techniques and
surgical techniques to alleviate impaction of proventriculus. Signs
indicating the need for surgical intervention included chronic inappetance, a
change in faecal consistency or production, dehydration, weight loss, and
failure to respond to laxatives. Diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal
radiography and external palpation. Impactions were caused by sand and rocks
(5 ostriches), hay and sand (1 ostrich), and leaves (1 ostrich). After
surgery, 5 of the ostriches were clinically normal within (mean) 1 week. One
ostrich failed to regain a normal appetite until 2 weeks after surgery, and
one juvenile ostrich died after surgery, and 1 died 1 week after discharge
from the hospital. Remaining birds survived without redevelopment of
Bird diseases/ Food animals/ Symptoms/ Diagnostic techniques/ Diagnosis/
Proventriculus/ ostriches/ impaction/ surgical operations/ Foreign bodies/

302. Honnas C; Jensen J; Bluemclendon A; Zamos D; and Light G. Surgical
treatment of egg retention in emus. Journal of the American Veterinary
Medical Association 1993; 203(10): 1445-1447.
6 ref
A surgical technique was developed for management of retained eggs in emus.
Clinical signs associated with egg retention included cessation of laying
activity or failure to lay eggs, lethargy, anorexia, straining, and passing
egg material, and diagnosis was made by external palpation, abdominal
radiography, and ultrasonography. The retained eggs were removed through a
paramedian abdominal incision in all birds. One bird was killed at surgery
because of severe peritonitis resulting from uterine rupture at the side of
obstruction by the retained egg. Three birds survived and were discharged
from the hospital to the owners. Egg peritonitis resulting from eggs or egg
remnants in the abdominal cavity was evident in the birds that survived
surgery. Surgery and administration of antimicrobials were successful in
resolving the peritonitis.
birds/ poultry diseases/ female genital diseases/ postoperative
complications/ peritonitis/ egg production/ emus/ retention/ surgery of
poultry/ egg retention/ surgery 

303. Hood, HB. Eye pathology in an adult male ostrich (Struthio camelus;
Mycobacterium avium infection). American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
Annual proceedings; 1977; Honolulu, Hawaii.; 1977 54-58. 
English; 9601
Zoo animals/ Bacterial diseases/ case reports/ Mycobacterium avium/ ostriches 

304. Hoover J; Lochner F; and Mullins S. Quill mites in an ostrich with
rhinitis, sinusitis and air sacculitis. Companion Animal Practice 1988; 2(3):
English; 5 ref
Mites of the family Pterolichidae were identified within the quills of a
female ostrich, where they were reproducing within the calmus and not merely
present as skin parasites, passing through the quills during their life
cycle. There was persistent feather loss and nasal discharge. Ivermectin
treatment was successful in eradicating the mites, but feather regrowth was
slow. The stress of feather loss may have predisposed the bird to rhinitis.
Case report/ Birds/ Skin diseases/ Acari/ Pterolichidae/ Ostrich/
Struthionidae/ Struthio camelus/ Zoo animals/ Ostriches 

305. Hoque E. How to skin ostrich hides and legs. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(7): 24,26.
Steps are given that will save the hide in the best possible condition for a
tannery. Outlines preparing the body (removing feathers), removing the hide
and removing excess fat and flesh. Diagram of incisions.
ostriches/ leather

306. Houde P. Ostrich ancestors found in the Northern Hemisphere suggest new
hypothesis of ratite origins. Nature 1986; 324(6097): 563-565.
English; 18 ref.; 9603
Modern ratites (ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, emus, and kiwis) are
flightless birds which have a palatal structure termed 'palaeognathous' and
are found on daughter-landmasses of the Mesozoic supercontinent Gondwanaland.
It has been suggested that a single flightless ancestor, widely distributed
in Gondwanaland, gave rise to the various lineages of ratite birds. The
temporal calibration of the DNA molecular clock is primarily based on the
divergence of ratites, and depends on the valididty of the hypothesis. Newly
studied fossils suggest that the ancestors of ostriches are instead among a
group of North American and European birds, the 'Lithornis-cohort', that had
the potential of flight and from which the kiwis may have arisen separately.
(Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ cassowaries/ kiwis/ evolution

307. Hoyt D; Vleck D; and Vleck C. Metabolism of avian embryos: Ontogeny and
temperature effects in the ostrich. Condor 1978; 80(3): 265-271.
English; 26 ref.
The relation between metabolic rate and incubation age in the ostrich is
different from that reported previously for the chicken, duck, and Herring
Gull. In the eggs of the ostrich a peak rate occurs six days before pipping
and is followed by a decline of about 25%. We suggest that this decline may
be caused by a decrease in growth rate.
The allometric relationship between the metabolic rate shortly before pipping
and fresh egg mass for several species of avian eggs is parallel to, but
significantly below the line relating basal metabolism to body mass in adult
birds. Therefore, just before hatching, an avian embryo has a metabolic rate
approximately one-third that of an adult bird of equal body mass.
The oxygen tension in the air cell shortly before pipping in the ostrich egg
is considerably higher than the mean value reported for other species. We
suggest there may be an allometric relationship between air cell gas tensions
and fresh egg mass.
The shell conductance of the ostrich egg is adapted to its relatively short
incubation perioid, but the rate of oxygen consumption before internal
pipping is not. (Author's summary)
ostriches/ embryos

308. Huber, I, Herceg, M, and Maran, B. Diseases of Australian animals in the
Zagreb Zoo. Ippen, R and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere.
Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII Internationalen Symposiums uber die
Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 16-20 June, 1976; Innsbruck.; 1976 13-16. 
German; 9601
In the Zagreb Zoo, Yugoslavia, between 1925 and 1975, 2 young dingos died
from heavy infections with ascariasis and taeniasis. Among certain geese
(Huhnergansen) there were 3 cases of amidostomiasis which were treated and
cured, and 2 young emus died from inversion of the intestines with Taenia,
ascarids and heterakids.
helminths/ zoo animals/ animal diseases/ parasites/ kangaroos/ birds/
MARSUPIALS/ animals, zoo/ Marsupialia

309. Huchzermeyer F. High mortality in ostrich eggs and hatchlings due to
egg-washing. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1996; 67(1):
English; 1 ref.; 9606
Letter to the editor. Reports on an increased embryo mortality and high
incidence of yolk sac infection in ostrich hatchlings due to washing of
ostrich egges in a disinfectant solution. Embryos tend to die at the stage
when the yolk sac begins to be drawn into the abdominal cavity. Unhatched
eggs which are opened and the membranes peeled off the inside of the shell
may have dark patches where bacteria appear to have penetrated the shell and
are multiplying. Chicks which die show typical yolk sac infection lesions.
Farmers had been advised to dip or wash the ostrich eggs in a disinfectant
solution on the erroneous assumption that ostrich eggs, like fowl eggs, have
a wax cuticle preventing penetration by liquids. Ostrich eggs are not capped
by either an organic or inorganic layer. Safe treatments are fumigation with
KMnO4 plus formalin or mist-spraying lightly with a disinfectant.
ostriches/ eggs/ chicks/ mortality/ disinfectant

310. Huchzermeyer, FW. Ostrich diseases 1st ed. Onderstepoort, Republic of
South Africa: Agricultural Research Council; 1994; 121 p. 
References. KL1+
This book was originally prepared for a lecture given to veterinarians having
an interest in ostrich diseases. The author indicates that it is "based
on personal experience in ostrich pathology, a general poultry pathology
background and a literature survey and contains only conditions that have
either been reported in the literature or actually seen locally and is almost
free of interpolations or speculations from poultry pathology." Data from
emus and rheas are included in some cases. The book is divided into 4 parts -
introduction, transmissible diseases, nutritional diseases, and miscellaneous
- with extensive references in the appendix. Under transmissible disease are
sections on viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections,
protozoal infections, and metazoan parasites. For nutritional diseases the
sections are deficiencies and poisoning. Miscellaneous covers some
pathological conditions, hematology, biochemistry, immobilization and
anesthesia, and physiological parameters to name a few.

311. Huchzermeyer F and Gerdes G. Newcastle disease virus isolated from
ostriches in South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary
Association 1993; 64(4): 140.
5 ref
In July and August 1993, Newcastle disease virus was isolated from ostriches
on 3 ostrich farms (1 in Cape Province, 2 in Transvaal). In all 3 outbreaks,
mortality rate was low and limited to a particular group or camp. This is the
first report of Newcastle disease in ostriches in South Africa. Routine
vaccination is recommended.
viral diseases/ case reports/ pathology/ ostriches/ Newcastle disease virus/
South Africa

312. Huchzermeyer F; Henton M; and Keffen R. High mortality associated with
megabacteriosis of proventriculus and gizzard in ostrich chicks. Veterinary
Record 1993; 133(6): 143-144.
English; 8 ref
During routine PM examination of ostriches (Struthio camelus),
megabacteriosis was diagnosed in 71 juvenile birds from 2 farms in Transvaal
province, South Africa, 1 farm in Bophutatswana and 1 in Namibia. The birds
had appeared to be normal until 12 weeks of age when they stopped growing,
lost weight and finally although still alert became weak and unable to stand;
they died a few days later. Mortality rates varied from 40 to 80% of the
affected groups and were greater in the late summer. Clinical signs included
pale oral mucous membranes; uric acid staining of vent feathers; dark, dry
pelleted faeces; severe emaciation; weight loss and weakness and a V-shaped
abdomen. Some birds had diarrhoea and some had a distended proventriculus.
Megabacteria were present in faecal smears of some of the affected birds.
Examination of proventriculus and gizzard showed no impaction and a soft
folded lining with erosions, ulcers and haemorrhages. Histological
examination of the proventriculus revealed a slight inflammatory reaction and
large numbers of very large gram positive bacterial rods with flanged ends
particularly in the koilin layer close to the epithelium. The birds did not
respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and continued to die.
Secondary Escherichia coli pneumonia or enteritis occurred in some birds.
Bacterial diseases/ Birds/ Ostriches/ mortality/ megabacteria/ South Africa

313. Huff D and Huff B. Egg sanitation Part II: Cold storage to hatching.
Ratite Journal 1994; 2(10): 52,55,60,66.
Discusses cold storage facility, egg handling during incubation and moving
eggs to the hatcher. There is a table of cold storage parameters.

314. Huff D and Hugg B. Egg sanitation. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(9):
Discusses the steps to proper egg sanitation. Sections include: preparing the
breeder paddock, egg collection, basic reasoning behind egg sanitation and
final concentration of egg spary solution. There is a table comparing
incubation times of demestic poultry and ostriches. A second table is on
sanitation options (type of sanitation, postive aspects and negative aspects/
why discontinued.

315. Hunter B. The basics of chick buying and breeding. Canadian Ostrich
1994; 3(4): 72-74.
Lists steps a new breeder can take to ensure they are starting on the right
path. Questions to ask breeder. Lists characteristics of a good quality
breeding age emu. Gives goals to set on egg numbers and fertility.
emus/ breeding/ buying

316. Hunter B. Emu products. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 36-39.
Short discussion on each of the products - feathers, meat, leather, oil and
emus/ products/ feathers/ meat/ leather/ oil/ eggs

317. Hunter B. Hatching hints and more. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 30,
An emu farmer describes what she has found to be effective in hatching emus.
Handling eggs, candling, incubation, use of scales, hatchers and when to sex
emus are some of the areas discussed.
emus/ hatching

318. Hunter B. The hatching process. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2): 60-63.
Covers hatching of emus. Lists supplies needed such as 7 percent iodine
solution to treat the navel. Describes the author's experience with hatching
process - weighing eggs, transfer of eggs to the hatcheer, assisting hatching
in some cases, helping with a yolk sac that is not absorbed, and care of
emus/ hatching

319. Hunter B. Talking emu. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 52-53.
Discusses emu eggs - storing, size, shape and colour. Eggs discussed include:
"football" shaped, round, aqua tipped, chalky, cracked/ hole in
shell, soft shelled, glossy and thin shelled.
emus/ eggs

320. Hunter B. Tips for successful sexing of emus. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(7): 28,37.
The emu farmer does vent sexing every two weeks until 3 months of age. DNA
sexing is also done. Lists some characteristics to look for to distinguish
between males and females.
emus/ sexing

321. Huq N; Tseng A; and Chapman G. Partial amino acid sequence of
osteocalcin from an extinct species of ratite bird. Biochemistry
International 1990; 21(3): 491-496.
Osteocalcin the major gamma carboxyglutamic acid containing protein of
vertebrate bone has been purified from the bones of a specimen of Pachyornis
elephantopus, a species of the extinct class of New Zealand ratite birds, the
moas. The sequence of the N-terminal region of moa osteocalcin was determined
using gas phase N-terminal sequencing. The N-terminal sequences of the
ostrich and rhea osteocalcins were also determined. Alignment of the
N-terminal sequence of osteocalcin from the extinct moa against the
osteocalcins of the extant ostrich, rhea and emu reveals the homology amongst
the ratite species is greater than the homology with the chicken osteocalcin.
Pachyornis Elephantopus/ Ostrich/ Rhea/ Emu/ Chicken/ Phylogeny/ Holocene/
Molecular Sequence Data/ New Zealand

322. Hurxthal, LM. Breeding behaviour of the Ostrich Struthio camelus
massaicus Neumann in Nairobi Park: Nairobi University; 1979. 
ostriches/ breeding/ behaviour

323. Hutton, J. An introduction to the ostrich industry in Zimbabwe. Ostrich
workshop for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon:
Island Ostrich Ranch; [1992]11 p. 
Author discusses the ostrich production industry (ostrich farming in South
Africa 1805-1985 and 1985-1991, within Africa and outside Africa), products
(skins, meat and feathers) and the industry in Zinbabwe.
ostriches/ products

324. Ippen, R. Typhlohepatitis [histomoniasis] in zoo birds. Ippen, R and
Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 25.
Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere ; 11. Mai bis
15. Mai 1983; Wien. Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie-Verlag; 1983
19 ref
Dissection of zoobirds from the Berlin Zoological Garden (GDR) and other zoos
has shown Histomonas to be present in Pavoninae, Phasianus, Coturnix,
Meleagridinae, Lyrurus and Alectoris. In addition to the galliform birds,
which are known to be affected by histomoniasis, the infection was also found
in Rhea (Struthioniformes) and Otididae (Gruiformes). It is therefore
important to look out for further possible hosts during autopsy examinations
of zoobirds. The pathology is briefly described.
Liver diseases/ Candida/ Zoo animals/ Histomonas meleagridis/ Aviary birds/
Birds/ Zoo birds/ German Democratic Republic/ New host records/ Pathology/
Animal pathology

325. Isman J. Save your hide. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 46.
Skinning procedure described (including plucking), scrapping the hide and
soaking in brine. Formula for brine is 1 kg of sodium chloride to 4 litres of
water (do not use iodized salt or rock salt) or 2 pounds of salt to 1 US
gallon of water. After soaking (2 days) let hang in shaded spot for 24 hours.
ostriches/ emus/ leather

326. Jacobson E; Ellison G; McMurphy R; Heard D; and Ackerman N.
Ventriculostomy for removal of multiple foreign bodies in an ostrich. Journal
of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1986; 189(9): 1117-1119.
English; 4 ref
Struthio camelus/ Surgery/ Haematology/ Blood chemistry/ Anaesthesia/ Foreign
body/ Ostrich 

327. Jarvis M; Jarvis C; and Keffen R. Breeding seasons and laying patterns
of the southern African Ostrich Struthio camelus. Ibis 1985; 127(4): 442-449.
English; 13 ref.
Wild Zimbabwe Ostriches Struthio camelus were studied during four successive
years. Information on breeding seasons and laying patterns was compared with
that of domesticated South African hybrid Ostriches in Bophuthatswana. In
wild populations laying occurred mainly from July to December or early
January, while domesticated birds continued until at least the end of
February. Domesticated birds normally laid about 16 eggs in succession, one
every second day. There was marked synchronisation of laying and the middle
of each successive peak in egg production was about 6 weeks from the
preceding peak. Wild birds laid up to eight eggs in any one nest, and
normally clutches were contributed by three females, the average combined
clutch being 12 or 13 per nest. Circumstantial evidence suggests that
individual females may lay in more than one nest during a single laying
sequence. Comparisons between rainfall patterns and laying rhythms proved
inconclusive. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ breeding

328. Jeffrey J; Chin R; Shivaprasad H; Meteyer C; and Droual R.
Proventriculitis and ventriculitis associated with zygomycosis in ostrich
chicks. Avian Diseases 1994; 38(3): 630-634.
English; 12 ref.
This report describes eight cases of proventriculitis and ventriculitis in
ostrich chicks less than 2 months old. Clinical signs included acute onset of
lethargy and anorexia in three cases, and chronic weight loss with lethargy
and anorexia in four cases; no history was available in one case. There was
limited antibiotic therapy in two cases; a third case was treated for
giardiasis. Concurrent bacterial, yeast, and viral infections were common.
Lymphoid depletion and/ or necrosis of bursa, thymus, and spleen suggested
severe immune challenge or immunosuppression in many cases. Histologically,
there was severe ulcerative proventriculitis and ventriculitis with
intralesional fungal hyphae. In two chicks with granulomatous pneumonia,
similar fungal hyphae were also observed in the lung. Fungal hyphae were
rarely septate, with irregular, non-parallel walls, and ranged in diameter
from 7 to 20 mum. Occasional globoid distentions of the hyphae were present.
Fungi were identified morphologically as species in the Zygomycetes class; in
one case a Mucor sp. was cultured. Zygomycetes appear to be potentially
serious opportunistic pathogens of ostrich chicks. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ proventriculitis/ ventriculitis/ zygomycosis

329. Jensen, JM and Fowler, ME. Infectious and parasitic diseases of ratites.
Fowler, ME, editor. Zoo and wild animal medicine : current therapy. 3rd ed.
ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993; 200-203. 
bacterial diseases/ viral diseases/ parasitoses/ ratites

330. Jensen, JM and Fowler, ME. Ratite restraint and handling. Fowler, ME,
editor. Zoo and wild animal medicine : current therapy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia:
W.B. Saunders; 1993; 198-200. 
restraint/ immobilization/ zoo animals/ restraint of animals/ rheiformes ;
casuariiformes ; Struthioniformes ; birds 

331. Jensen, JM, Johnson, JH, and Weiner, ST. Husbandry and medical
management of ostriches, emus and rheas. College Station, TX (P.O. Box 10541,
College Station, TX 77842): Wildlife and Exotic Animal Teleconsultants; 1992;
129 p. 
English; ill.
Ostriches Diseases Treatment Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Rheidae Diseases
Treatment Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Emus Diseases Treatment Handbooks,
manuals, etc

332. Jensen, JM, Matthews, NS, and Hartsfield, SM. Metabolic scaling of
ketamine in ostriches and emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians and Association of Reptilian and Amphibian
Veterinarians Annual Conference; October 22-27, 1994; Pittsburgh.
[Philadelphia]: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; 1994 134-137. 
English; 10 ref.
Four emus and seven ostriches were anesthetically induced with intramuscular
doses of ketamine and xylazine. Ketamine doses were calculated using minimum
energy cost calculations (doses derived from domestic feline doses). Xylazine
dose was approximately 20% of the ketamine dose. Xylazine was given 20
minutes prior to ketamine to all birds, except two ostriches. All birds were
eventually maintained on isoflurane and underwent various surgical
Larger ratites received lower dosages of ketamine than smaller birds because
of the higher minimum energy cost per kilogram of body mass for smaller
birds. The anesthetic effect was the same in each bird, indicating metabolic
scaling can be used to produce effective doses of ketamine in ratites.
During isoflurane anesthesia, the ratites frequently required respiratory
assistance. The authors feel that ratites induced by this method and
maintained with isoflurane tend to have a high incidence of bradycardia and/
or hypotension requiring intro-operative treatment. Close monitoring of
cardiopulmonary function throughout anesthesia is advised.
emus/ ostriches/ anesthesia/ ketamine/ xylazine/ isoflurane

333. Jensen, JM and Schumacher, J. Endoscopic examination of the distal
uterus of ostriches and emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians and Association of Reptilian and Amphibian
Veterinarians Annual Conference; October 22-27, 1994; Pittsburgh.
[Philadelphia}: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; 1994 138-139. 
English; 0 ref.
Describes the technique used to perform an endoscopic examination of the
uterus in ostriches and emus.
ostriches/ emus/ uterus

334. Johnson, JH, Schumacher, J, Mcclure, SR, and Jensen, JM. Skin-Grafting
in an Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Assoc
Avian Veterinarians; 1993 138-141. 

335. Johnson J; Schumacher J; Mcclure S; and Jensen J. Use of a
Full-Thickness Autograft on the Tarsus of an Ostrich. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 1994; 205(7): 1019-1020.
English Article
Skin grafting can be used in birds when conventional surgical closure of
wounds cannot be accomplished. Techniques similar to those used in other
species may provide for successful skin grafting in birds.
Ostriches/ Grafts/ Skin/ Surgery/ Tarsus

336. Johnson O and Skadhauge E. Structural-functional correlations in the
kidneys and observations of colon and cloacal morphology in certain
Australian birds. Journal of Anatomy 1975; 120(3): 495-505.
1. Variations in renal microstructure between the zebra finch and Senegal
dove were consistent with their relative renal concentrating abilities
(urine/ plasma ratios of 2-8 and 1-7, respectively). Compared with dove
kidneys, those of the finch contained a higher fraction of mammalian-type
nephrons (with Henle's loops), and a lower fraction of reptilian-type
nephrons (without loops). 2. Singing honeyeaters concentrated their urine
almost as well as zebra finches, although honeyeater kidneys were less
specialized (fewer mammalian-type nephrons). Such findings emphasize the need
to clarify other osmoregulatory parameters. 3. No significant microstructural
differences were found in the kidneys of domesticated as compared with those
of wild zebra finches. Hence, osmoregulatory differences between tame and
wild birds must be related to physiological factors rather than
morphological. 4. Thickness of the renal medulla seemed to be directly
correlated with urine concentrating ability. However, certain inconsistencies
obscure this relationship such that its resolution will require further
research. 5. Histological features of the mucosae of the colon and cloaca are
described. The galah and kookaburra displayed a mammalian (non-villous)
pattern of mucosal organization. Zebra finches, singing honeyeaters, and
particularly emus, possessed colonic and cloacal villi and hence an increased
surface area per volume in this region of the gut. This raises the
possibility that the colon and cloaca are involved in uring concentration and
osmoregulatory activities in these species.
Australia/ Cloaca physiology/ Colon physiology/ Intestinal Mucosa anatomy and
histology/ Kidney physiology/ Kidney Cortex physiology/ Kidney Medulla
physiology/ Organ Weight/ Sodium Chloride metabolism/ Water metabolism/ Water
Deprivation/ *Birds anatomy and histology/ *Cloaca anatomy and histology/
*Colon anatomy and histology/ *Kidney anatomy and histology/ *Kidney
Concentrating Ability

337. Johnson S. Cross-border bird buying. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(5): 46-47.
Provides advise on the importing of birds form the United States to Canada.
ratites/ importing/ Canada

338. Jones J. Pulmonary blood flow distribution in panting ostriches. Journal
of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology
1982; 53(6): 1411-1417.
English; ill

339. Jones J; Grubb B; and Schmidt Nielsen K. Panting in the emu causes
arterial hypoxemia. Respiration Physiology 1983; 54(2): 189-195.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of heavy thermal
panting on arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) tension in emus.
The birds showed no significant change in body temperature during a 3-4 h
heat stress caused by increasing ambient air temperature from 21 to 46
degrees C. However, the emus increased their respiratory frequency 10-fold
(from 5.3 to 52.9 breaths X min-1). The high respiratory frequency resulted
in a slight but significant decrease in PaCO2 (from 33.5 to 29.8 mm Hg),
coupled with a slight increase in pH (from 7.449 to 7.469). Paradoxically,
these changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the arterial
oxygen tension (from 99.7 to 84.6 mm Hg). The arterial hypoxia suggests
hypoventilation while the hypocapnia suggests hyperventilation of the lungs.
This could result from various spatial and/ or temporal changes in
ventilation/ perfusion ratios.
Acid Base Equilibrium/ Arteries/ Carbon Dioxide blood/ Heat/ Hydrogen Ion
Concentration/ Oxygen blood/ *Anoxemia etiology/ *Birds physiology/

340. Jones S; Robertson W; and Brereton D. The ostrich as a meat animal.
Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 14-17.
Discusses a project on meat characteristics of ostriches done for the
Canadian Ostrich Association by the LaCombe Research Centre (Agriculture and
Agri-Food Canada). Main objectives were: (1) develop slaughter and processing
methodologies for ostriches, (2) set up approved inspection procedures, (3)
collect a Canadian database on the meat yield and quality, (4) establish
initial data to develop an ostrich grading system. Discusses how the research
was done. Provides tables on the non-carcass components (g/ kg of live
weight) and carcass composition for male and female ostriches.
ostriches/ meat quality/ meat yield/ slaughter methodologies

341. Jones S; Robertson W; and Brereton D. The ostrich as a meat animal.
Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 18-20.
References. KL1+
Second in a series. Describes quality measurements. Lists pH readings made at
1h, 3h and 24h post-mortem to indicate speed at which post-mortem metabolism
occurs. Found relatively high 24h pH but not sure if this is inherent to
ostriches or due to preslaughter treatment. Found ostrich meat was similar in
colour to medium dark coloured beef, significantly more tender and palatable
than beef. Most of the objectives of the study done for the Canadian Ostrich
Association by the LaCombe Research Centre (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)
were met: (1) develop slaughter and processing methodologies for ostriches,
(2) set up approved inspection procedures, (3) collect a Canadian database on
the meat yield and quality, (4) establish initial data to develop an ostrich
grading system (partly met).
ostriches/ meat quality/ meat yield/ slaughter methodologies

342. Jong Bd. Ostrich farming in the Netherlands. Muhle-+-Mischfuttertechnik
1994; 131(44): 617.
In the Netherlands, ostrich farming is a recent, rapidly growing part of
intensive livestock production, initiated by high prices paid for eggs and
young birds exported to the USA. Therefore ostrich production in the
Netherlands has concentrated on ostrich breeding. The Dutch ostrich farmers'
association (NSO), affiliated to the European ostrich farmers' organization,
has more than 100 members. It is intended to develop a market for ostrich
meat, leather and feathers in the Netherlands. Ostriches are ready for
slaughter at 14 months old and weigh 100 kg, i.e. 35-50 kg meat, mainly the
upper legs. Ostrich meat is low in fat and cholesterol and is already
available in some Dutch restaurants. Adult hens start laying at 2-3 years old
and remain fertile for about 40 years. During this time annual egg production
can vary between 20 and 70 eggs. The eggs weigh about 1.5 kg and hatch after
40-42 days in an incubator. The chicks are kept in heated housing with a
minimum temperature of 32°C. Adult ostriches tolerate extreme weather
conditions and need only a shelter in an outside run. Feed formulations are
being developed by the feed industry in cooperation with the NSO. Mixed feed
is given together with green feed and grit for efficient digestion. Adult
ostriches consume about 2 kg of a special mixed feed daily. Ostrich farms and
individual ostriches are subject to registration, administered by the Dutch
trade association for poultry and eggs. Health and welfare of ostriches are
monitored by veterinarians specializing in ostrich care.
intensive husbandry/ ostriches/ production/ Netherlands 

343. Jorgensen J and Christensen J. The inner ear of the common rhea (Rhea
americana L.). Brain Behavior And Evolution 1989; 34(5): 273-280.
The morphology of the inner ear in rheas was examined by light and electron
microscopy. The shape is typically bird-like with very long semicircular
canals. The anterior and posterior cristae have small septa cruciata. The
vestibular sensory epithelia contain two main types of hair cell innervation:
bouton-innervated hair cells and calyceal hair cells characterized by a
surrounding nerve calyx. The utricular macula has a single zone of calyceal
hair cells, while all other previously examined birds, except the mute swan,
have 2 zones. The height of the tallest sensory hairs of the cristae is 20-30
mu-m. In the utricular and lagenar macula, the hairs are 5-7 mu-m in the
striola and 10-20 mu-m in the main parts of the sense organs. Along the edges
of the maculae the longest hairs may reach 20-30 mu-m. The number of
stereovilli on mature vestibular hair cells is 40-60. The sensory hairs of
the hearing organ, the basilar papilla, are generally shorter but more
numerous than the vestibular sensory hairs. In the proximal end, the tallest
of the 175-200 stereovilli are 2.8-3.7 mu-m; in the distal end of the
papilla, the number of stereovilli decrease to 65- 100, and their height
increases gradually to 7.3-8.7 mu-m. The neural sensory hairs are generally
taller than those of the abneural side.
Bird/ Mute Swan/ Vestibular Organ/ Labyrinth/ Innervation/ Sensory Hair Cell/
Comparative Morphology/ Light Microscopy/ Electron Microscopy

344. Jost, R and Siegmann, O. Problems of ostrich farming from the veterinary
many,-im-May-1994; May 1994; Hannover, Germany.; 1994 86-93. 
There were at present some 2000 farmed ostriches on over 100 premises in
Germany. Problems included low hatchability, chick deaths from yolk sac
inflammation and diarrhoea, and the risk of Newcastle disease (for which
vaccination was recommended) and avian influenza.
epidemiological surveys/ Newcastle disease/ diseases/ avian influenzavirus;

345. Joubert D. The livestock situation in Southern Africa: a study in
perspective. South African Journal of African Affairs 1975; 5(1): 14-24.
English; 2 tab., 34 ref; 9601
Improvements in livestock production in Southern Africa are dependent on: (1)
careful demarcation of production regions in terms of their true livestock
potential; some areas should be used only for prescribed forms of livestock,
and others not put to such use at all. (2) Urgent need for critical
evaluation of the indigenous breeds and types of livestock within the region.
Official stock improvement schemes should aim at ecologically sound and
economically realistic guidelines. (3) The gap between the best and the worst
in livestock production should be dramatically narrowed, through improved
management, nutrition, disease control and husbandry attainable only through
education and training. (4) Southern Africa is as coherent in respect of its
livestock industry as it has common geographical features. Although strict
veterinary controls will always be necessary, there is scope for
co-operation, through such agencies as SARCCUS. Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Rhodesia, South Africa, South West Africa and Swaziland.
livestock/ production/ regional planning/ Poultry/ tropics/ animal
production/ poultry industry/ breeding/ Cattle/ Sheep/ GOATS/ PIGS/ HORSES/
ostriches/ Africa (South)/ southern/ avian species

346. Kadi F; Mouchiroud D; Sabeur G; and Bernardi G. The Compositional
Patterns of the Avian Genomes and Their Evolutionary Implications. Journal of
Molecular Evolution 1993; 37(5): 544-551.
English Article
The compositional distributions of large (main-band) DNA fragments from eight
birds belonging to eight different orders (including both paleognathous and
neognathous species) are very broad and extremely close to each other. These
findings, which are paralleled by the compositional similarity of homologous
coding sequences and their codon positions, support the idea that birds are a
monophyletic group. The compositional distribution of third-codon positions
of genes from chicken, the only avian species for which a relatively large
number of coding sequences is known, is very broad and bimodal, the minor
GC-richer peak reaching 100% GC. The very high compositional heterogeneity of
avian genomes is accompanied (as in the case of mammalian genomes) by a very
high speciation rate compared to cold-blooded vertebrates which are
characterized by genomes that are much less heterogeneous. The higher GC
levels attained by avian compared to mammalian genomes might be correlated
with the higher body temperature (41-43-degrees-C) of birds compared to
mammals (37-degrees-C). A comparison of GC levels of coding sequences and
codon positions from man and chicken revealed very close average GC levels
and standard deviations. Homologous coding sequences and codon positions from
man and chicken showed a surprisingly high degree of compositional similarity
which was, however, higher for GC-poor than for GC-rich sequences. This
indicates that GC-poor isochores of warm-blooded vertebrates reflect the
composition of the isochores of the genome of the common reptilian ancestor
of mammals and birds, which underwent only a small compositional change at
the transition from cold- to warm-blooded vertebrates. In contrast, the
GC-rich isochores of birds and mammals are the result of large compositional
changes at the same evolutionary transition, where were in part different in
the two classes of warm-blooded vertebrates.
Isochores/ DNA/ Coding Sequences/ Birds/ Mammals/ Evolution/ COLD BLOODED

347. Kaneene J; Taylor R; Sikarskie J; Meyer T; and Richter N. Disease
patterns in the Detroit Zoo: a study of the avian population from 1973
through 1983. Journal-of-the-American-Veterinary-Medical-Association 1985;
187(11): 1129-1131.
10 ref
The mean population of birds during the study period was 469. Overall annual
morbidity rates were 12.5% to 21.5%, with spring months having the highest
rates. Annual mortality rates were 3.1% to 15.2%; 23.9% of the deaths were
caused by microbial agents (particularly Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae,
haemolytic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aeromonas spp. and Proteus
spp.), 15.4% by trauma, and 42.5% by nondetermined causes. The mute swan
(Cygnus olor), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), common gallinule (Gallinula
chloropus), common rhea (Rhea americana), and red-billed hornbill (Tockus
erythrorhynchus) were the 5 species most frequently affected in the 1032
deaths from 1973 to 1983. The most frequently isolated parasites were
Microtetramere spp., coccidian species, Diplotriaena spp., and Trichomonia
Swan/ Anseriformes/ Struthioniformes/ Coraciadiformes/ Gallinula choropus/
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae/ Escherichia infection/ Salmonellosis/
Aeromonas/ Trauma/ Nutritional disorders/ Mortality/ Bacterial diseases/ Zoo
animals/ Birds/ Losses 

348. Kazacos K; Fitzgerald S; and Reed W. Baylisascaris procyonis as a cause
of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in ratites. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife
Medicine 1991; 22(4): 460-465.
English; 24 ref
An ostrich (Struthio camelus) and 2 emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in a
private zoological collection in Indiana, USA, developed progressive
neurologic disease and eventually became unable to stand or walk. At
necropsy, all 3 birds had extensive multifocal encephalomalacia and
inflammation in the brain stem and cerebellum associated with larvae of B.
procyonis. The bird's pen was contaminated with faeces from 3 to 5 infected
raccoons (Procyon lotor) that had been housed in a barn loft directly
overhead. Infective B. procyonis ova were recovered from soil samples taken
within the ostrich-emu pen and from raccoon faeces and soil from under a new
cage occupied by the 3 remaining raccoons.
Nematoda/ Ascarididae/ Birds/ Zoo animals/ Carnivores/ Procyonidae/ Brain/
Struthionidae/ Dromaiidae/ Baylisascaris procyonis/ OSTRICHES/ USA/
zoological gardens/ EMUS/ Procyon lotor/ Indiana 

349. Kazacos K; Winterfield R; and Thacker H. Etiology and epidemiology of
verminous encephalitis in an emu. Avian Diseases 1982; 26(2): 389-391.
English; 8 ref; 9601
Retrospective study of a case of verminous encephalitis in a Dromaius
novaehollandiae [see Hm/ A 48, 361] showed that the parasite responsible was
a Baylisascaris sp. The emu, and another that also exhibited central nervous
system disease, had been kept on a farm in Indiana, USA, where they had fed
off the ground in an enclosure which had been occupied by a skunk 3-4 years
earlier. The parasite was probably, therefore, B. columnaris. 12 to 14 years
earlier the area had been used for raising raccoons which are host to B.
procyonis, but it is thought unlikely that eggs of this nematode could have
remained infective for so long.
epizootiology/ Epidemiology/ case reports/ Helminths/ encephalitis/
parasites/ Birds/ EMUS/ Procyonidae/ Dromaius/ Ascarididae/ Struthioniformes/
Baylisascaris columnaris/ Baylisascaris procyonis

350. Keen, P. Ostrich nutrition. Ostrich workshop for veterinarians; April
11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich Ranch; [1992]4 p. 
Provides information on commercial concentrates available in Zimbabwe, their
analyses and suggestions (ostrich starter, ostrich grower, ostrich
maintenance and ostrich breeder).
ostriches/ nutrition

351. Keffen R. Intussusception in an ostrich chick. Journal of the South
African Veterinary Association 1984; 55(2): 77.
Intussusception of the distal small intestine was observed in a 5-week old
ostrich chick. The intussusception occurred at the point of attachment of the
yolk sac and was speculated as being a predisposing cause to the problem, as
a result of localised infection. Other predisposing causes seen in poultry
such as enteritis, tumours, parasites and diet, were not evident in this
Animal/ Birds/ Case Report/ Ileal Diseases etiology/ Intussusception
etiology/ Male/ Bird Diseases etiology/ Ileal Diseases veterinary/
Intussusception veterinary

352. Keller P; Schulze J; and Ruedi D. Organ enzyme pattern and plasma enzyme
activities in fowl, ostrich and flamingo. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde
1986; 128(8): 407-418.
German; 26 ref
Creatine kinase (CK), fructose-diphosphate aldolase (ALS), glutamate
dehydrogenase (GLD) and iditol or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) exhibited an
analogous tissue distribution pattern and organ specificity as is commonly
found in mammalian species. The remaining enzymes (alkaline phosphatase or
ALP, gamma-glutamyltransferase or GGT, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase or
HBD, lactate dehydrogenase or LD, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase or
AST and ALT) were of ubiquitous origin, but again, no fundamental differences
were observed between the distribution patterns of the investigated bird
tissues and those of corresponding mammalian organs. However, in the
investigated bird species, ALT was not liver-specific and had a lower
absolute liver activity, a finding in marked contrast to the conditions seen
in the dog, cat and the rat. Furthermore a low LD/ HBD quotient, similar to
that of the heart muscle, was found in the liver of the domestic fowl, the
ostrich and flamingo, representing a phenomenon which is also typical for the
ruminant liver. The possibilities of a diagnostic application of enzyme
activity determinations in birds is briefly discussed.
Dehydrogenases/ Alkaline phosphatase/ Lactate dehydrogenase/
Aminotransferases/ Liver/ Diagnosis/ Blood chemistry/ Creatine kinase/ Birds/
Enzymes/ Fowl/ Tissue distribution

353. Kember N; Kirkwood J; Duignan P; Godfrey D; and Spratt D. Comparative
cell kinetics of avian growth plates. Research in Veterinary Science 1990;
49(3): 283-288.
8 ref
The cell kinetics of the cartilage growth plates in the chicken, budgerigar
and rhea derived from studies with tritiated thymidine labelling were
studied. Quantitative histological measurements on growth plates from leg
bones (tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and a phalangeal bone) in a further five
species of birds are presented. Counts of flat cells and measurements of the
average diameter of hypertrophic cells were made for each growth plate. These
results are compared with values for the overall growth rates of the bones.
The variation in sizes of hypertrophic cells was small and it is concluded
that the largest factor in determining the growth rate of an avian bone is
the size of the zone of flat cells.
Birds/ Psittaciformes/ Bones/ Growth/ fowls/ cartilage/ growth plates

354. Kennedy M and Brenneman K. Enteritis Associated with a Coronavirus-Like
Agent in a Rhea (Rhea-Americana) Chick. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
1995; 9(2): 138-140.
English Article
A 6-week-old rhea (Rhea americana) chick experienced weakness and ataxia of a
few hours' duration followed by death. Histopathology of the intestines
revealed villous atrophy and fusion, hyperplastic crypts, and inflammatory
cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. Intestinal epithelial cells contained
eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Coronavirus-like particles were
identified by electron microscopy from the intestinal contents. This is the
first report of coronavirus-like agents associated with enteritis in a rhea.
Ratite/ Rheas/ Coronavirus/ Intestinal villous atrophy/ Enteritis

355. Kenny D and Cambre R. Indications and technique for the surgical removal
of the avian yolk sac. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1992; 23(1):
13 ref
Surgery/ Casuarius casuarius/ EMUS/ Anseriformes/ Anser indicus/ Chloephage
picts/ Aythya valisineria/ Struthioniformes/ Yolk sac

356. Kilgore DJ; Bernstein M; and Schmidt Nielsen K. Brain temperature in a
large bird, the rhea. American Journal of Physiology 1973; 225(3): 739-742.
Body Temperature Regulation/ Carotid Arteries physiology/ Models, Biological/
Neck blood supply/ *Birds physiology/ *Body Temperature/ *Brain physiology

357. Kille M. Will the Somali ostriches be extinct within the next few years?
Somali Range Bulletin 1980; No. 9: 34-36.
English; 9601
The ostrich, Struthio camelis, occurs in three races in Somalia: the Somali,
Massai, and North African forms. Numbers in Somalia have been reduced at an
alarming rate, due to hunting for meat and collection of eggs. Strong
enforcement of existing laws that make the taking of ostriches and ostrich
eggs illegal is highly recommended.
distribution/ conservation/ arid regions/ birds/ OSTRICHES/ Struthioniiformes

358. Kim D-Y; Cho D-Y; and Taylor H. Lysosomal storage disease in an emu
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology 1996; 33(3): 365-366.
English; 7 ref.; 9606
Lysosomal storage disease involving the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen
was discovered in a 6-month-old male emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). The
diagnosis was based on light and electron microscopic studies and
histochemical staining characteristics. This is the first case of lysosomal
storage disease reported in a ratite.
emus/ brain/ nervous system/ lysosomes/ lysosomal/ storage disease

359. Kinde H. Case report: a fatal case of oak poisoning in a double-wattled
cassowary (Casuarius casuarius). Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease
Conference 1988; 37: 166.
Quercus agrifolia/ Birds/ Case reports/ Poisonous plants/ Quercus 

360. Kinde H. A fatal case of oak poisoning in a double-wattled cassowary
(Casuarius casuarius). Avian-Diseases 1988; 32(4): 849-851.
5 ref
Histopathology/ Tannins/ Poisonous plants/ Quercus/ Birds 

361. Kinder L; Angel C; and Anthony N. Apparent selenium toxicity in emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(3): 652-657.
English; 24 ref.
A commercial emu breeder experienced high embryonic mortality during the
1992-93 breeding season, apparently associated with high levels of selenium.
The feed was a mixture of catfish food supplemented with a vitamin E and
selenium premix. The mixture contained an average of 1.4 ppm selenium.
Selenium analysis was conducted on eggs from several hens laid during the
period of vatamin and selenium supplementation and after the supplementation
was withdrawn. Initial egg selenium levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.1 ppm, with a
mean value of 4.2 +/ - 0.7 ppm (n = 9). Eggs collected over a 2-month period
post-withdrawal contained 2.1 +/ - 0.2 ppm selenium (n = 6). Eggs sampled
between 2 and 3 months post-withdrawal contained 1.1 +/ - 0.1 ppm selenium (n
= 4). Egg selenium levels decreased significantly over the 2-month period (P
< 0.05) for each individual sample. (Author's abstract)
emus/ selenium/ toxicity

362. Kirkwood J and Cunningham A. Epidemiological Observations On Spongiform
Encephalopathies In Captive Wild Animals In The British Isles. Veterinary
Record 1994; 135(13): 296-303.
Since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19
captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections
in the British Isles. The affected animals have comprised members of the
family Bovidae: one nyala (Tragelaphus angasi), four eland (Taurotragus
oryx), and six greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (Oryx
gazella), one Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx
(Oryx dammah), and members of the family Felidae: four cheetah (Acinonyx
jubatus) and one puma (Felis concolor). Tn addition, three cases of a
spongiform encephalopathy of unknown aetiology have been reported in
ostriches (Struthio camellus) from two toes in north west Germany. Three
features suggest that some of these cases may have been caused by the agent
of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). First, they have been temporally
and geographically coincident with the BSE epidemic. Secondly, in all the
ungulates for which details are available, it is possible that either the
affected animal itself, or the herd into which it was born or moved, had been
exposed to proprietary feeds containing ruminant-derived protein or other
potentially contaminated material, and all the carnivores had been fed parts
of cattle carcases judged unfit for human consumption. Thirdly, the
pathological results of inoculating mice with a homogenate of fixed brain
tissue from the nyala and from one greater kudu were similar to the results
of inoculating mice with BSE brain tissue. [References: 43]
Kudu tragelaphus strepsiceros. Scrapie. Features. Disease. Cat

363. Klos H; Langner H; Boenigk G; Wandelburg K; Pohl H; Grund S; Eichberg J;
and Steglich W. Chemical and physical studies on eggshells of four species of
running birds (Struthioniformes). Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 1976;
23A(5): 413-428.
German; 9601; 15 ref
Calcium/ Magnesium/ Sodium/ Strontium/ Copper/ Iron/ Silicon/ Manganese/
Phosphorus/ Carbonate/ Pigments/ Classification/ egg shell/ Birds/ ostriches/
Rhea/ Struthioniformes/ Emu/ Cassowary

364. Knox, I. Exotic alternatives : an insight into other farming ventures :
deer farming, sheep dairying, yabby farming, ostrich farming, alpaca farming.
Melbourne, Vic.: Agmedia : Dept. of Agriculture ; [Geelong] : GOTEC; 71 p. 
English; ill
Animal culture Australia Congresses/ Exotic animals Australia Congresses/
Deer farming Australia Congresses/ Sheep Australia Milk production
Congresses/ Crayfish culture Australia Congresses/ Ostrich farms and farming
Australia Congresses

365. Kok O. Food intake of ostriches in the Namib-Naukluft Park, South West
Africa. Madoqua 1980; 12(3): 155-161.
Afrikaans; 9601; 19 ref
Food intake of 8 ostriches in the Namib-Naukluft Park was determined by
analysing stomach contents. Further data were obtained by direct field
observation of 2 hand-reared individuals. Ostriches were strictly vegetarian
and opportunistic feeders which utilized a wide range of plant spp.
particularly belonging to the Gramineae and Acanthaceae. Stomach samples
collected in Feb. 1978 after the start of the wet season contained a greater
amount of grass than those collected in Jan. HCN poisoning due to excessive
intake of grass sprouts early in the wet season and the poor condition of
birds at the end of the dry season resulted in high mortality.
wild animals/ diet/ botanical composition/ toxicity/ ostriches 

366. Kolb, J. Comparative study of the diagnosis and prophylaxis of Chlamydia
and Coxiella infections of farm animals in Namibia. Giessen, Germany:
Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universitat; 1992. 85 pp.
German; 203 ref. 
Chlamydia psittaci was isolated in cell culture from 6 of 103 pathological
specimens. One isolate was obtained from an ostrich. A
formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine was prepared from infected fetal membranes,
and was used to control an outbreak of abortion among goats. One isolate of
Coxiella burnetii was obtained from a goat placenta.
theses/ sheep diseases/ goat diseases/ ostriches/ Chlamydia psittaci/ Namibia 

367. Kolb J; Kankondi R; and Hubschle O. Isolation of Chlamydia spp from
Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus) (Short Report). Deutsche Tierarztliche
Wochenschrift 1993; 100(11): 454.
Post mortem examination of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) originating from
a flock with a high mortality rate is described. The main pathological
lesions found, indicated colibacillosis which was further corrobated by the
isolation of pure culture E coli. Furthermore Chlamydia spp. was isolated for
the first time from ostriches. A detailed isolation procedure ist presented.
The association of colibacillosis with Chlamydia and the latency of Chlamydia
is discussed.

368. Kosters J; Hornung B; and Korbel R. Veterinarian aspects of ostrich
farming. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1996; 103(3): 100-104.
German; 37 ref.; 9606
The present paper is an attempt to relate the etiology of 54 cases with
diseased/ deceased ostriches to criterions of keeping, feeding, climate and
infectious diseases. Despite the fact that some of the damages diagnosed seem
to be avoidable the criterions of the law for the prevention of cruelty to
animals are not to be fulfilled since the adverse climatic circumstances in
Germany. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ diseases/ farming

369. Krzeminski B and Radomska M. Ostrich farming. Magazyn Weterynaryjny
1994; 3(5): 47-48.
animal husbandry/ ostriches 

370. Kuhn C; Naude R; Travis J; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor from the serum of the ostrich
(Struthio camelus) . International Journal of Biochemistry 1994; 26(6):
1. Native and cleaved alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor was purified from ostrich
serum using Sepharose-blue dextran chromatography, ammonium sulfate
precipitation and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M at pH
8.8 and 6.5. 2. Ostrich alpha(1)-PI displayed M(r) values of 68,100 using
gradient PAGE and 66,200 using Ferguson plots. 3. Isoelectric focusing of
ostrich alpha(1)-PI in the pH range 3-10 revealed pi values of 4.84 and 4.91,
and in the pH range 4-6 the characteristic microheterogeneity observed for
mammalian alpha(1)-PIs was displayed. 4. The presence of sialic acid, hexoses
and hexosamines was detected using chemical methods, but were found in much
lower quantities as compared to alpha(1)-PIs of other species. 5. Western
blot analysis demonstrated a positive reaction between the native and cleaved
ostrich alpha(1)-PIs and the antibodies to the ostrich alpha(1)-PIs raised in
rabbits. No cross-reactivity was demonstrated by Western blot analysis
between human alpha(1)-PI and antibodies to ostrich alpha(1)-PI. 6. The
inhibitory effect of alpha(1)-PI on elastase and chymotrypsin was also
investigated. [References: 42]
Plasma alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor. Proteinase inhibitors./ Alpha 1
antitrypsin. Multiple forms. Alpha 1 antitrypsin./ Pancreas. Alpha 1
antichymotrypsin. Chymotrypsinogen./ Purification. Inactivation

371. Kwiecien J; Smith D; Key D; Swinton J; and Smith ML. Encephalitis
attributed to larval migration of Baylisascaris species in emus. Canadian
Veterinary Journal 1993; 34(3): 176-178.
English; 14 ref
Seven emu chicks (Dromaius novaehollandiae) aged 10 week to 5 months were
examined PM between July 1990 and January 1991. These birds originated from a
farm where 3 types of ratites (emu, ostrich, rhea) were kept. All animals
showed signs of ataxia, incoordination and muscle weakness. No relevant gross
lesions were noted. Significant lesions were confined to the cerebellum. The
most consistent microscopic finding was perivascular cuffing by mononuclear
leukocytes. In one bird, 3 cross sections of a nematode of approximately 60
µm in diameter were found. The clinical symptoms and lesions were consistent
with reports of verminous encephalitis attributed to infection with
Baylisascaris. The possible source of infection could have been racoons seen
on the premises, although not in direct contact with the birds.
Casuariiformes/ Case reports/ Pathology/ Nervous system diseases/ Birds/
Parasite migration/ EMUS/ Baylisascaris/ Encephalitis/ Nematoda/ Ascarididae/
Dromaiidae/ Canada 

372. Kyle R. New Species For Meat Production [Review]. Journal of
Agricultural Science 1994; 123(Part 1): 1-8.
Ostrich struthio camelus. Commercial production. United kingdom

373. Labonde, J, Miller, R, and Michel, C. Conservative orthotic management
of angular limb deformities in ratites. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30,
1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 143-145. 
English; 2 ref.
Discusses the problem of trying to use one type of orthotic for all leg
problems. The goal of conservative orthotic management is to us a light
weight, high temperature thermoplastic brace to support or correct the
angular limb problem. One problem is that many conditions are multifactorial
in etiology.
ratites/ orthotics/ legs/ brace

374. Laing, R. Incubation techniques. Ostrich workshop for veterinarians;
April 11-12, 1994; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich Ranch; [1992]8
Discusses egg collection and handling, pre-incubation treatment, hatchery
design, choice of incubator, controls, turning, cooling , hatching, and
ostriches/ incubation

375. Lambert M; Deeming D; Sibly R; and Ayres L. The relationship between
pecking behaviour and growth rate of ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks in
captivity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1995; 46(1-2): 93-101.
English; 17 ref.; 9603
Captive ostrich (Struthio camelus) chicks kept in 'mixed weight' groups grow
more slowly than chicks kept in 'similar weight' groups. It has been
suggested that this was a result of aggressive pecking of smaller chicks by
larger birds, reducing the growth rates of the former by prevention of
feeding, Here we test the hypothesis that position in a peck order correlates
with growth rate in chicks. Two groups of 12 chicks, one group of birds of a
similar weight and one group where chick weight was mixed, were kept under
quarantine conditions for 5 weeks. Pecking behaviour and growth rate of
individual birds were recorded.
Chicks pecked the toes and heads of their companions althouogh the rate of
pecking varied between birds. At the end of the study period chicks in the
mixed weight group were larger than birds in the similar weight group. The
correlations between pecking rate (of both heads and toes) and growth rate
were negative for both groups of birds. Pecking at companions in ostrich
chicks was limited to individual birds who may be less successful at feeding
and so grow more slowly The hypothesis that growth of some ostrich chicks was
reduced because of harassment by larger birds was not supported by the data
and the study leaves unexplained the finding that chicks in mixed weight
groups grow more slowly than chicks in equal weight groups.
ostriches/ chicks/ behaviour/ growth

376. Lane R. Selecting your best ratites. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(2): 16-18.
Poultry breeders have used line breeding to select for desirable production
parameters. Inbreeding, however, can result in a dramatic drop in eggs laid
and chicks hatched (inbreeding depression). Unlike poultry, ratites have a
relatively long generation time, need more space, have a high dollar value,
and their pedigrees are unknown. DNA fingerprints have shown that the North
American emu, ostrich and rhea populations have a relatively low level of
genetic diversity. There is an increased risk of inbreeding when randomly
selecting pairs. This suggest that ratite line breeding will be a much longer
process with a higher risk of inbreeding depresssion than poultry. Rapid
gains in desirable production parameters in ratites are still possible using
carefully developed line breeding. DNA fingerprinting can be used to
accurately define the degree of relationship between any two birds or between
birds in a group. This information can then be used to select breeding pairs.
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ ratites/ breeding/ DNA fingerprinting

377. Larson J. Raising quail, partridge, pheasant, bobwhites, and ostriches
January 1979 May 1989. Quick Bibliogr Ser U S Dep Agric Natl Agric Libr U S.
Beltsville, Md. : The Library 1989; (89-95): 10 p.
quails/ pheasants/ partridges/ ostriches/ colinus virginianus/ aviculture/
game management/ bibliographies

378. Larson J. Raising quail, partridge, pheasant, bobwhites, and ostriches:
January 1987 January 1992. Quick Bibliogr Ser U S Dep Agric Natl Agric Libr U
S. Beltsville, Md. : The Library 1992; (92-20): 65 p.
quails/ partridges/ pheasants/ ostriches/ colinus virginianus/ animal
husbandry/ bibliographies

379. Law J; Tully T; and Stewart T. Verminous encephalitis apparently caused
by the filarioid nematode Chandlerella quiscali in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1993; 37(2): 597-601.
English; 11 ref.
Verminous encephalitis attributed to Chandlerella quiscali was diagnosed in a
flock of emus (Dromaius novaebollandiae). Clinically affected birds showed
torticollis and progressive ataxia. Filarioid parasites with morphological
characteristics resembling C quiscali were identified in one case. Histologic
lesions in the brain and spinal cord consisted of mild to moderate
perivascular cuffing and scattered areas of variable mild necrosis. Parasites
observed within the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord often were not
associated with either necrosis or an inflammatory reaction. Ivermectin
administered subcutaneously at 4-week intervals at a dose rate of 200 mug/ kg
body weight appeared to prevent clinical signs in flocks in the presumed
endemic area. (Author's abstract)
emus/ parasites/ nematodes

380. Lazure C; Paquet L; Litthauer D; Naude R; Oelofsen W; and Chretien M.
The ostrich pituitary contains a major peptide homologous to mammalian
chromogranin A(1-76). Peptides (Elmsford) 1990; 11(1): 79-88.
A major peptide related to the NH-2-terminal fragment (position 1 to 76) of
mammalian chromogranin A was isolated from ostrich adenohypophyses following
acid-acetone extraction. The complete amino acid sequence of the homogenous
peptide was deduced following automatic Edman degradation of the native
peptide as well as of CNBr-, tryptic- and Lysobacter-derived peptides. The 76
amino acid sequence is strikingly homologous to bovine (80.3% sequence
identity), porcine (79.0%), human (79.0%) and rat (72.4%) corresponding
sequences, but much less so to human chromogranin B (22.4%). As this peptide
is followed in bovine, porcine and human structure by a pair of basic
residues (Lys-Lys), it could conceivably be produced during maturation in
secretory granules. Finally, its structure appears to contain two potential
amphipathic helices joined by the single disulfide bridge present in all
chromogranin A and B molecules.
Struthio Camelus/ Human/ Bovine/ Porcine/ Rat/ Adenohypophyseal Hormone/
Amino Acid Sequence/ Molecular Sequence Data

381. Lazure C; Saayman H; Naude R; Oelofsen W; and Chretien M. Complete amino
acid sequence of a VLDV type neurophysin from ostrich differs markedly from
known mammalian neurophysins. International Journal of Peptide and Protein
Research 1987; 30(5): 634-645.
The neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin are known to be
synthesized in eutherian mammals as part of larger precursors containing
either MSEL- or VLDV-neurophysins. A neurophysin has been isolated from
ostrich neurohypophyses and shown by partial amino acid sequence
determination to be related to mammalian VLDV-neurophysin. The present report
describes the complete amino acid sequence of this ostrich neurophysin
containing 93 residues. This amino acid sequence, the first reported in
birds, differs in a remarkable manner from its mammalian homolog. Indeed, it
contains a large number of substitutions, including one insertion,
distributed throughout the polypeptide chain when compared to known
VLDV-neurophysins. Whereas many of these substitutions are localized inside
the so-called constant region of the neurophysin, the highest variation can
be found in the COOH-terminal region.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Argipressin/ Mammals physiology/ Molecular Sequence
Data/ Neurophysins/ Pituitary Gland, Posterior analysis/ Protein Precursors/
Birds physiology

382. Leeds E. Tibial fracture repair in a double-waddled cassowary. Journal
of Veterinary Orthopedics 1979; 1(1): 21-27.
English; 9601
fractures/ Struthioniformes/ Birds 

383. Levi A; Perelman B; Waner T; Grevenbroek MV; Creveld CV; and Yagil R.
Haematological parameters of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Avian Pathology
1989; 18(2): 321-327.
English; 12 ref
Haematological reference values were obtained from healthy ostriches (one
month-6 years old) held under intensive conditions on two farms. Erythrocytic
parameters and indices were age-related: the packed cell volume, haemoglobin
concentration and erythrocyte count were lowest in ostriches of 1 to 3 months
of age. The mean corpuscular volume increased with age until adulthood. no
sex-linked differences were detected for the erythrocytic parameters.
Leukocyte counts were higher in younger ostriches; changes also being
detected in the differential count with age. The erythrocyte sedimentation
rate was both sex- and age-related. Young birds had the fastest rate of
sedimentation and females had a faster rate than males.
Age/ Sex/ Intensive husbandry/ Normal values/ Haematology/ Ostriches 

384. Levy A; Perelman B; Grevenbroek M; Creveld C; Agbaria R; and Yagil R.
Effect of water restriction on renal function in ostriches (Struthio
camelus). Avian Pathology 1990; 19(2): 385-393.
English; 17 ref
The production of a white urine by ostriches can be indicative of illness or
water deprivation. A metabolic renal study was carried out by dehydrating
young, healthy ostriches for 2 days, the period during which urine was still
excreted. It was found that the normally copious colourless urine changed to
a thick, white excretion after 2 days' dehydration and no fluid was excreted
after 3 days. From blood and urine analyses it was concluded that the ostrich
conserves body water by an excellent renal concentrating mechanism which
excretes urates. This excretion is a useful sign to the farmer that for some
reason the animals are not drinking whether through a lack of drinking water
or because of illness.
Water deprivation/ Urates/ Excretion/ Urine/ ostriches/ dehydration 

385. Levy A; Perelman B; Waner T; Grevenbroek MV; Creveld CV; and Yagil R.
Reference blood chemical values in ostriches (Struthio camelus). American
Journal of Veterinary Research 1989; 50(9): 1548-1550.
English; 8 ref.
Reference blood chemical values were determined for 65 male and 61 female
ostriches (Struthio camelus) 1 month to 72 months of age. Plasmas levels of
glucose, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea,
bilirubin, creatinine, osmolality, electrolytes and enzyme activity were
determined. In general, differences in various values appeared mainly among
age groups and less so between sexes. Older ostriches had lower plasma
glucose values and enzyme activity than did younger ostriches. High plasma
sodium and chloride concentrations in young ostriches correlated with high
plasma osmolalities. Plasma calcium values were lower in laying ostriches.
Uric acid concentrations were markedly higher than were urea concentrations
in all ostriches. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ blood chemistry/ normal values

386. Ley D; Morris R; Smallwood J; and Loomis M. Mortality of chicks and
decreased fertility and hatchability of eggs from a captive breeding pair of
ostriches. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1986;
189(9): 1124-1126.
English; 15 ref
Eggs/ Embryonic mortality/ Zoo animals/ Ostrich 

387. Linam G. Proper curing of ratite hide. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(5): 28.
Goes through the steps of curing a ratite hide. Describes skinning (diagram
included) and curing.
ratites/ leather

388. Lindeque P and Turnbull P. Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the
Etosha National Park, Namibia. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
1994; 61(1): 71-83.
Includes references.
loxodonta africana/ ungulates/ ostriches/ bacillus anthracis/ epidemiology/
disease prevalence/ seasonal variation/ mortality/ age differences/ sex
differences/ soil/ water/ bacterial spores/ sporulation/ namibia 

389. Linville J. Ask the vet: How can I tell if my chick has a retained yolk
sac? Ratite Journal 1994; 2(9): 8,11.
Describes the yolk sac and its function. "A yolk sac is considered
retained when there is a sifnificant amount of yolk remaining after 10 days
of age and the chick is losing weight". Recommends weighing chicks every
day to see if there is the proper weight gain.

390. Litthauer D and Oelofsen W. Purification and primary structure of
ostrich pancreatic polypeptide. International Journal of Peptide and Protein
Research 1987; 29(6): 739-745.
Pancreatic polypeptide has been isolated from ostrich pancreas by gel
filtration, ion exchange chromatography and high pressure liquid
chromatography. The ostrich peptide contains 36 amino acids and has an amino
acid composition similar to pancreatic polypeptide of other avian species.
The primary structure of ostrich pancreatic polypeptide differs from that of
the chicken peptide only at residues 3 and 18 where the ostrich peptide
contains an alanine and a valine residue compared to the serine and
isoleucine residues found in those positions in the chicken peptide.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chromatography, Gel methods/ Chromatography, High
Pressure Liquid methods/ Chromatography, Ion Exchange methods/ Peptide
Fragments analysis/ Species Specificity/ Trypsin/ Birds physiology/
Pancreatic Polypeptide isolation and purification

391. Locke D; Bush M; and Carpenter J. Pharmacokinetics and tissue
concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species. American Journal of
Veterinary Research 1982; 43(10): 1807-1810.
English; 18 ref.
Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in
avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied.
The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus
virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus
canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of
this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a
dosage rate of 25 mg/ kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15
mg/ kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons,
cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ ml, respectively.
These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration.
The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and
cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin
concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly
higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six
hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in
all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most
pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/ kg 4 times daily
for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/ kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/ kg 3
times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic
tissue concentrations. (Author's abstract)
emus/ tylosin/ antibiotic pharmacokinetics

392. Lublin A; Mechani S; Horowitz H; and Weisman Y. A paralytic like disease
of the ostrich (Struthio camelus masaicus) associated with Clostridium
chauvoei infection. Veterinary Record 1993; 132(11): 273-275.
Two adult Masai ostriches in a zoological collection became recumbent. The
birds could not raise the neck or the head, had difficulties in breathing,
and died eight and 13 days, respectively, after the first clinical signs
appeared. On post mortem examination the heart had a globous appearance
accompanied by gelatinous atrophy. The lungs were hyperaemic and oedematic,
while the intestines had prominent haemorrhages in their mucosa. The liver
and kidney were enlarged, and the former had also necrotic foci. Smears taken
from the hyperaemic regions of the intestines and the necrotic foci of the
liver were positive to Clostridium chauvoei after staining with specific
fluorescein-labelled antiserum. No other pathogenic agents were identified or
isolated from these birds. This report appears to be the first of a
pathogenic condition associated with C chauvoei in an avian species.
Acute Disease/ Bird Diseases pathology/ Birds/ Clostridium Infections
microbiology/ Clostridium Infections pathology/ Paralysis microbiology/
Paralysis pathology/ Bird Diseases microbiology/ Clostridium isolation and
purification/ Clostridium Infections veterinary/ Paralysis veterinary

393. Luthgen W. Gastric obstruction by a piece of wood in a young rhea.
Praktische Tierarzt 1977; 58(2): 93.
German; 9601
foreign bodies/ stomach diseases/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ Birds/

394. Maina J and King A. The lung of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae: a
microscopic and morphometric study. Journal-of-Anatomy 1989; 163: 67-73.
28 ref
Dromaius novaehollandiae/ Casuariiformes/ Respiratory system/ Anatomy/ Gas
exchange/ Blood vessels/ Lungs/ Birds 

395. Malan F; Gruss B; Roper N; Ashburner A; and Du Plessis C. Resistance of
Libyostrongylus douglassi in ostriches to levamisole. Journal of the South
African Veterinary Association 1988; 59(4): 202-203.
While fenbendazole at 15 mg kg-1 either alone or in combination with
resorantel reduced the total burden of Libyostrongylus douglassi by more than
98%, levamisole alone at 30 mg kg-1 was only 28% effective, and in
combination with resorantel its efficacy was 67%. These results with
levamisole do not correspond with the registered rate of efficacy which is
given as at least 80% in South Africa. This is apparently the first reported
case of anthelmintic resistance in ostriches.
Birds parasitology/ Drug Resistance/ Drug Therapy, Combination/ Fenbendazole
administration and dosage/ Levamisole administration and dosage/ Levamisole
pharmacology/ Trichostrongyloidea drug effects/ Trichostrongyloidiasis drug
therapy/ Bird Diseases drug therapy/ Levamisole therapeutic use/
Trichostrongyloidiasis veterinary

396. Malecki, IA, Martin, GB, and Lindsay, DR. Effect of Collection Frequency
on Semen Output in the Male Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Animal Production
in Australia PO Box 189/ Wongan Hills 6603/ Australia: Australian Society
Animal Production; 1994 435. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal
Production. v. 20).

397. Malecki, IA, Martin, GB, and Lindsay, DR. Methods for Collecting Semen
from the Male Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Animal Production in Australia
PO Box 189/ Wongan Hills 6603/ Australia: Australian Society Animal Prod;
1994 434. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production. v. 20).

398. Malkinson M; Weisman Y; Ashash E; Bode L; and Ludwig H. Borna disease in
ostriches. Veterinary Record 1993; 133(12): 304.
English; 2 ref
The detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) specific antigen in 7 of 13 brains
from birds with a spastic paretic condition and from the brain of one healthy
bird from a farm with diseased birds is reported. Antigen was detected by a
highly sensitive modified ELISA. By co-cultivation of tissues from an
infected bird with several cell lines, viral antigen was also detected by
immunofluorescence at the fourth serial passage using adult ostrich serum and
confirmed with a monoclonal mouse antibody. The virus showed no
cytopathogenic effects. This is the first report of natural Borna disease in
viral diseases/ nervous system diseases/ poultry diseases/ Borna disease
virus/ ostriches/ paresis/ Israel/ paralysis/ biotechnology/ ELISA/ detection 

399. Malkinson, M, Weisman, Y, Perl, S, and Ashash, E. A Borna-Like Disease
of Ostriches in Israel Koprowski, H and Lipkin, WI. Borna Disease. 175 Fifth
Ave/ New York/ NY 10010: Springer Verlag; 1995; 31-38. (Current Topics in
Microbiology and Immunology; v. 190).
English Review

400. Maloney S and Dawson T. The Heat Load from Solar-Radiation on a Large,
Diurnally Active Bird, the Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Journal of Thermal
Biology 1995; 20(5): 381-387.
1. The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is a large (40 kg) diurnal bird that
inhabits the arid inland of Australia where solar radiation levels can exceed
1000 W/ m(2) for many hours of the day. 2. We measured the solar heat load at
skin level below plumage samples from wild emus. At low wind speeds the heat
load was less than 10% of the incident radiation load. This fell to less than
1% at wind speeds above 6 m/ s. 3. Application of a simple model shows that
the radiation is absorbed close to the surface of the plumage. The resultant
heat is prevented from flowing to the skin by the coats' insulation. 4. On an
average summer day in the arid zone an emu will require less than 330 g of
water to evaporate the solar heat load.
emus/ color/ solar heat load/ solar radiation/ thermoregulation

401. Maloney S and Dawson T. Sexual dimorphism in basal metabolism and body
temperature of a large bird, the emu. Condor 1993; 95(4): 1034-1037.
English; 21 ref.
Found that male emus had a 20% lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than females.
Sexual dimorphism in BMR for avian species is usually association with a
dimorphism is size with the larger of the sexes having the lower BMR. In the
emu, there was no difference in mass between sexes in the winter. In summer
the males were smaller than females but still had a lower BMR. (KL)
basal metabolism/ physiology/ emus

402. Maloney S and Dawson T. Thermoregulation in a Large Bird, the Emu
(Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical
Systemic and Environmental Physiology 1994; 164(6): 464-472.
English Article
The emu is a large, flightless bird native to Australia. Its habitats range
from the high snow country to the arid interior of the continent. Our
experiments show that the emu maintains a constant body temperature within
the ambient temperature range -5 to 45 degrees C. The males regulate their
body temperature about 0.5 degrees C lower than the females. With falling
ambient temperature the emu regulates its body temperature initially by
reducing conductance and then by increasing heat production. At -5 degrees C
the cost of maintaining thermal balance is 2.6 times basal metabolic rate. By
sitting down and reducing heat loss from the legs the cost of homeothermy at
-5 degrees C is reduced to 1.5 times basal metabolic rate. At high ambient
temperatures the emu utilises cutaneous evaporative water loss in addition to
panting. At 45 degrees C evaporation is equal to 160% of heat production.
Panting accounts for 70% of total evaporation at 45 degrees C, The cost of
utilising cutaneous evaporation for the other 30% appears to be an increase
in dry conductance.
Cutaneous Evaporation/ Panting/ Ratite/ Thermoregulation/ Emu, Dromaius

403. Maloney S and Dawson T. Ventilatory Accommodation of Oxygen-Demand and
Respiratory Water-Loss in a Large Bird, the Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae),
and a Reexamination of Ventilatory Allometry for Birds. Journal of
Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology
1994; 164(6): 473-481.
English Article
Ventilation was studied in the emu, a large nightless bird of mass 40 kg,
within the range of ambient temperatures from -5 to 45 degrees C. Data for
the emu and 21 other species were used to calculate allometric relationships
for resting ventilatory parameters in birds (breath frequency =
13.5.mass(-0.314); tidal volume = 20.7.mass(1.0)). At low ambient
temperatures the ventilatory system must accommodate the increased metabolic
demand for oxygen. In the emu this was achieved by a combination of increased
tidal volume and increased oxygen extraction. Data from emus sitting and
standing at -5 degrees C, when metabolism is 1.5 x and 2.6 x basal metabolic
rate, respectively, indicate that at least in the emu an increase in oxygen
extraction can be stimulated by low temperature independent of oxygen demand.
At higher ambient temperatures ventilation was increased to facilitate
respiratory water loss. The emu achieved this by increased respiratory
frequency. At moderate heat loads (30-35 degrees C) tidal volume fell. This
is usually interpreted as a mechanism whereby respiratory water loss can be
increased without increasing parabronchial ventilation. At 45 degrees C tidal
volume increased; however, past studies have shown that CO2 washout is
minimal under these conditions. The mechanism whereby this is possible is
Allometry/ Thermoregulation/ Ventilation/ Emu, Dromaius Novaehollandiae/ GAS

404. Mann R. Predator control: a big bird for wily coyote? Emus (Dromiceius
novaehollandiae). Rangelands 1983; 5(2): 70-71.

405. Marks S; Stauber E; and Ernstrom S. Aspergillosis in an Ostrich. Journal
of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1994; 204(5): 784-785.
A 4-month-old sexually intact blue-neck ostrich was examined because of
chronic respiratory tract disease and poor performance. The bird was coughing
and dyspneic on physical examination. Thoracic radiographs were consistent
with air sacculitis. Bronchoscopy was used to view and to biopsy plaques
within the bronchus and lower airways. Aspergillus spp was identified in
culture and in biopsy specimens examined microscopically. Aspergillosis was
confirmed on postmortem examination. Bronchoscopy may aid in the early
diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
Ostrich/ Aspergillus Fumigatus/ Respiratory Tract Disease

406. Martella M and Navarro J. Capturing and marking greater rheas. Journal
Of Field Ornithology 1992; 63(2): 117-120.
In 1989-1990, 14 Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) were neck-collared at Cordoba
province, Argentina. Birds were stupefied during the night by a light-beam
and then caught using 'boleadoras.' The marking device was a numbered
adjustable cattle-type PVC legband. This capture and banding technique proved
to be efficient and comparatively inexpensive, and could be effective both
for other ratites and some large mammals with long legs.
Rhea Americana/ Mammal/ Field Method/ Argentina

407. Martella M; Renison D; and Navarro J. Vigilance In The Greater Rhea:
Effects Of Vegetation Height And Group Size. Journal Of Field Ornithology
1995; 66(2): 215-220.
English; 9601
Wild adult greater rheas (rhea americana) were observed during most of the
non breeding season (may july), while feeding alone or in groups in two
different habitats: high vegetation (shrubs) and low vegetation (herbaceous).
in both habitats an individual's percentage of time spent on vigilance
behavior significantly declined as group size increased, but in high
vegetation vigilance was lowest when group size was six and higher in larger
groups. vigilance was similar between sexes throughout the day. vigilance was
on average 11% greater in the high vegetation habitat. vigilance increased
from may to july.
Time budgets/ predation/ risk

408. Martin G and Katzir G. Visual-Fields in Ostriches. Nature 1995;
374(6517): 19-20.
English Letter

409. Martin, JA and Speer, BL. Restraint and Techniques of Ratites for the
Veterinary-Technician. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Assoc
Avian Veterinarians; 1993 369-380. 

410. Mason V. The future of food: is low fat going out of style. Canadian
Ostrich 1995; 4(4): 18-20.
Reviews what needs to be done to market ratite meat with respect to current
and future trends.
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ meat

411. Mason V. Selling: The key to business success. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(2): 26-28.
Provides advice on how to sell ratites and their products. Suggests getting
testimonials and listening to the potential buyer to understand their
ratites/ selling

412. Matthews N; Burba D; and Cornick J. Premature ventricular contractions
and apparent hypertension during anesthesia in an ostrich. Journal of the
American Veterinary Medical Association 1991; 198(11): 1959-1961.
English; 17 ref
Premature ventricular contractions and apparent hypertension were seen in an
adult ostrich anaesthetised with isoflurane. The ostrich had septic joints
and was anaesthetised to allow joint lavage. The premature ventricular
contractions occurred at a rate of 1 to 2/ min, with a brief period of 12 to
15/ min, and were not treated with any antiarrhythmic drugs. Normal blood
pressures for awake or anaesthetised adult ostriches are not readily
available, but blood pressures in this bird were higher than in other
ostriches measured with the same technique. Systolic pressures ranged from
199 to 249 mm of Hg, diastolic pressures from 107 to 177 mm of Hg, and mean
pressures were from 165 to 220 mm of Hg during isoflurane anaesthesia of
approximately 45 min duration. Recovery from anaesthesia was uncomplicated,
although the ostrich died 12 days later from mycotic pneumonia attributed to
Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans.
Mycoses/ Candida albicans/ Respiratory diseases/ Adverse effects/ Joint
diseases/ Arthritis/ Case reports/ Ostriches/ Blood pressure/ Anaesthesia/
Heart diseases/ Aspergillus/ hosts/ USA/ infections/ lungs 

413. Matthews N; Hartsfield S; Sanders E; and Light G. Anesthetic management
for surgery in 10 ostriches. Veterinary Surgery 1992; 21(2): 164.
English; Scientific Meeting, American College of Veterinary
Anaesthesiologists, San Francisco, October, 1991
Surgical operations/ Diazepam/ Ketamine/ Xylazine/ Telazol/ Haemodynamics/
Respiratory system/ Heart rate/ Anaesthesia/ Ostriches 

414. McClure S; Taylor T; Johnson J; Heisterkamp K; and Sanders E. Surgical
repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich. Journal of
the American Veterinary Medical Association 1995; 207(4): 479-480.
Tracheal injury should be considered following trauma to the neck of ratites
because of the trachea's superficial location. Tracheal split-ring
prostheses, used routinely in dogs, can be used to stabilize a collapsing
trachea in a ratite.
ostriches/ ratites/ trachea

415. McGowan C. The wing musculature of the Brown kiwi Apteryx australis
mantelli and its bearing on ratite affinities. Journal of Zoology 1982;
197(2): 173-219.
English; 36 Ref.; 9603
Most previous accounts of the wing muscles of the kiwi have only dealt with
the proximal muscles. The few accounts that have treated the distal muscles
are incomplete in other respects and sufficient uncertainty exists to warrant
the present study.
The wing musculature of the kiwi is closely similar to that of other ratites
but markedly dissimilar to that of the carinates. In this regard the wing
muscles differ from those of the leg. Ratites have far fewer wing muscles
that carinates. Significantly, they lack propatagial muscles (and almost
certainly propatagia), and neither the M. pectoralis nor the M.
supracoracoideus is well developed; in carinates these two flight muscles
comprise the bulk of the wing musculature. Furthermore, the insertion tendon
of the M. supracoracoideus does not loop through a triosseal canal to effect
wing elevation as it does in the carinates. In all of these regards the
ratite condition is closer to that of reptiles than of carinates. This raises
the question of whether ratites should be regarded as primitive birds, rather
than as advanced birds that evolved from carinates. The present
skeleto-muscular data, taken with other evidence, suggests that ratites are
primitive birds that evolved from a primitive, volant ancestor.
The elements of the pectoral skeleton show a greater degree of individual
variation than those of the pelvic skeleton. Aside from its extreme curvature
the humerus is the most rudimentary element and few of its features can be
compared with those of the carinate humerus.
Few of the wing muscles have attachments that can be identified with specific
osteoloical features. Myological data for the kiwi are therefore virtually
irretrievable from osteological material, as noted previously for the pelvic
muscles. While this might be peculiar to the kiwi (which seems unlikely) the
fact should serve as a cautionary note to palaeontologists attempting to
reconstruct the muscles of extinct animals. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ evolution/ kiwis

416. McIlroy J. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. VII.
Native and introduced birds. Australian Wildlife Research 1984; 11(2):
Birds in Australia vary greatly in their sensitivity to 1080 poison (sodium
monofluoroacetate). Median lethal doses range from 0 multiplied by 63 mg kg
super(-1) for red-browed firetails, Emblema temporalis , to approximately 278
mg kg super(-1) for the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae . Significant
differences occur between the sensitivity of different groups of birds and
may be related to differences in their metabolic rates. A few species may
also have developed a tolerance to 1080 from being exposed to indigenous
plants that contain fluoroacetate, or to insects and other animals which have
fed on such plants. The most common signs of 1080 poisoning among birds are
depression, fluffed feathers, a reluctance to move, and convulsions. Signs of
poisoning first appeared among the species tested at 1-60 h after dosing, and
deaths follow between 1 h to almost 11 days after dosing. The susceptibility
of 48 species of birds in Australia to 1080 poisoning is discussed in
relation to typical baits and poison concentrations used against vertebrate
poisoning/ sodium monofluoroacetate/ Emblema temporalis/ emus

417. McKean, B. The wonderful world of ostriches, or, How to raise ostriches
for fun and profit. 2nd ed. ed. Nevada, MO: McKean; 32 p. 
English; ill
Ostrich farms and farming/ Ostriches

418. McKenzie, AA. The Capture and care manual : capture, care, accommodation
and transportation of wild African animals. Pretoria : Wildlife Decision
Support Services : South African Veterinary Foundation; 1993; xxvii, 729 p. 
[16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) "The work of twenty-six wildlife
Chapter on the capture, care, accommodation and transportation of ostriches.
Wildlife management Africa/ Wild animal collecting Africa/ Animal
immobilization Africa/ ostriches 

419. McLelland J. Anatomy of the avian cecum. Journal of Experimental
Zoology. 1989; Suppl. 3: 2-9.
English; 53 ref 
The gross anatomy of the avian caeca is reviewed. In most birds, right and
left caeca arise laterally or ventrolaterally at the junction of the small
and large intestines. In a few species, the caeca open into the rectum
ventrally or dorsally. In many herons and bitterns, only one caecum is
present, and in the secretary bird there are 2 pairs of caeca. Caeca are
absent in woodpeckers, hummingbirds, swifts, kingfishers, pigeons,
mousebirds, cuckoos and parrots. Caeca may be classified according to length
into long, moderately or poorly developed, and vestigial types. In most
birds, the caeca are simple tubular, structures with minor variations in
shape. However, in a few species, including the ostrich, rheas, kiwis, some
tinamous, the red-throated loon, screamers, the satyr tragopan, the great
bustard, and the pin-tailed sandgrouse, the caeca are sacculated or have
diverticula. There is usually no correlation between the development of the
caeca and systematic position. Except in grouse (Tetraonidae), in which the
long caeca are related to the fibre content of the diet, the correlation
between caecal development and diet is extremely limited. There is no
relationship between the size of the caeca and the length and width of the
Caecum/ morphology/ birds/ reviews 

420. McMillan E and Zellen G. Histomoniasis in a rhea. Canadian Veterinary
Journal 1991; 32(4): 244.
Four 4-week-old rheas, placed in a pen containing healthy chickens of various
ages, died within 3 weeks. PM examination of one revealed severe typhlitis
due to histomoniasis. The chickens remained unaffected.
Birds/ rhea/ Histomonas/ Rheidae/ Mastigamoebidae/ Sarcomastigophora/

421. Meek, PD, O'Brien, PH, Brown, H, Skira, I, Byrnes, J, Best, L, Croft,
JD, Vitolovich, P, Hopcraft, D, Wahab, A, Sinnary, SM, O'Malley, P, and Webb,
G. Wildlife use and management: report of a workshop for Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people. Bureau-of-Rural-Resources-Canberra; 1992; No.
R/ 2/ 92. iii + 91pp.
The Bureau of Rural Resources convened a workshop on wildlife use and
management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in June 1990, to
provide them with information on the issues, problems and opportunities for
wildlife use and management. The workshop brought together Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people from all over Australia. The papers included in
this report are selected from among those presented at the workshop, and
abstracts are provided at the end of the report for the remaining papers. The
papers presented in full comprise: (1) Memories of mutton-birdin' our way (H.
Brown, pp. 3-5); (2) Commercial harvesting of short-tailed shearwaters
(Tasmanian Mutton-birds) (I. Skira, pp. 7-18); (3) Aboriginal experiences of
enterprise development (J. Byrnes, pp. 19-34); (4) Attitude of nature
conservation agencies to the use of wildlife by Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander people (L. Best, pp. 35-37); (5) Employment of Aboriginal people in
rabbit control: two examples (J. D. Croft, pp. 39-42); (5) Game meat -
legislative and public health aspects (P. Vitolovich, pp. 43-46); (6)
Wildlife use, conservation and profit combined (D. Hopcraft, pp. 47-50); (7)
The future of African wildlife systems: a conservation issue (A. Wahab; S. M.
Sinnary, pp. 51-55); (8) The emu industry - present and potential (P.
O'Malley, pp. 57-60); and (9) Managing crocodiles for commercial purposes (G.
Webb, pp. 61-68). The workshop report concludes with recommendations from
participants on how to advance the commercial use of wildlife by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people. The recommendations focus on the need for
expert assistance at the local level, training programmes that deal with the
skills involved in commercial use and the need for effective independent
advice to Aboriginal communities.
Wild birds/ Nature conservation/ Emus/ Crocodiles/ Wild animals/ utilization/
management/ ethnic groups/ Australia/ Wildlife/ Conferences/ Wildlife use and

422. Meier, U. Formation of rete testis and epididymis in the running birds
ostrich, nandu and emu. A macroscopical, light- and electron-microscopical
investigation. 1979; 63pp. 
German; 9601; 61 ref
Anatomy/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Age/ testes/ epididymis/ MALE GENITALIA/
birds/ ostriches 

423. Meir M and Ar A. Gas pressures in the air cell of the ostrich egg prior
to pipping as related to oxygen consumption, eggshell gas conductance, and
egg temperature. Condor 1990; 92(3): 556-563.
English; 36 ref.
It has been suggested that air cell oxygen partial pressure (P-AO-2) in avian
eggs just prior to internal pipping (PreIp stage) resembles that of avian
(and mammalian) alveolar partial pressure, e.g., P-AO-2 simeq 104 torr. On
the other hand, indirect evidence from water vapor eggshell conductance
(GH-2O) suggests that PreIp P-AO-2 is allometrically related to egg mass:
large and small eggs would have high and low P-AO-2, respectively, where the
calculated PreIp P-AO-2 of the Ostrich (Stuthio camelus) egg, from those
data, is about 125 torr. The rate of egg mass specific oxygen consumption (
ovrhdot MO-2), P-AO-2, and the partial pressure of CO-2 in the air cell
(P-ACO-2) were measured; oxygen diffusive eggshell conductance (CO-2), and
air cell gas exchange ratio (R) were calculated; egg content surface
temperature (T-s) and the rate of mass loss were measured in Ostrich eggs,
all during the last stages of development at 35.5 degree C and 45% relative
humidity. The mass loss was corrected for the effect of R to yield rate of
water loss ( ovrhdot MH-2O). This value and vapor saturation value at T-s
were used to calculate GH-2O. Mean +- standard deviation P-AO-2 and P-ACO-2
during PreIp stage were 103 +- 4.5 torr and 46 +- 6.0 torr, respectively. The
GO-2 found (129 ml (STPD) cntdot (day cntdot torr)-1 +- 57) was lower than
that predicted by allometric relationships or by calculation from GH-2O (185
ml (STPD) cntdot (day cntdot torr)-1). The ratio GO-2/ GH-2O was 0.59 +-
0.15, significantly different from the expected 0.85 (using the respective
diffusion coefficients). A temperature difference of 2.0 +- 0.5 degree C was
measured between the egg content surface and the incubator. The higher
temperature of the egg content surface, associated with an increase of water
vapor pressure in the air cell, presumably decreases GO-2 and increase GH-2O.
Values and R indicate that 1 day prior to external pipping the movements of
the mature embryo influence the pattern of gas exchange by creating
convective exchange. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ eggs

424. Mellett F. A Note On The Musculature Of The Proximal Part Of The Pelvic
Limb Of The Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of the South African
Veterinary Association 1994; 65(1): 5-9.
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) (n=90) were dissected and the musculature of
part of the proximal pelvic limb examined. Graphical representation of these
muscles are presented. It is evident that the anatomy of the hip and thigh of
the ostrich is typically avian, but with only the M. iliofemoralis present.
The M. iliotrochantericus medius is not found in ostriches, but both the M.
iliofemoralis externus and M. iliofemoralis internus, as well as both parts
of the M. flexor cruris lateralis and the M. ambiens are present in
ostriches. The ambiens muscle, responsible for the automatic grasping action
in birds, originates from the preacetabular lateral surface of the ilium. The
insertion of this muscle is, as in other birds, via a long tendon on the head
of the M. flexor digitorum magnus. A pectineus muscle is present in
ostriches. The Mm. femorotibiales consists of 4 muscles, inclusive of the M.
femorotibialis accessorius.
Ostrich/ Struthio camelus/ Musculature/ Myology/ Anatomy/ Growth/ Gompertz

425. Mellett, FD. Ostrich products Smith, WA, Editor. Practical guide for
ostrich management and ostrich products. [Matieland, South Africa]: Alltech
Inc.; 1995; 28-44. 44pp. 
English, 40 ref.; 9603
Discusses various ostrich products: feathers (anatomy, size, shape, flue
characteristics, damage and deviations); skins and leathers (achieving
optimal leather quality); meat (muscle nomenclature, changes during growth,
changes after slaughter, fat content, fatty acid profile and cholesterol
content); and meat processing.
ostriches/ feathers/ leather/ meat/ products

426. Mellett F and Randall J. A Note on the Growth of Body Parts of the
Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Animal Production 1994; 58(Part 2): 291-293.
English Article
In a study of the growth of various body parts of the ostrich, only the
growth of the head could be described with the Gompertz function. The growth
of the ostrich head (y in g) with time (x in months) is described by the
Gompertz function y = 613 exp[-ln (613/ 133) exp(-0.26x)]. This information
could be used in the design of carcass classification systems.
Carcass Grading/ Growth/ Ostriches/ CURVES

427. Mercolli C and Yanosky A. Calls Of The Common Rhea Americana (Aves,
Rheidae) In Argentina. Revista De Biologia Tropical 1994; 42(3): 759-760.
Spanish; 9601
Vocalizations of the greater rhea (rhea americana) were studied at el bagual
ecological reserve, northeastern argentina, during daytime (july 1991 june
1992). they vocalize during harem formation and while incubating.
vocalizations are emitted more frequently in the first half of the day, and
there are none during the night. it is hypothesized that they are used both
for female attraction and nesting territoriality.
Vocalizations/ greater rhea/ argentina

428. Mertins J and Schlater J. Exotic ectoparasites of ostriches recently
imported into the United States. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 1991; 27(1):
English; 9 ref
Eleven species of ectoparasitic arthropods were collected and identified from
ostriches (Struthio camelus) recently imported into the USA from Africa and
Europe. Four of these species are reported from ostriches for the first time.
The parasites included adult hippoboscid flies (Struthiobosca struthionis)
and 10 species of adult ixodid ticks (Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, A.
variegatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma albiparmatum, H. lusitanicum, H.
marginatum rufipes, H. truncatum, Hyalomma sp. and Rhipicephalus turanicus).
As a result of these findings, the US Department of Agriculture prohibited
further importation into the USA of ostriches and other flightless birds on
an interim basis.
Acari/ Ixodidae/ Diptera/ Hippoboscidae/ Introduced species/ Quarantine/
Birds/ Hosts/ Ostriches/ Struthionidae/ USA/ ectoparasites/ Struthiobosca
struthionis/ Amblyomma gemma/ Amblyomma lepidum/ Amblyomma variegatum/
Haemaphysalis punctata/ Hyalomma albiparmatum/ Hyalomma lusitanicum/ Hyalomma
marginatum rufipes/ Hyalomma truncatum/ Rhipicephalus turanicus

429. Migliorati G; Capua I; Fico R; and Pezzotti G. Introduction to health
problems in the farming of ostriches (Struthio camelus). Veterinaria Italiana
1992; 28(4): 47-52.
13 ref
animal diseases/ ostriches 

430. Mihalik, P and Srank, V. Experiences in incubating and rearing emus in
Bojnice Zoo. Ippen, R and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere.
Verhandlungsbericht des XXIV. Internationalen Symposiums uber die
Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 19. Mai bis 23. Mai 1982; Veszprem. Berlin, German
Democratic Republic: Akademie-Verlag Berlin; 1982 73-75. 
Birds/ Hatching/ Feed/ Avian osteopetrosis/ Aspergillus/ Struthioniformes/
Zoo animals/ Artificial rearing

431. Milton S; Dean W; and Linton A. Consumption of Termites by Captive
Ostrich Chicks. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 1993; 23(2):
English Note
Captive ostrich Struthio camelus chicks, 3 - 9 weeks of age, on a diet of
pelleted feed and fresh lucerne, consumed 55% (434) of 780 harvester termite
Microhodotermes viator workers offered to them. We suggest that, although
adult ostriches are herbivorous, young chicks may benefit by supplementing
their diet with insect protein. We recommend further experimental work on the
addition of various types of animal proteins to the food of domestic ostrich
Microhodotermes Viator/ Nutrition/ Ostrich Chick/ Struthio Camelus/ Termites

432. Milton S; Dean W; and Siegfried W. Food Selection by Ostrich in Southern
Africa. Journal of Wildlife Management 1994; 58(2): 234-248.
English Article
We observed ostrich (Struthio camelus) in southern African savanna, desert
grassland, arid shrubland, and fynbos (Mediterranean shrubland) to determine
physical and chemical factors that influenced food selection. Natural diet
information was needed to provide guidelines on carrying capacity of natural
vegetation for ostrich and for improving rations for captive ostrich. Ostrich
fed on green annual grasses and forbs when available. When these were not
available they consumed leaves, flowers, and fruits from succulents and woody
plants. Dead or woody material and animal matter (other than bone) were
absent from the diet. Ostrich selected (P < 0.05) for fiber and against (P
< 0.05) phenolics in forbs. They preferred (P < 0.1) protein in
graminoids and fiber (P < 0.05) in succulents, but avoided (P < 0.05)
calcium in succulents. They selected (P < 0.05) sodium and avoided (P <
0.05) ether-extractable substances in woody plants. Ostrich did not feed on
plants toxic to mammalian herbivores. Ostrich need 5-6 kg fresh mass daily
when feeding on natural forage containing 70% water (on a dry mass basis, 24%
fiber, 12% crude protein, 16% ash, 3% lipid) for maintenance. Ostrich
mobility and selectivity, which enables them to obtain adequate, high quality
forage in arid environments, makes them destructive to rangeland when
confined and stocked at high densities.
Allelochemicals/ Arid/ Diet Selection/ Karoo/ Nutrition/ Ratite/ Southern
Africa/ Struthio Camelus/ Ostrich/ REPELLENCY/ BEHAVIOR/ WATER

433. Minnaar, P. A manual on emu farming. [Brenham, Tex.]: [Emu World, Inc.];
1989; 44 p. 
Cover title. ill.

434. Minnaar, P and Minnaar, M. The emu farmer's handbook. Groveton, Tex.
(Star Rt. 2, Box 8B, Groveton 75845) : Induna Co.; vii, 178 p. : ill. (some
Includes bibliographical references (p. 178). Introduction to commercial emu
farming -- Farm management -- Handling and moving emus -- Anatomy of the emu
-- Sexing the emu -- Nutrition -- Breeding season -- Path of the egg -- Care
of eggs, pre-incubation -- Incubation and hatching -- Chick care --
Artificial insemination -- Problems in the laying hen - - Treatment of
diseases and injuries -- Processing.
Emu farming Handbooks, manuals, etc

435. Mitchinson M and Keymer I. Aortic rupture in ostriches (Struthio
camelus)-a comparative study. Journal of Comparative Pathology 1977; 87(1):
Aorta, Abdominal pathology/ Aorta, Thoracic pathology/ Aortic Rupture
pathology/ Birds/ Poultry Diseases pathology/ Turkeys/ *Animals, Zoo/ *Aortic
Rupture veterinary/ *Bird Diseases pathology

436. Mohan, R. Mycoplasma in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of
the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31 - September 4, 1993;
Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 294-296. 
English; 4 ref.
Incidence rate of mycoplasma infection in ratites is not known. A few
diagnostic laboratories have been conducting mycoplasma serology and culture,
but have not found any of the common poultry mycoplasma. This report
describes Mycoplasma synoviae-like arthritis in an eight-year-old male emu.
The diagnosis was made by detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in synovial
fluid. The organisms reacted with Mycoplasma synoviae but not with Mycoplasma
gallisepticum immunofluorescent reagent. (Author's abstract)
emus/ mycoplasma/ arthritis

437. Moller A. Sperm competition, sperm depletion, paternal care, and
relative testis size in birds. American Naturalist 1991; 137(6): 882-906.
English; 6pp. of ref
The hypotheses were tested using published data on 247 species of a wide
range of body size, including fowls, turkeys, common ducks, muscovy ducks,
quails, guineafowls, pigeons and ostriches. Testis weight in birds scales
allometrically to body weight, the exponent being significantly smaller than
unity. Two hypotheses were formulated in order to account for variation in
relative testis size: (1) the sperm competition hypothesis, according to
which males of taxa with a high intensity of sperm competition have larger
testes than males of other taxa; (2) the sperm depletion hypothesis, which
proposes that, in taxa in which males copulate often, the testes are large.
Variation in testis weight after controlling for the effects of body weight
and phylogeny was investigated in relation to copulation frequency per female
(a measure of the intensity of sperm competition) and per male (a measure of
the intensity of sperm depletion). Variation in relative testis weight was
positively related to variation in copulation frequency per female, and the
variation was significant; the sperm competition hypothesis was therefore
supported by the data. The sperm depletion hypothesis could not account for
variation in testis size. Variation in relative testis weight was positively
correlated with variation in social dispersion, and was negatively correlated
with variation in mate-guarding behaviour. The extent of paternal care was
related to certainty of paternity, as estimated from the presence of mate
guarding, but not from relative testis weight.
Testes/ weight/ spermatozoa/ competition/ birds/ parental behaviour/
Behaviour/ parents 

438. Momotani E; Kiryu M; Ohshiro M; Murakami M; Ashida Y; Watanabe S; and
Matsubara Y. Granulomatous Lesions Caused by Pseudomonas-Aeruginosa in the
Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 1995; 112(3):
English Article
Granulomatous lesions were observed in imported ostriches aged 3 months.
Clinically, the birds showed lassitude, incoordination, and inappetence. At
necropsy, yellowish white nodules often accompanied by a pseudodiphtheritic
membrane were found in the oral, pharyngeal, tracheal and air sac mucosae,
the lungs, oesophageal serosa, and abdominal peritoneum. Histopathological
examination revealed purulent granulomatous lesions containing central
bacterial colonies with an outer shell and club formation. The bacteria were
small Gram-negative bacilli, which showed positive immunohistochemical
staining for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial colonies were positive for
chicken IgM. Clubs around the colonies were negative for P. aerginosa and
chicken IgM. Such findings have not previously been reported in the ostrich.

439. Moody R. Focus on ostrich farming. A new enterprise in the United
Kingdom. State Veterinary Journal 1992; 2(1): 7-10.
English; 3 ref
Animal husbandry/ Food animals/ Physiology/ Housing/ Nutrition/ Artifical
incubation/ Animal welfare/ Viral diseases/ Ostriches/ general account

440. Moraes Fd and Valadao C. Use of xylazine, ketamine, midazolam and
isoflurane in the amputation of the wing of a rhea (Rhea americana). Ciencia
Veterinaria Jaboticabal 1990; 4(2): 9-10.
rhea/ anaesthesia/ birds 

441. Morgan M; Britt J; Cockrill J; and Eiten M. Erysipelothrix-Rhusiopathiae
Infection in an Emu (Dromaius-Novahollandiae). Journal of Veterinary
Diagnostic Investigation 1994; 6(3): 378-379.
English Note

442. Morris C; Harris S; May S; Hale D; Jackson T; Lucia L; Miller R; Keeton
J; Acuff G; and Savell J. Ostrich slaughter and fabrication. 2. Carcass
weights, fabrication yields, and muscle color evaluation. Poultry Science
1995; 74(10): 1688-1692.
English; 6 ref.; 9603
Seven male and seven female ostrich carcasses were fabricated to determine
the effect of sex on the yield of bone, fat, and lean on a weight and carcass
percentage basis. The 10 heaviest muscles of the ostrich carcass were
removed, weighed, and reported on a carcass percentage basis. Muscle color
differences also were determined for 10 selected muscles. Sex did not affect
carcass composition or muscle color. Across sexes, ostrich carcasses
contained 26.9% bone, 9.2% fat, and 62.5% lean. Of the lean portion, 66.2%
was found in the 10 major muscles of leg and thigh. The Gastrocnemius,
Iliofibularis, and Fibularis longus were the three largest muscles from the
carcass. There were differences (P < .05) in color between ostrich muscles.
Muscles of the inside thigh region were the darkest in color and the
Iliotibialis cranialis was the brightest, cherry red in color. (Author's
ostriches/ meat/ carcass composition/ meat yield

443. Morris C; Harris S; May S; Jackson T; Hale D; Miller R; Keeton J; Acuff
G; Lucia L; and Savell J. Ostrich slaughter and fabrication: 1. Slaughter
yields of carcasses and effects of electrical stimulation on post-mortem pH.
Poultry Science 1995; 74(10): 1683-1687.
English; 10 ref.; 9603
A commercial ostrich slaughter protocol was developed. Ostriches (n = 7 males
and n = 7 females) averaged 95.54 kg live weight and yielded 55.91-kg
carcasses. By-product yields were measured. The most significant by-products
by weight were full viscera (8.29 kg), hide (6.71 kg), full gizzard and crop
(5.80 kg), and abdominal fat (4.11 kg). Sex had no effect on slaughter
yields. Post-mortem temperature declines were measured on five separate
muscles and showed that chilling for 24 h was sufficient to adequately chill
the deep muscle temperature to under 4 C. The effect of electrical
stimulation on post-mortem pH decline also was investigated and had no
effect. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ meat/ meat by-products/ processing

444. Morrison S. Barn designs that work. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2): 56-58.
Describes the facilities at two farms. KEV Farms converted the dairy barn
which houses incubators, hatcher, chick nursery, chick pens, and juvenile and
adult birds. Glennalan Farm - describes identifying the needs of the
producers. The barn design is discussed as well as the outside pens. A
diagram of the facilities is included.
ostrich/ pens/ housing

445. Morse B. Hold that bird! Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(4): 14,15,18.
An ostrich rancher provides advice on techniques to capture and restrain
ostriches/ restraint

446. Muller, C. Embryonic development of the cloacal bursa in the emu.:
Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin der Freien Universitat Berlin; 1985. 142pp.
11pp. of ref., 36 pl. 
Embryonic development/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Bursa cloacalis/ Thesis/ Bursa

447. Murray, MD, Palma, RL, and Pilgrim, RLC. Ectoparasites of Australian,
New Zealand and Antarctic birds. Marchant, S and Higgins, PJ. Handbook of
Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic birds. Volume 1. Ratites to ducks.
Part A, Ratites to petrels. Part B, Australian pelican to ducks. Melbourne,
Australia: Oxford University Press Australia; 1990; 1365-1374. 
59 ref. 
A host-parasite list of the lice, fleas, hippoboscid flies and ticks of
Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds (from emus (Casuariiformes) to
ducks (Anseriformes)) is presented.
Acari/ Diptera/ Phthiraptera/ Checklists/ Host parasite relationships/ Wild
birds/ Sea birds/ Amblycera/ Ischnocera/ Australia/ birds/ ectoparasites/ New
Zealand/ Antarctica/ Southern Hemisphere/ Ixodidae/ Argasidae/ Hippoboscidae/
Mallophaga/ Anoplura/ Siphonaptera 

448. Muth J. Ostrich meat. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(3): 36-38.
Compares the commercialization of ostriches to turkeys back in the 1920s.
North American ostrich industry is in the breeding phase so there is little
processing. Ostrich meat is compared to beef. Some ostrich ranchers have a 2
to 1 feed-to-mass conversion while beef animals are 5 to 1. Reproductive
capacity is superior over beef animals. It takes 25 months from impregnation
of a cow to bringing the calf to market weighing 550 pounds and yielding 30
square feet of leather. An ostrich hen will lay on average 45 to 50 eggs each
year. Even with a 50 percent survival rate, about 23 birds will go to market
at 12 to 14 months yielding 1,750 pounds of meat and 322 square feet of
leather. In addition there is a feather yield. Discusses a study of ostrich
meat done by Texas A&M University, tenderness tests, taste tests, and
measurement of cholesterol.
ostrich meat

449. Myers N. Big bird turns it on. International Wildlife 1979; 9(2): 20-25.
English; 9601; 6 fig
The behavior of ostriches (Struthio camelus) during the hatching period and
shortly afterwards was observed. The destruction of the natural habitat of
the ostrich is noted. Because of ostrich farms and populations in the East
African national parks, the ostrich is not in danger of extinction, though it
may disappear from most of its natural areas.
behaviour/ reproduction/ wildlife conservation/ arid regions/ birds/
Struthioniformes/ OSTRICHES 

450. Naik Y; Kanepi R; Ndiweni N; Naslar J; and Nyathi C. Hepatic cytosolic
glutathione S-transferases of ostrich (Struthio camelus): partial
characterization and interaction with xenobiotics. Zimbabwe Veterinary
Journal 1994; 25(2): 71-80.
20 ref
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in affinity purified pools of male and
female ostrich liver were studied. The GSTs were purified from crude liver
cytosols by S-hexylglutathione sepharose affinity chromatography with yields
comparable to those reported for GST from mammalian livers. The Km for both
glutathione (GSH) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were determined and
found within the range of values known for mammalian and invertebrate
species. 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene proved to be the best of 9 substrates
tested to measure activity. Activity was inhibited by bromosulphophthalein
and cibacron blue which are well known inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme.
The results indicate that the ostrich liver enzymes behave similarly to the
mammalian liver enzyme in terms of substrate requirements and inhibition
enzymes/ biochemistry/ liver function tests/ glutathione transferase/
glutathione/ transferases

451. Naude R; Da Silva D; Edeg W; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of enterokinase from ostrich (Struthio camelus) duodenal
mucosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry
1993; 105(3-4): 591-595.
1. Detergent-solubilized ostrich duodenal enterokinase was purified by salt
fractionation, DEAE-cellulose and Toyopearl HW-65F chromatography. 2.
Gradient gel electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE revealed M-r values of 127,000 and
62,200, respectively. The ostrich enzyme can be assumed to be a dimer. 3. The
amino acid composition of ostrich enterokinase is similar to that of
mammalian enterokinase. 4. The highest rate of activation of bovine
trypsinogen by ostrich enterokinase was at pH 5.2-5.7.
Trypsinogen activation/ Amino acid composition

452. Nel C. Dosing of ostriches for internal parasites. Elsenburg Joernaal
1980; 4(2): 31-33.
Afrikaans; 9601; 2 ref
In 1973, 40% of ostrich chicks on ostrich farms in South Africa died from
Libyostrongylus douglassii, Coeliostomum struthionis and Houttuynia
struthionis infections. An intensive control programme was started in 1973,
the results of which are discussed. [From English summary].
control/ parasites/ helminths/ Birds/ ostriches/ Libyostrongylus douglassii/
Coeliostomum struthionis/ Houttuynia struthionis

453. Neumann F; Nobel T; and Klopfer U. Cardio-vascular and skeletal muscle
changes in two ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus). Acta Zoologica et
Pathologica Antverpiensia 1970; 50: 15-27.
Aorta pathology/ Aortic Diseases pathology/ Aortic Diseases veterinary/
Arteriosclerosis pathology/ Birds/ Coronary Disease pathology/ Femoral Artery
pathology/ Muscular Diseases pathology/ Myocardium/ *Animals, Zoo/
*Arteriosclerosis veterinary/ *Bird Diseases pathology/ *Coronary Disease
veterinary/ *Muscular Diseases veterinary

454. Neyedly L. Incubation basics. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(8): 18-19.
Basics include: heat/ temperature, air flow/ circulation, egg turning,
humidity, breeders, eggs (microbial contamination) and hatching. Feels that a
70-90% hatch rate is a reasonable expectation.

455. Noble J. The effects of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae Latham) on the
distribution of the nitre bush (Nitraria billardieri D-C.). Journal of
Ecology 1975; 63(3): 979-984.

456. Noble J. On ratites and their interactions with plants. Revista Chilena
De Historia Natural 1991; 64(1): 85-118.
The fossil histories, distribution patterns and habitat preferences of both
extinct and extant members of the Ratitae are reviewed. Particular emphasis
is directed towards those physical and anatomical features of ratites which
have apparent significance in terms of vegetation dynamics, especially those
aspects relating to seed germination and seedling establishment. Apart from
the New Zealand kiwis (Apteryx spp.), the principal feature distinguishing
the ratites from other birds is their large size. Whilst the evolutionary
consequences of gigantism have resulted in the comparatively recent
extinction of some species such as the moas (the Dinornithidae and Emeridae)
of New Zealand and the elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) of Madagascar, the
large size of contemporary ratites confers an ability to ingest considerable
quantities of food, as well as particular items such as fruits and stones too
large for other birds, without having to suffer any impairment of flight.
Many of these plant foods, especially fruits such as those of the Lauraceae,
can be highly nutritious, but ratites are omnivorous and can utilize a range
of alternatives when necessary. Whether prey selection is directly related to
nutritional reward is uncertain however the breeding season of the Australian
cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) is closely linked to the period of
maximum fruit production by trees and shrubs in their tropical rainforest
habitats. Some ratites such as the moas and the mihirungs (Dromornithidae)
may also have influenced plant selection and vegetation succession through
their differential browsing of particular species and plant organs. There is
some apparent mutualism in terms of benefits conferred on plant populations
following propagule ingestion by ratites. In certain situations, seeds of
plants germinate satisfactorily only after the seed has passed through the
ratite gut. It is postulated that many of the large-fruited diaspores eaten
by ratites will only germinate rapidly in faecal microsites thereby
conferring considerable ecological benefits by promoting substantial, and
dispersed, seedling recruitment. On heavy textured soils, the semi-arid shrub
Nitraria billardieri, only establishes in abundance once the succulent fruit,
which ripens during the summer, has been eaten by emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiea). In the sandy substrates of coastal areas where fallen fruit
is readily covered by windblown sand, the species germinates readily in the
absence of avian ingestion.
Apteryx spp./ Casuarius casuarius johnsonii/ Nitraria billardieri/ Dromaius
novae hollandiae/ Fossil/ Ratite/ Habitat preference/ Distribution/
Evolution/ Gigantism/ Vegetation dynamics/ Seed/ Germination/ Extinction

457. Noda R and Nagata S. Struthiofilaria megalocephala gen. et sp.n.
(Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the body cavity of an ostrich. Bulletin of the
University of Osaka Prefecture, B. 1976; 28: 1-4.
English; 9601
Struthiofilaria megalocephala n.g., n.sp. (Onchocercidae) from the
body-cavity of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) from South Africa which died in
a Japanese zoo is described. In the Onchocercinae, it resembles
Deraiophoronema and Cordophilus but differs from both in having a minute
right spicule and in parasitizing birds as final hosts, from the first in the
absence of ventro-lateral cuticular flaps on the female tail and in having
more pronounced lateral expansions on the head, and from the 2nd in having a
laterally expanded head and a "not so strongly narrowed" anterior
new genus/ Helminths/ animal diseases/ new species/ parasites/ zoo animals/
Birds/ OSTRICHES/ Filariidae/ Struthiofilaria megalocephala/ zoo

458. Norval R. The ticks of Zimbabwe. VII. The genus Amblyomma. Zimbabwe
Veterinary Journal 1983; 14(1/ 4): 3, 6-18.
English; 48 ref., 5 fig
It was found from examination of samples taken in the Zimbabwe National Tick
Survey Collection that the most commonly occurring and economically important
species of Amblyomma is A. hebraeum, which in the adult stage is parasitic on
cattle and other medium-to-large ungulates, leopards and ostriches, and in
the immature stages on ungulates, carnivores and tortoises. Its distribution
is unstable. In 1975-76 it occurred only in a few areas in southern Zimbabwe,
but it spread rapidly after dipping was disrupted in the communal lands
during the pre-independence war. By 1980, it was present throughout most of
the southern half of the country and had become established at some places in
the north. Of secondary importance is A. variegatum, which occurs in
north-western Zimbabwe and in the Burma Valley on the eastern border, and is
found most commonly on cattle and buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Also present in
Zimbabwe are A. tholloni, A. sparsum, A. rhinocerotis, A. marmoreum and A.
nuttalli, which are specific parasites of wild hosts and seldom if ever occur
on domestic animals.
Tick infestations/ Cattle/ Amblyomma hebraeum/ Distribution/ Zimbabwe/
Amblyomma variegatum/ Amblyomma tholloni/ Amblyomma sparsum/ Amblyomma
rhinocerotis/ Amblyomma marmoreum/ Amblyomma nuttalli/ Amblyomma/ Hosts/
Tortoises/ Syncerus caffer/ Panthera pardus/ Struthio camelus

459. Nouvel J and Leclerc Cassan M. Penile tuberculosis in an ostrich.
Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 1972; 148(7): 879-880.
French, Eng. sum

460. Nunes, V A. Incidence of newcastle disease in captive rheas (rhea
americana) in the zoological garden of Brasilia = Ocorrencia da doenca de
Newcastle em emas (Rhea americana) mantidas em cativeiro no jardim zoologico
de Brasilia. Ocorrencia da doenca de Newcastle em emas (Rhead americana)
mantidas em cativeiro no jardim zoologico de Brasilia. Karachi, Pakistan:
Saad Publications (Translations Division); 1984; 16 p. (1 folded) 
Translated from Portuguese for the OICD, APHIS, USDA and the National Science
Foundation by Saad Publications, TT 84-4-0333.

461. Nunes V; Nunes I; Leite R; Ribeiral L; Negrelli F; and Frossard P.
Occurrence of Newcastle disease in rheas in the Brazil Zoo. Pesquisa
Agropecuaria Brasileira, Serie Veterinaria 1975; 10(8): 35-39.
Portuguese; 9601; 21 ref
This is the first report of Newcastle disease in the rhea. Of 41 young rheas
in the zoo, 10 showed respiratory and nervous symptoms; three of them were
despatched to the laboratory, one dying en route. ND virus was isolated from
lungs and brain in chick embryo and identified by HA and HI tests, and by
reproduction of the disease in experimental chicks.
animal diseases/ Host range/ Newcastle disease/ poultry/ viral diseases/ zoo
animals/ poultry diseases/ birds/ Struthioniformes/ Rhea americana

462. O'Brien P; Wilson G; Ramsay B; Smetana P; and Dee C. Commercial use of
wild animals in Australia.
Proceedings-of-the-Australian-Society-of-Animal-Production 1990; 18: 101-111.
13 ref
This review is a compilation of 4 short papers with an introduction and
conclusion by the senior author. The 1st- paper entitled "potential and
problems in using wild animal resources", emphasises the need to consider
sustainability in the harvesting of wild animals, and discusses the adequacy
of current legislation in this respect. The 2nd paper on "commercial
harvesting of wild animals in Australia", lists the species that are
harvested in Australia, the states where they are harvested, the scale of
harvest, and their main products. The special qualities of wild animal
products (meat, skin, fur and miscellaneous products, e.g. pharmaceuticals)
are also discussed. The 3rd paper discusses the prospects for emu farming,
and summarises the performance of these birds in terms of skin, meat, oil,
feathers, eggs and claws. The 4th paper, on "economic benefit of
utilising Australian wild animals", discusses harvesting practices of
kangaroos and wild pigs, and the demand for their products in the
international and overseas markets.
Animal production/ Australia/ Wild animals/ Reviews 

463. O'Donnell I. The complete amino acid sequence of a feather keratin from
emu (Dromaius novae-hollandiae). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences
1973; 26(2): 415-435.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chymotrypsin/ Electrophoresis, Paper/ Formic Acids/
Hydrolysis/ Papain/ Pepsin A/ Peptides analysis/ Solubility/ Thermolysin/
Trypsin/ *Amino Acids analysis/ *Birds/ *Feathers analysis/ *Keratin analysis

464. O'Donnell I and Inglis A. Amino acid sequence of a feather keratin from
silver gull (Larus novae-hollandiae) and comparison with one from emu
(Dromaius novae- hollandiae). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 1974;
27(4): 369-382.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chromatography, DEAE Cellulose/ Chymotrypsin/
Electrophoresis, Paper/ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/ Peptide
Fragments analysis/ Thermolysin/ Trypsin/ *Amino Acids analysis/ *Birds/
*Feathers analysis/ *Keratin analysis

465. Oberthur W; Braunitzer G; Baumann R; and Wright P. [Primary structures
of the alpha and beta chains from the major hemoglobin component of the
ostrich (Struthio camelus) and American rhea (Rhea americana)
(Struthioformes). Aspects of respiratory physiology and taxonomy]. Hoppe
Seylers Z Physiol Chem 1983; 364(2): 119-134.
The primary structures of the alpha A- und beta-chains from the major
hemoglobin component of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus) and American Rhea
(Rhea americana) are given. The minor component with the alpha D-chains was
detected in Ostrich in several concentrations, in American Rhea as in chicken
and pheasant (about 40%). By homologous comparison, Greylag Goose (Anser
anser) hemoglobin and Ostrich alpha A-chains differ by 15 amino acids or 16
nucleotide (1 two-point mutation) exchanges, beta-chains by 4 exchanges. Four
substitutions modify alpha 1 beta 1-contacts and one phosphate contact.
American Rhea and Greylag Goose hemoglobin alpha A-chains differ by 20 amino
acids or 23 nucleotides (3 two-point mutations), beta-chains by 4 exchanges.
Two substitutions modify alpha 1 beta 1-contacts, one phosphate contact and
one heme contact. Oxygen affinity of three hemoglobin components of Ostrich
are measured and the results are discussed. Systematic and evolution of
Ostrich and American Rhea are discussed.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Amino Acids blood/ Animal/ Birds classification/ Birds
physiology/ Chemistry/ Chromatography, Gel/ English Abstract/ Birds blood/
Hemoglobins/ Respiration/ Respiratory System physiology

466. Oberthur W; Godovac Zimmermann J; and Braunitzer G. The expression of
alpha D chains in the hemoglobin of adult ostrich (Struthio camelus) and
American rhea (Rhea americana). The different evolution of adult bird alpha A
, alpha D and beta chains. Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 1986; 367(6):
The hemoglobin of adult American rhea (Rhea americana) and ostrich (Struthio
camelus) contains two components identified to be HbA (alpha 2A beta 2) and
HbD (alpha 2D beta 2). The amino-acid sequence of alpha D-chains from HbD of
adult American rhea and ostrich has been determined. The sequence was studied
by Edman degradation of tryptic peptides and chemical cleavage products in a
liquid phase sequencer. By homologous comparison with pheasant HbD (Phasianus
colchicus colchicus), the alpha D-chains of American rhea differ by 28
amino-acid exchanges, the alpha D-chains of ostrich by 23 residues. These
differences are higher than those observed for alpha A- as well as for
beta-chains of HbA from the same species. The ratio of amino-acid exchanges
for beta:alpha A:alpha D for American rhea and ostrich is found to be
1:5.5:6.5. At present the reason for the differences in evolution rates for
the beta-, alpha A- and alpha D-chains of bird hemoglobins is still unclear.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Animal/ Comparative Study/ Evolution/ Macromolecular
Systems/ Peptide Fragments analysis/ Species Specificity/ Trypsin metabolism/
Birds blood/ Hemoglobin A analysis/ Hemoglobins analysis/ Hemoglobins,
Abnormal analysis

467. Odle B. Facts About Ratites. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association 1994; 205(12): 1662.
English Letter

468. Oelofsen B. The renal portal valves of the ostrich, Struthio camelus.
South African Journal of Science 1977; 73(2): 57-58.
English; 9601; 4 ref
Blood vessels/ kidneys/ portal circulation/ Birds/ ostriches 

469. Ofri R and Horowitz I. Spontaneous Cataract Resorption in an Ostrich.
Veterinary Record 1995; 136(11): 276.
English Letter

470. Okoh A. An outbreak of pasteurellosis in Kano Zoo. Journal of Wildlife
Diseases 1980; 16(1): 3-5.
An outbreak of pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida is reported in
which six elands (Taurotragus oryx), a gnu (Connochaetes taurinus
albojubatus), a zebra (Equus bruchelli), five kangaroos (Macropus rufus), an
ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) and a bateleur eagle (Terathopius
ecaudatus) died in Kano Zoological Gardens toward the end of the rainy season
of 1978. Confirmation was based on cultural isolation of P. multocida.
Analysis of likely factors that could have contributed to the outbreak
indicated that it may have been precipitated initially by climatic stress
associated with changes in rainfall, relative humidity and temperature.
ostriches/ Animals, Zoo/ Pasteurella Infections veterinary/ Artiodactyla/
Bird Diseases epidemiology/ Birds/ Kangaroos/ Nigeria/ Pasteurella Infections

471. Okotie-Eboh G; Bailey C; Hicks K; and Kubena L. Reference serum
biochemical values for emus and ostriches. American Journal of Veterinary
Research 1992; 53(10): 1765-1768.
English, 7 ref.
Reference serum biochemical values were determined in blood samples from 15
male, 18 female, and 4 unsexed emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 1 to 48 months
old. Serum biochemical values also were obtained for 19 male, 26 female, and
4 unsexed ostriches (Struthio camelus) 1 to 60 months old. Parametric (mean
+/ - 2 SD) and nonparametric (fifth to 95th percentile) reference ranges and
linear trends as influenced by age were determined for enzyme activities and
concentrations of glucose, inorganic phosphate, BUN, uric acid, creatinine,
triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin. Species differences
for all analytes, except cholesterol and inorganic phosphate concentrations,
were detected. Creatine kinase values in ostriches were higher than those in
emus. There were no linear relationships between age and analyte values in
emus, and sex did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the values in emus.
Analyte values in ostriches tended to increase with age, but cholesterol,
creatine kinase, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations
decreased with age. Glucose, triglyceride, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and
cholinesterase concentrations in ostriches were not linearly associated with
age. Age had a greater effect on the analyte values of female ostriches than
it did on male ostriches. Concentrations generally increased with age in
female ostriches, except for cholesterol, cholinesterase, inorganic
phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, which decreased with age.
(Author's abstract)
emus/ ostriches/ blood chemistry/ normal values/ species differences/ age
differences/ sex differences

472. Oliver-Lyons B. How to get the most out of your ratite hide. Canadian
Ostrich 1995; 4(5): 37,39.
Describes the curing process for ratite hides.
ratites/ leather/ curing

473. Onderka D. Drug withdrawal times for market birds. Canadian Ostrich
1995; 4(2): 52-53.
In Canada there are no antibiotics or chemicals licensed by the Federal
Bureau of Veterinary Drugs specifically for the ostrich. The veterinarian
must use the authority of his/ her license to prescribe and use drugs in an
extra label fashion. The drugs and antibiotics chosen by a veterinarian will
be those approved in poultry and have known withdrawal times. A producer may
want to extend these withdrawal periods to make sure the drugs are cleared
from the body tissues of the birds.
ostriches/ drugs/ withdrawal time/ antibiotics

474. Onderka D and Doornenbal E. Mycotic dermatitis in ostriches. Canadian
Veterinary Journal 1992; 33(8): 547-548.
English; 5 ref
Skin diseases/ Dermatitis/ Case reports/ Pathology/ Diagnosis/ Antifungal
agents/ Griseofulvin/ Trichophyton/ Dermatomycoses/ Ostriches 

475. Oosthuizen V; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of alpha-amylase from the pancreas of the ostrich (Struthio
camelus). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology B Comparative Biochemistry
1992; 101(1-2): 277-282.
Ostrich alpha-amylase was purified by acetone precipitation, (NH-4)-2SO-4
fractionation, DEAE-cellulose, cyclohepta-amylose affinity and hydroxyapatite
chromatography of an aqueous pancreatic extract. The final preparations was
homogeneous when subjected to SDS-PAGE with a M-r of 54,000. The M-min value
obtained from amino acid analysis was 53,660. The effects of pH, temperature
and inhibitors (HgCl-2 and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor) on amylolytic
activity were examined. Kinetic parameters (K-m, k-cat, and k-cat/ K-m) for
four substrates (starch, amylose, maltotriose and pNP-maltoside) were
Ec Kinetic Analysis/ Ph/ Temperature

476. Oosthuizen V; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. Purification and characterization
of the pancreatic isoenzymes. International Journal of Biochemistry 1994;
26(6): 833-841.
1. Four ostrich pancreatic alpha-amylase isoenzymes were isolated by
isoelectric focusing, following affinity chromatography on
cyclohepta-amylose-Sepharose 4B. 2. Amino acid compositions of the four
isoenzymes are very similar with only one charged amino acid (Arg) being
significantly different. 3. The molecular weights, as determined by SDS-PAGE
and amino acid composition, are nearly identical (52-53 kDa) for all four
isoenzymes. 4. The four alpha-amylase isoenzymes appear to be kinetically
distinct enzymes with a requirement for calcium. 5. Ostrich alpha-amylase
isoenzymes appear to be non-glycosylated and contain one free thiol group.
[References: 40]
Amino acid sequence. Human salivary. Multigene family. Genes./ Proteins

477. Oosthuizen V; Naude R; Oelofsen W; Muramoto K; and Kamiya H. Ostrich
pancreatic alpha-amylase: Kinetic properties, amino terminal sequence and
subsite structure. International Journal of Biochemistry 1994; 26(10-11):
Ostrich pancreatic alpha-amylase (OPA) was purified to homogeneity in the
presence of protease inhibitors by a single-step affinity chromatography
technique. The first 53 amino acids of the N-terminus were identified by
gas-phase sequencing. From kinetic parameters (k- cat/ K-m) a subsite profile
was established leading to a five subsite model for OPA. The pK-a values of
catalytic residues were determined as 5.75 and 8.36. Inhibition of OPA by
monosaccharides, beta-cyclodextrin and a wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor was

478. Orosz S; Mullins J; and Patton S. Evidence of toxoplasmosis in two
ratites. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians 1992; 6(4):
17 ref
Two ratites were presented on separate occasions for anorexia and
gastrointestinal distress. Both birds had high antibody titres for Toxoplasma
gondii. The flock mates were negative for antibodies against T. gondii and
appeared clinically normal. Because titres to T. gondii develop in animals
only following infection, the high titre in the 2 affected birds suggests
that they had toxoplasmosis. The authors concluded that toxoplasmosis should
be considered in the differential diagnosis of ratites with anorexia,
diarrhoea and dyspnoea. Cats should not have access to ratite feed or any
areas where ratites are maintained. If ratites are to be considered as a food
source, the possibility of T. gondii transmission needs to be investigated
Protozoal infections/ Case reports/ Pathology/ Disease transmission/
Casuarius casuarius/ Rhea americana/ Toxoplasma/ Birds/ Apicomplexa/
Sarcocystidae/ Rheidae/ Toxoplasma gondii/ USA/ Tennessee 

479. Osterdoff D. Ostrich farming in South Africa. World Review of Animal
Production 1979; 15(2): 3, 5, 7, 19-30.
English; 9601
This account includes consideration of mating behaviour, feather production,
feather quality, and the management of reproduction.
farming/ management/ ostriches 

480. Osterhoff, DR. The ostrich farming system in South Africa. New
strategies for improving animal production for human welfare : proceedings/
the Fifth World Conference on Animal Production. August 14-19, 1983; Tokyo,
Japan.: Japanese Society of Zootechnical Science; 1983 863-864. 
ostriches/ aviculture/ feather production/ farm management/ improvement/
feathers/ south africa

481. Ostrowski S and Ancrenaz M. Chemical Immobilization of Red-Necked
Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus) Under Field Conditions. Veterinary Record 1995;
136(6): 145-147.
English Article
Sixteen red-necked ostriches (Struthio camelus camelas) were darted under
field conditions to immobilise them. Combinations of etorphine hydrochloride
with either medetomidine or ketamine were used on 13 birds; xylazine
hydrochloride and metomidate alone were used, respectively, on one and two
birds. The times to recumbency and recovery were recorded and compared. The
principal complications encountered during the anaesthetic procedure were
myopathy due to over exertion and respiratory collapse. Etorphine combined
with medetomidine led to a sedated state of good quality but short duration,
which allowed minor procedures to be carried

482. Osuga D and Feeney R. Biochemistry of the egg-white proteins of the
ratite group. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 1968; 124(1): 560-574.
Acrylic Resins/ Amino Acids analysis/ Amylases analysis/ Bacteriolysis/
Chickens/ Electrophoresis/ Gels/ Immunoelectrophoresis/ Macroglobulins
analysis/ Mucins analysis/ Muramidase analysis/ Neuraminic Acids analysis/
Ovalbumin analysis/ Peptide Hydrolases antagonists and inhibitors/ Species
Specificity/ Starch/ Transferrin analysis/ Turkeys/ *Birds/ *Egg White
analysis/ *Proteins analysis

483. Paleari M; Corsico P; and Beretta G. The Ostrich - Breeding,
Reproduction, Slaughtering and Nutritional-Value of the Meat.
Fleischwirtschaft 1995; 75(9): 1120-1123.
English Article
The Struthio camelus australis has long been of interest in many different
countries due to the value of the skin, feathers and more recently, the meat.
The article collects information on both wild and bred ostriches, on the
different slaughtering processes and, especially on the composition and
nutritional value of ostrich meat which, compared with other meats, shows
reduced fat and cholesterol content.
Ostrich/ Breeding/ Slaughtering/ Nutritional Value

484. Palmer M; Phillips B; and Smith G. Application of nonlinear models with
random coefficients to growth data. Biometrics 1991; 47(2): 623-636.
The application of nonlinear random coefficient models to the analysis of
growth curve data is described. The approach is further developed for the
estimation of mean growth curves and their variability from mark-recapture
data when the age of an animal at first capture is unknown, but the time
between successive captures is known. These methods are of wide applicability
as shown by the analysis of data on the growth of emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae), noisy scrub-birds (Atrichornis clamosus), and whelks
(Dicathais aegaota). Simulations of a mark-recapture experiment on the rock
(spiny) lobster (Panulirus argus) in Mexico, using a known growth curve,
showed the effectiveness of the approach in estimating both the population's
growth curve and the variability in individual growth.
Oromaius Novaehollandiae/ Atrichornis Clamosus/ Dicathais Aegaota/ Panulirus
Argus/ Mathematical Model

485. Palomeque J; Pinto D; and Viscor G. Hematologic and blood chemistry
values of the Masai ostrich (Struthio camelus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases
1991; 27(1): 34-40.
English; 42 ref
Normal mean values for haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte
and leukocyte counts, haematometric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose,
urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, serum aspartate
aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase,
creatinine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphorus,
chloride, total plasma protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium
were obtained from the blood or plasma of four Masai ostriches when juveniles
at 5 months of age and as adults, a year later, in the Barcelona Zoo, Spain.
Young ostriches had significantly lower concentrations of haematocrit,
haemoglobin concentration, calcium, and magnesium, and higher levels of the
total protein and potassium, than the adult individuals. The rest of the
parameters were not significantly different between the two age groups.
Blood/ Birds/ Age differences/ Zoo animals/ OSTRICHES/ Blood chemistry/
normal values/ Haematology 

486. Palomeque J; Pinto D; and Viscor G. Physiological and biochemical
characteristics of the blood of captive birds. Archives Internationales de
Physiologie et de Biochimie 1989; 97(5): C37.
English; Joint Meeting of the European Society for Comparative Physiology and
Biochemistry-Association des Physiologistes, September 3-7 1989, Reims,
Birds/ Ostriches/ Struthioformes/ Zoo animals/ Gruiformes/ Falconiformes/
Haematology/ Blood chemistry

487. Panigrahy B; Senne D; and Pearson J. Presence of avian influenza virus
(AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and rheas
(Rhea americana) - virus isolation and serologic findings. Avian Diseases
1995; 39(1): 64-67.
English; 8 ref.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 were isolated from emus
(Dvomaius novaehollandiae) and rheas (Rhea americana) in Texas and North
Carolina. All the rheas and emus had a history of respiratory disease except
one emu, which was clinically normal. The isolates were not pathogenic for
chickens and turkeys under the conditions of the experiment. Humoral
antibodies to all known hemagglutinin (H) subtypes except H10, H13, and H14
and to all nine neuraminidase (N) subtypes were found in emus and rheas in 11
states. Therefore, emus and rheas are susceptible to infection with several
AIV subtypes.
emus/ rheas/ avian influenza virus

488. Papkoff H; Licht P; Bona GA; MacKenzie D; Oelofsen W; and OosthUizen M.
Biochemical and immunological characterization of pituitary hormones from the
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1982; 48(2): 181-195.
English; ill

489. Parsons, B. Emu farming in Florida. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30,
1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 438-439. 
English; 0 ref.; poster presentation
Emus, which are ratites indigenous to mainland Australia, are becoming
extremely popular in Florida. People interested in alternative livestock are
buying up chicks and adult birds at a staggering rate, looking for an
investment. Many people with no background in aviculture or farming have
purchased these large, expensive birds and look to the veterinary community
to help them maintain and breed emus. Eventually, they will be bred for a
meat, leather, feather, and oil market, but right now, they are being bred
strictly for a breeder's market. The red meat is low in cholesterol. Emu oil
is touted as having therapeutic properties, and may have many applications in
the cosmetic and scientiic industires. (Author's introduction)
Two sections. First deals with adult preventative medicine and the second
chick preventative medicine.
emus/ Florida/ preventative medicine

490. Patak A and Baldwin J. Structural and metabolic characterization of the
muscles used to power running in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a giant
flightless bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 1993; 175(0): 233-249.
The emu is a giant flightless bird, capable of sustained high-speed running.
Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical properties of the lower leg muscles
used to power running were investigated. The gastrocnemius is the largest
muscle in the emu leg. It has a short inelastic tendon and contains only fast
fibres. It is the major power-producing muscle of the lower leg, with a
greater capacity than the digital flexor muscles for bursts of high work
output. In marked contrast, the digital flexors have long elastic tendons and
contain both fast and slow muscle fibres. It is proposed that these muscles,
rather than the gastrocnemius, are responsible for maintaining posture and
that they facilitate elastic energy storage and retrieval in their tendons
during running. In comparison with equivalent muscles of flying and diving
birds, emu lower leg muscles display features consistent with greater power
output during both short burst and endurance running. The emu muscles are
more massive relative to body size, and the gastrocnemii of other birds
invariably contain slow fibres. This study illustrates some of the
similarities as well as differences between muscles used during flying and
running. Capacities for sustained high-energy work appear to be similar in
flying birds and running emus as judged from (1) the muscle masses used
during locomotion when expressed as a proportion of total body mass and (2)
muscle fibre type compositions and their potential for fuel catabolism. The
lower creatine kinase activity in emu leg muscles could be attributed to
higher energy demands during the initial stages of lift-off for flight.
Flying bird/ Diving bird/ Creatine kinase/ Energy storage/ Energy retrieval/
Comparative biochemistry/ Comparative physiology/ Posture/ Locomotion/ Leg/
Gastrocnemius/ Digital flexor muscle/ Slow fiber/ Fast fiber/ Comparative
anatomy/ Histochemistry

491. Pavaux C and Lignereux Y. A Myological Dissection of the Shank and Foot
in an Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C
1995; 24(2): 127-131.
French Article
A 7-month-old female ostrich (Struthio Camelus) was studied. On the left leg,
muscles of the shank and foot were dissected and the right leg was frozen and
cut into slices for topographical examination. Some muscles and skeleton
measurements were also noted. No trace was found of the following muscles: M.
plantaris, M. extensor hallucis longus, M. extensor hallucis brevis, M.
flexor hallucis brevis, M, adductor d. II, IM. abductor d. II, M. flexor
phalangis secundi d. III and M. adductor d. IV. Some interesting myological
and topographical peculiarities are specified concerning the 16 muscles
mentioned, in order to provide useful findings for surgically applied
purposes: in case of locomotor problems with leg deformities.

492. Pavaux C and Lignereux Y. A myological dissection of the shank and foot
in an ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus). Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Series C 1994; 23(1): 78.
English; Abstract from the 19th Congress of the European Association of
Veterinary Anatomists, Ghent & Antwerp, Belgium, 24-28 August 1992. 
A seven months old female ostrich (Struthio camelus) was studied. On the left
leg, muscles of the shank and foot were dissectd; the right leg was freezed
and cut into slices for topographical examination. Some interesting
myological and topographical pecularities are specified in order to
contribute, in case of leg deformities, to a precise diagnosis and enventual
surgical improvement. (Author's abstract)
anatomy/ feet/ ostriches

493. Payne H. Welfare of ostriches and other ratites during transport.
State-Veterinary-Journal 1993; 3(4): 8-12.
7 ref
birds/ stress/ air transport/ road transport/ microclimate/ crates/ transport
of animals/ ostriches/ animal welfare

494. Pedziwiatr Z. [Organization of the bony nasal septum and its homologues
I. Os alare et systema integratum fronto alare in birds]. Otolaryngol Pol
1989; 43(4): 289-297.
The aim of the investigation was the systematization of the bony elements in
the orbito-nasal septum and the verification of the notion
"mesoethmoideum" in birds. The macerated skulls of adult ostriches,
chickens and pheasants were examined by use of the optic- and
radiophotography. In ostriches were the characteristic interorbital septum as
the alar bone integrated with the elements of the prefrontal bones. In
chickens were two biochemical systems: a) the anterior alar lamina and b)
posterior part without bony trabecular diploe elements. In all birds the
author did not found any "mesosthmoideum". These presented facts led
to further study in birds, fishes, mammals and man.
English Abstract/ Species Specificity/ Birds anatomy and histology/ Chickens
anatomy and histology/ Frontal Bone anatomy and histology/ Nasal Bone anatomy
and histology/ Nasal Septum anatomy and histology/ Sphenoid Bone anatomy and

495. Penrith M; Bezuidenhout A; Burger W; and Putterill J. Evidence for
cryptosporidial infection as a cause of prolapse of the phallus and cloaca in
ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).
Onderstepoort-Journal-of-Veterinary-Research 1994; 61(4): 283-289.
Cloacas of 16 male ostrich chicks that had suffered prolapse of the phallus
and cloacas were compared with cloacas of normal ostrich chicks of both sexes
from the same area. Heavy infection of the cloacal and bursal tissue with
Cryptosporidium sp. was present in all cases of prolapse, while no
cryptosporidia were observed in the normal chicks. Histopathological lesions
as described in cryptosporidial infection in other species were present in
the infected cloacas. These included loss of the microvillous border and
epithelial hyperplasia, and degeneration, which was indicated
ultrastructurally by vacuolation of the apical cytoplasm, swelling of
organelles, and nuclear changes. It is suggested that these lesions, in
combination with the anatomy of the male ostrich cloaca, may be responsible
for prolapse of the phallus and cloaca.
protozoal infections/ prolapse/ cloaca/ male genital diseases/ parasites/
ostriches ; Cryptosporidium ; protozoa 

496. Penrith M and Burger W. A Cryptosporidium sp. in an ostrich. Journal of
the South African Veterinary Association 1993; 64(2): 60-61.
12 ref
Intestinal Cryptosporidium spp. infection is reported in farmed ostrich
chicks in South Africa. The possible significance, diagnosis and control of
cryptosporidiosis are briefly discussed. A small intestine sample from a
4-week ostrich chick was shown to have small basophilic spherical organisms,
3-4 µm in diameter, and morphologically and ultrastructurally identical with
Cryptosporidium, present in the brush border of the surface epithelium as
well as that of the crypts. Tissue from the rectum was also shown to possess
the same organisms. Mild pathological changes, including lymphocytic
infiltration of the lamina propria and epithelial and crypt hypertrophy was
associated with the infection. The exact species of Cryptosporidium was not
cryptosporidiosis/ intestinal diseases/ case reports/ plumage birds/
protozoal infections/ parasites 

497. Perelman, B. Medical problems observed in ostriches raised under
intensive conditions. Proceedings of the First Conference of the European
Committee of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; 13-16 March 1991;
Vienna.; 1991 300-302. 
diseases/ viral diseases/ mycoses/ bacterial diseases/ Campylobacter jejuni/
nutritional disorders/ ostriches 

498. Perelman B; Cognano E; Katchko L; Agur Y; Kuttin E; and Carmy R. An
Unusual Mechanobullous Skin Disorder in Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus). Journal
of Avian Medicine and Surgery 1995; 9(2): 122-126.
English Article
An unusual skin disorder characterized by dermolytic blistering, skin
peeling, and loss of feathers was observed in young ostriches (Struthio
camelus var. domesticus) on an ostrich farm. Results of histopathologic and
electron microscopic examination of the skin of affected ostriches revealed a
subepidermal bulla secondary to sublamina densa splitting. No other organs
but the skin appeared to be affected, no causative infectious agents were
found, and the disease was not transmissible to other ostrich chicks within
the flock. The epidemiologic, clinical, and pathologic findings suggest a
genetically related, dermolytic mechanobullous disease.
Ratite/ Ostriches/ Skin diseases/ Mechanobullous disorders

499. Perelman B; Greiff M; Kuttin E; and Rogol M. Campylobacteriosis in
ostriches. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 1992; 47(3): 116-119.
English; 13 ref
A very unusual syndrome characterized by bright green urine, severe and
extensive necrotic hepatitis, hydropericardium, and ascites were observed in
a flock of 700 young ostriches in Israel. The disease affected 15 days to 4
month old ostriches, causing high morbidity and mortality (40% in animals
below 2 months old and 15% in animals above 2 months old). The clinical and
pathological findings resembled those described for vibrionic hepatitis in
other avian species. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 8, was the only bacteria
consistently isolated from the livers of affected ostriches, suggesting a
potential pathogenicity of this bacteria in this species.
Bacterial diseases/ Liver/ Poultry diseases/ Campylobacter jejuni/ ostriches/
Israel/ Liver diseases

500. Perelman B; Gur Lavie A; and Samberg Y. Pox in ostriches. Avian
Pathology 1988; 17(3): 735-739.
3 ref, English
Clinical signs suggesting pox were observed in a flock of ostrich chicks
(Struthio camelus), 10 to 60 days old. The disease was confirmed by isolation
of the agent from affected ostriches and reproduction of typical pox lesions
in turkeys. Further infection of young ostriches was prevented by vaccination
with fowl pox vaccine.
Immunization/ Struthio camelus/ Poxviridae/ Ostrich 

501. Perelman B and Kuttin E. Zygomycosis in ostriches. Avian Pathology 1992;
21(4): 675-680.
English; 26 ref
An unusual disease characterized by anorexia, progressive stunting and
stomach impaction was observed among 200 young ostriches (aged 1-10 weeks)
after treatment with antibiotics for a severe bacterial infection. The
massive accumulation of a clear white gelatinous mucus adherent to the inner
surface of the ventriculus plus a severe necrosis of the glandular layer were
the only consistent findings. Twelve ostriches with these clinical signs died
or were killed. Histological examination revealed typical forms of a
zygomycete invading the affected tissue. The zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae was
isolated from the ventriculus of all the affected ostriches.
Mycoses/ Symptoms/ Histopathology/ Ventriculus/ Case reports/ Ostriches/
Rhizopus oryzae/ Israel/ hosts/ infections 

502. Perelman B and Kuttin E. Aspergillosis in ostriches. Avian Pathology
1992; 21(1): 159-163.
English; 8 ref
A severe case of aspergillosis was observed in a flock of 3- to 8-week-old
ostriches on a semi-intensive farm in Israel. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus
were isolated from the lungs of affected ostriches. A heavy contamination
with both fungi was detected in the hatchery, suggesting a brooder-borne
infection. The clinical and pathological findings are described.
Case reports/ Pathology/ Mycoses/ Ostriches/ Aspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus
niger/ hosts/ Israel/ infections/ lungs 

503. Perelman, B and Kuttin, ES. Fungal infections in ostriches. Proceedings
of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994; Sacramento,
California.; 1994 21-22. v. 43rd).
ostriches/ mycoses 

504. Perelman B and Kuttin E. Parsley induced photosensitivity in ostriches
and ducks. Avian Pathology 1988; 17(1): 183-192.
English; 15 ref
Clinical and pathological changes suggesting an acute case of
photosensitivity were observed in a flock of ostriches. A preliminary
diagnosis of parsley (Petroselinum sativum)-induced photosensitization was
confirmed by experimental reproduction of the typical lesions in ducks. This
seems to be the first report on natural and experimental induction of
photosensitivity in ostriches and ducks caused by the ingestion of parsley.
Duck/ Photosensitization/ Ostrich/ Poisonous plants/ Petroselinum sativum

505. Phalen, DN and Wigle, WL. Sinusitis in five rheas: Response to
treatment. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 147-150. 
English; 18 ref.
Chronic severe sinusitis resemblling that seen in turkeys with Mycolplasma
gallisepticum infections is described in 5 rheas. Escherichia coli, a species
of Staphylococcus, and a Bacullus sp., were isolated from the sinus aspirate
of one bird. Cultures of the trachea and sinus fluid were negative for
Bordetella avium, Hemophilus paragallinarum, and Mycoplasma speices.
Antibodies of avian influenza and Chlamydia psittaci, and M. gallisepticum,
were not detected. Cryptosprodium species were not detected by
immunofluorescent antibody staining. Therapy with a combination of tylosin
and penicillin G resulted in a rapid resoultion of the clinical signs.
rheas/ sinusitis

506. Philbey A; Button C; Gestier A; Munro B; Glastonbury J; Hindmarsh M; and
Love S. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks. Australian Veterinary
Journal 1991; 68(7): 237-240.
English; 21 ref
Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were
examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had
anasarca and 15 had mild, generalized, acute degenerative changes in the
complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of
arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of
selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative
humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo
Pathology/ Mortality/ Incubation/ EGG HATCHABILITY/ Humidity/ Oedema/
ostriches/ anasarca/ Muscular diseases

507. Phillips D and Asa C. Development of spermatozoa in the rhea. Anatomical
Record 1989; 223(3): 276-282.
English; 34 ref.
We have examined the ultrastructural changes that take place during
spermiogenesis in the rhea. Spermatozoa are characterized by a curved head
and a midpiece. A thin rod extends from the anterior tip of the spermatozoon
through the center of the nucleus. A 3-mu-long distal centriole occupies the
entire midpiece. The principal piece is characterized by a small fibrous
sheath and tiny dense fibers that are only observed in the region of the
principal piece, which is immediately behind the annulus. During development
a circular manchette surrounds the nucleus of young spermatids. Later the
microtubules of the circular manchette become reorganized into a longitudinal
manchette. A long distal and short proximal centriole are observed in early
round spermatids. The distal centriole becomes associated with the plasma
membrane. Later the proximal centriole is observed in association with the
nucleus. The area around the centriole pair then accumulates dense material,
which is associated with either the centrioles or the circular manchette. The
longitudinal manchette forms and then disappears and mitochondria
subsequently associate with the distal centriole. The long centriole of the
rhea enables this species to develop a midpiece similar to the midpiece of
mammalian sperm without the complex intercellular movements that characterize
mammalian spermiogenesis. (Author's abstract)
rheas/ spermatozoa growth and development/ spermatozoa ultrastructure

508. Phillips P and Sanborn A. An Infrared, Thermographic Study of
Surface-Temperature in 3 Ratites - Ostrich, Emu and Double-Wattled Cassowary.
Journal of Thermal Biology 1994; 19(6): 423-430.
English Article
(1) Surface temperatures of the ostrich (Struthio camelus), emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae) and double-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) were
measured using infrared thermography at ambient temperatures ranging from 0
to 27 degrees C. (2) The pattern of surface temperature regulation for
thermoregulatory purposes was similar in all species examined. Beak, lower
leg and neck surface temperatures are regulated in all species to alter heat
exchange with the environment. The feet and toes are also used by the ostrich
and emu to regulate heat exchange. The cassowary does not use the feet and
toes to the same extent but used the casque in a similar manner. (3) Standard
metabolic rates were estimated using a geometric model of a bird and
instantaneous heat loss calculated for specific body parts. (4) Up to 40% of
metabolic heat production can be dissipated across these structures which
comprise 12% and 17.5% of total body surface area. (5) The ostrich was able
to regulate surface temperature more precisely than the other species,
probably due to a larger body size. The large wings of the ostrich are useful
for thermoregulation by increasing convective heat loss.
Surface Temperature/ Ratites/ Thermoregulation/ Thermal Windows/ Ostrich/
Struthio Camelus/ Emu/ Dromaius Novaehollandiae/ Double Wattled Cassowary/

509. Pletschke B; Naude R; Oelofsen W; Muramoto K; and Yamauchi F. Ostrich
Pepsinogens I And Ii: Purification, Activation And Chemical And
Immunochemical Characterization Of The Enzymes From The Proventriculus.
International Journal Of Biochemistry And Cell Biology 1995; 27(6): 613-624.
English; 9601
Pepsins are a series of gastric proteases secreted as inactive precursors
(pepsinogens) which are active at acidic ph. the aim of this study was to
purify ostrich pepsin(ogen)s and to compare their biochemical and
immunological characteristics with those of pepsin(ogen)s of mammalian and
avian origin. ostrich pepsinogens were purified by ammonium sulphate
fractionation, toyopearl super q 650s chromatography and rechromatography,
and hydroxylapatite chromatography of a ph 8.0 mucosal extract. pepsins were
obtained through acidification, and purified by chromatography on sp sephadex
c 50. amino acid compositions, n terminal sequences, ouchterlony double
diffusion as well as western blot analysis were performed. two pepsinogens
were isolated and purified from the proventriculus of the ostrich,
pepsinogens i and ii. both pepsinogens and pepsins were purified to
homogeneity as shown by page and sds page, with sds page revealing m(r)
values of 40,400 and 41,900 for pepsinogens i and ii, respectively. sds page
revealed m(r) values of 36,000 and 36,300 for ostrich pepsins i and ii,
respectively. ostrich pepsinogens i and ii were found to have identical n
terminal sequences, with asp as n terminal amino acid, amino acid
compositions were obtained for both pepsinogens, with ostrich pepsinogen i
being slightly smaller in size with a total of 356 residues compared to 371
for ostrich pepsinogen ii. pepsinogen ii showed a pi of 4.29. ostrich
pepsinogens i and ii were found to be immunologically separate entities, and
no cross reactivity was observed between anti (ostrich pepsinogen i/ ii) sera
and porcine pepsin/ pepsinogen. the study indicates that only two pepsinogens
are present in the ostrich. they differ in terms of electrophoretic mobility,
molecular mass and immunological reactivity, but have been found to have
identical n terminal sequences. it is concluded that both pepsinogens belong
to the pepsinogen a class of aspartyl proteases (ec
Ostrich/ pepsinogen(s)/ immunochemical/ purification/ activation/ amino acid
sequence/ proteins

510. Pocknell A; Miller B; Neufeld J; and Grahn B. Conjunctival
mycobacteriosis in two emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology
1996; 33(3): 346-348.
English; 13 ref.; 9606
Avian tuberculosis was diagnosed in two young adult female commercial emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae) with granulomatous conjunctivitis. Histologically,
the granulomas appeared typical of avian turberculosis. Caseonecrotic cores
were surrounded by a broad ring of palisading epithelioid macrophages and
multinucleate giant cells with a moderate admixture of heterophils,
lymphocytes, and plasma cells, One conjunctival granuloma had multifocal
mineralization. At necropsy, granulomas were also found in visceral organs of
both birds. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all lesions using
Ziehl-Neelsen of Fite's stains. Culture confirmed the bacilli to be
Mycobacterium avium (complex). (Author's abstract)
emus/ conjunctivites/ eye/ Mycobacterium avium/ tuberculosis

511. Pople A; Cairns S; and Grigg G. Distribution and abundance of Emus
Dromaius novaehollandiae in relation to the environment in the South
Australian pastoral zone. Emu 1991; 91(4): 222-229.
The distribution and abundance of Emus in the South Australian pastoral zone
between 1978 and 1989 was determined by winter aerial surveys. The average
number of Emu groups present ranged from a low of 0.02 km-2 in 1983 to 0.08
km-2 in 1980, 1981 and 1988. Between 1984 and 1989, average size of these
groups was found to range from 2.22 to 4.55 Emus. Although the distribution
varied from year to year, Emu density was generally highest in the northeast
of the pastoral zone and lowest in the more arid northwest. The northeast of
the pastoral zone is a relatively productive area, containing a mixture of
land systems, particularly 'run-on' areas. The low open woodlands and tall
shrublands of the northwest and south of the pastoral zone supported low
densities of Emus. Areas of high Emus density were generally dominated by
more intensive sheep grazing, by fans and/ or hills, by red duplex soils, and
by low shrublands of predominantly bluebush. Rainfall during summer and
autumn was considered an important determinant of Emu density, with this
period being important in terms of egg production.
Egg Production/ Sheep Grazing Intensity/ Population Density/ Rainfall
Seasonality/ Aerial Survey/ Australia

512. Porter, V. Domestic and ornamental fowl. London, UK: Pelham Books Ltd;
1989; 266pp. 
English; 36 ref. 
This book has been written to cater for the needs of the amateur breeder or
small-scale poultry producer, and covers much of what they should know in
order to operate successfully. The initial chapters deal with the origins and
general background of the various species, and some basic material on
physiology, nutrition and welfare aspects. Small-scale housing, some disease
conditions and slaughter methods are described, after which breeding and
brooding are treated in some detail. The penultimate, long chapter describes
the general and performance characteristics and management of fowls, turkeys,
guineafowls, peafowls, ornamental pheasants, quails, ostriches, pigeons,
domestic geese, domestic ducks and ornamental waterfowls. The final chapter
deals with poultry products and their marketing. An appendix gives notes on
breeds, species of pheasants and waterfowls, diseases and sexing. There is a
glossary of poultry terms, and lists of addresses of organisations,
suppliers, collections of birds at several farms open to the public, and
poultry magazines. There is a subject index.
Breeding/ poultry/ books/ Management/ Fowls/ production 

513. Post K; Ayers J; Gilmore W; and Raleigh H. Campylobacter jejuni isolated
from ratites. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 1992; 4(3):
rhea/ ostriches/ chicks/ campylobacter jejuni/ yolk sac/ isolation/ symptoms/
histopathology/ case reports

514. Powell R; Jach H; Millar R; and King J. Identification of Gln8 GnRH and
His5,Trp7,Tyr8 GnRH in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic brain of the
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Peptides 1987; 8(1): 185-190.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) molecular forms were studied in
extracts of ostrich hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic brain using high
performance liquid chromatography, radioimmunoassay with region-specific
antisera and assessment of luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing activity using
chicken dispersed pituitary cells. Two molecular forms of GnRH with
chromatographic, immunological and biological properties identical to those
of Gln8-GnRH and His5,Trp7,Tyr8-GnRH were demonstrated in both the
hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain extracts. A greater proportion of
His5,Trp7,Tyr8-GnRH was present in the hypothalamus than in extrahypothalamic
brain. It is likely that these two forms of GnRH are present in all bird
species, since the chicken and the ostrich have evolved separately.
Chromatography, Gel/ Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/ Gonadorelin
analysis/ LH metabolism/ Radioimmunoassay/ Birds metabolism/ Brain Chemistry/
Gonadorelin analogs and derivatives/ Hypothalamus analysis

515. Prager E; Wilson A; Osuga D; and Feeney R. Evolution of flightless land
birds on southern continents: transferrin comparison shows monophyletic
origin of ratites. Journal of Molecular Evolution 1976; 8(3): 283-294.
A biochemical approach was used to study the evolution of ratite birds, i.e.,
the ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, emus, and kiwis. Quantitative
immunological comparison of transferrin from ratites, tinamous, and other
flying birds indicates that all the ratites and tinamous are allied
phylogenetically and that they are of monophyletic origin relative to other
birds. To explain the current geographic distribution of ratites and the
magnitude of the transferrin distances, it is supposed that the ancestors of
these flightless birds walked across land bridges between the southern
continents during Cretaceous times.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Complement Fixation Tests/ Geography/ Phylogeny/ Species
Specificity/ *Birds/ *Evolution/ *Transferrin 

516. Prantner M. Intestinal smooth muscle hyperplasia in a rhea (Rhea
americana). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(1): 197-200.
English; 11 ref.
Smooth muscle hyperplasia of the small intestine occurred in an 18-month-old
rhea (Rhea americana). The mucosal thickening was 2-3 mm, and the enlarged
muscle layers averaged 5 mm thick. The intestinal villi were lengthened,
pleated, and expanded by smooth muscle hyperplasia within the lamina propria.
The prominent muscularis mucosa averaged 20 smooth muscle cells thick. The
tunica muscularis had symmetrical hyperplasia of both the inner circular
muscle layer, which had an excess of 220 cells, and the outer longitudinal
muscle layer, which consisted of five to six large fascicles, each
approximately 75 cells thick. The smooth muscle hyperplasia, without
hypertrophy, in all, intestinal muscle layers differs greatly from mammalian
cases of smooth muscle hypertrophy, in which the increase in intestinal size
results from smooth muscle hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis. (Author's
rheas/ hyperplasia/ intestine/ muscle

517. Preez, JJ du. Ostrich nutrition and management. Farrell, DJ, Editor.
Recent advances in animal nutrition in Australia 1991 . Armidale, Australia:
University of New England; 1991; 278-291. 
English. In ostrich file. 33 ref.
A review of the information on nutrition and management of ostriches
(Struthio camelus) is given and attempts to fill the gaps with theoretical
predictions for practical quantitative feeding of growing and breeding birds
are given. Research priorities to put ostrich farming on a sound scientific
basis are discussed.
Nutrient requirements/ ostriches/ reviews/ Conferences/ Australia/ Recent
advances in animal nutrition in Australia

518. Raath J; Quandt S; and Malan J. Ostrich (Struthio camelus)
immobilisation using carfentanil and xylazine and reversal with yohimbine and
naltrexone. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1992; 63(4):
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) (n = 20) were immobilised from a helicopter by
darting with a total dose of 3 mg carfentanil and 150 mg xylazine. An initial
excitement phase was displayed, commencing on average at 2.67 min (S.D. 0.72)
after darting, and the average time to recumbency was 4.97 min (S.D. 1.05).
The average heart and respiration rates prior to reversal were 121.2 (S.D.
19.96) and 13.7 (S.D. 5.96) min-1 respectively. Reversal was achieved by the
intravenous injection of yohimbine at approximately 0.125 mg kg-1 and 300 mg
of naltrexone, and was uneventful. Further investigations need to be done to
establish the most appropriate dosage rates for these preparations in
Fentanyl pharmacology/ Birds physiology/ Fentanyl analogs and derivatives/
Immobilization/ Naltrexone pharmacology/ Xylazine pharmacology/ Yohimbine

519. Rae, M. Degenerative myopathy in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992;
New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 328-335. 
English; 21 ref.; 9603
A large percentage of the young ratites submitted for necropsy exhibited
evidence of degenerative myopathy. The species examined included the ostrich
(Struthio camelus), the rhea (Rhea americana) and the emu (Dromiceius
novaehollandiae). The vast majority of the birds examined were six months of
age or younger. Clicinal history was scanty, but often invloved depression,
reluctance to rise or move and rather rapid progression to death. Lesions of
acute myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration were observed. Histologic
lesions were indistinguishable from the nutritional myopathy described in
mammals and other avian species. Other possible causes of acute degenerative
myopahty may include intoxication with furazolidone, ionophores and Cassia
and capture myopathy. The role of vitamin E and selenium in avian nutrition
and halth was reviewed briefly. Some circulating vitamin and mineral levels
were presented, but additional work is necessary to relate these levels to
diet, age and sex of the bird. Determination of normal organ levels are also
needed, as well as correlation with health and disease. Overzealous
supplementaion can reult in selenium toxicosis and this must be guarded
against. Viamin E supplementation is safer and appears to prevent mortality.
ratites/ emus/ ostriches/ rheas/ degenerative myopathy

520. Raidal S; Gill J; and Cross G. Pox in ostrich chicks. Australian
Veterinary Journal 1996; 73(1): 32-33.
English; 4 ref.; 9603
Describes an outbreak of pox in ostrich chicks at New South Wales, Australia.
Includes presentation of the chicks, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
ostriches/ pox/ Australia

521. Raines, AM. Adenovirus infection in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September 1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 1993 304-312. 
English; 38 ref.
In 1992, 10 cases of adenovirus infection were diagnosed at the Center for
Ratite Resources. This paper reports the history, clinical signs,
histopathology, and culture results from these farms. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ adenovirus

522. Raines, AM. How to evaluate a ratite facility to aid in diagnosing chick
mortality. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 97-102. 
English; 9 ref.
The ratite industry has been plagued with high chick mortality since its
rebirth in the 1980's. The most common diagnoses include "E coli
enteritis", "retained yolk sac", "infected yolk sac", or
the ever popular "unknown diagnosis". Veterinarians are called upon
to prescribe, dispense or administer everything from magic vitamin
supplements to ultraviolet lighting and air purification systems. The ratite
industry, like every other animal industry, is slowly learning that
prevention does not mean heading off a problem with a "magic bullet".
It means good management and husbandry. The veterinarian's role is not only
to dispense medications and perform surgeries, but also to help the producer
evaluate his/ her management practices to find out why the chicks are dying
from E coli, or why they are retaining their yolk sacs and/ or impacting. One
cannot do justice to clients without going to the farm and evaluating their
management. (Author's interpretive summary)

Discusses records, production goals, incubation, chick barn, weighing chicks,
nutrition, biosecurity and troubleshooting management problems.
ratites/ facilities

523. Randolph J; Moise N; Graham D; and Murphy C. Bacterial endocarditis and
thromboembolism of a pelvic limb in an emu [Dromaius novaehollandiae].
Journal-of-the-American-Veterinary-Medical-Association 1984; 185(11):
12 ref
Heart diseases/ Embolism/ Birds/ Struthioniformes/ Endocarditis 

524. Randolph K; Vanhooser S; and Hoffman M. Western Equine
Encephalitis-Virus in Emus in Oklahoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic
Investigation 1994; 6(4): 492-493.
English Note

525. Rao M and Chowdary C. Tuberculosis in an emu (Dromiceius
novoeholandies). Indian Veterinary Journal 1980; 57(2): 169.
English; 9601; 2 fig.; 3 ref
Aviary birds/ Bacterial diseases/ Pathology/ Neoplasms/ Melanoma/ Liver/ case
reports/ tuberculosis/ zoo animals/ Struthioniformes 

526. Rao M; Ramachandra R; Ziauddin S; and Raghavan R. Colibacillosis in an
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology,
Immunology and Infectious Diseases 1981; 2: 40-41.
English; 9601; 3 ref
Bacterial diseases/ Diarrhoea/ Septicaemia/ case reports/ Escherichia
infections/ zoo animals/ Birds/ ostriches 

527. Rautenfeld D. Report on artifical insemination and sex and age
determination of the ostrich (Struthio camelus australis Gurney). Prakt Tier
1977; 58(5): 359-366.
German; Ref

528. Rautenfeld Dv. Artificial insemination and determination of sex and age
in the ostrich Struthio camelus australis, Gurney. Praktische Tierarzt 1977;
58(5): 359-366.
German; 9601; 19 ref
Breeding/ sex determination/ age determination/ artificial insemination/
Birds/ ostriches 

529. Rautenfeld DV. Technique and hygiene of ostrich slaughter (Struthio
camelus australis) in the Republic of South Africa [Meat inspection,
parasites, bacteria]. Schlachten and Vermarkten 1976; 76(6): 198-201.
German. Eng. sum

530. Rautenfeld Dv and Budras K. The bursa cloacae (fabricii) of
struthioniforms in comparison with the bursa of other birds. Journal of
Morphology 1982; 172(1): 123-138.
English; 9601; 52 ref
Bursectomy/ Anatomy/ Morphology/ bursa fabricii/ Struthioniformes/ ostriches 

531. Reddy K and Rao B. Nematodes parasites of captive birds at Nehru
Zoological Park at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Current-Science 1983; 52(7):
 2 ref
Examination of birds which died at the Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad,
India, revealed Splendidofilaria osmaniae in Acridotheres tristis, Capillaria
sp. in Rhea americana, "Ascarididia sp." in Francolinus, Ascaridia
galli in Numida meleagris and Buceros bicornis and microfilariae in the blood
of Urocissa flairostris. The first and last of these records are considered
to be new.
Nematoda/ Birds/ India/ Zoological gardens

532. Reece R and Butler R. Some observations on the development of the long
bones of ratite birds. Australian Veterinary Journal 1984; 61(12): 403-405.
English; 9 ref
Observations were made on the long bones of 10 rheas, 3 emus and 3 ostriches,
from 1-day-old to 12 weeks of age. At hatching all long bones contained large
cartilaginous cones which were continuous with the growth plates, and an
osseous cortex. At one week of age ossification had commenced on the
periphery of these embryonic cones and in some bones the cones had become
separated from the growth plates. At 3 weeks of age the embryonic cones of
cartilage were still present in the proximal and distal tibio-tarsi and
narrow cartilaginous bridges connected the cones to the growth plates.
Embryonic cones were not present in other long bones of this 3-week-old rhea
nor in the long bones of ratites 6, 8 and 12 weeks of age. Other praecocial
birds such as turkey poults and chickens have cones of embryonic cartilage in
their long bones at hatching and these persist in the tibio-tarsi until 1 to
2 weeks of age. The presence of large cones of embryonic cartilage in the
tibio-tarsal bones of 3-week-old ratite birds is probably a normal
phenomenon. Awareness of this feature is necessary for the correct
differential diagnosis of the prevalent musculoskeletal disorders of ratite
Ostrich/ Rhea/ Emu/ Cartilage/ Growth disorders/ Struthioniformes/ Postnatal
development/ Limb bones/ Ossification 

533. Reiner G. Features of Ostrich Keeping. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 1995;
59(1): 94-98.
German Article
This review deals with agricultural keeping of the ostrich (Struthio
camelus). With the beginning of the 1990s, following Australia, the USA and
Israel, ostrich keeping has started in Europe too. Beginning with the history
of ostrich keeping in South Africa, the article gives some insight into
systematic and anatomical specialities and shows some biological traits. Then
it describes the habitate and the way of life of the ostrich, ostrich keeping
in South Africa, linking up to features of enclosures, feeding, breeding and
rising of the chickens. Following some statements on slaughtering, meat and
leather quality, the article ends with some remarks on the situation of
ostrich keeping in germany.

534. Reiner G; Dorau H; and Dzapo V. Cholesterol Content, Nutrients and
Fatty-Acid Profiles of Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus) Eggs. Archiv fur
Geflugelkunde 1995; 59(1): 65-68.
English Article
Cholesterol content, fatty acid profiles, and nutrients of nine ostrich eggs
from different german breeding farms were investigated. Data were presented
together with some weights and measurements and compared to such of different
poultry eggs. Ostrich eggs were characterized by increased shell and
decreased yolk portions. Cholesterol contents in ostrich yolks were in the
upper area described for chicken yolks. Fatty acid profiles lay between those
described for guinea fowl and other poultry. Compared to the chicken egg,
ostrich yolks had reduced portions of monounsaturated fatty acids and
increased portions of saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Nutrients were comparable to those of poultry eggs.

535. Reiner G and Dzapo V. Oxygen-Consumption by Embryos of Ostrich During
Incubation. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1995; 102(2): 93-96.
German Article
This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during
incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass
cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was
measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn
during incubation, with the steepest Phase beeing around day 26. Maximum
oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day
39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an
increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood
intervall were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36
result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen
consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated
with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly
differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the
earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in
regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are

536. Ridlen, C, Ballard, B, and Baxter, M. Raising emus : the proud bird that
lays the emerald egg. Houston, Tex.: Legend Graphics; 100 p. 
Emu farming

537. Riggert, TL. The management of the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae in
Western Australia. Perth: Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; 1975; 13 p. 
Includes bibliographical references. maps

538. Robinson E and Seely M. Some food plants of ostriches in the Namib
Desert Park, South West Africa. Madoqua, II 1975; 4: 74-80, 99-100.
English; 9601; 1 ref
Grasses (Stipagrostis spp.) comprised 1.93% and 20.49% of the gut contents of
an ostrich collected near Zebra Pan, a flat calcrete rubble plain and of one
found in the Kuiseb River where there was dense riverine vegetation,
respectively. Much of the grass and other small herbs had been completely
uprooted. This implied that heavy utilization of grasslands by ostriches
might adversely affect arid grassland communities.
wild animals/ diet/ botanical composition/ grazing/ selective grazing/

539. Robinson P. Intestinal anastomosis for correction of prolapsed colon in
an emu. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 1979; 10(4): 124-126.
English; 9601
aviary birds/ colon/ surgery/ Dromaius 

540. Robinson P and Fairfield J. Immobilization of an ostrich with ketamine
HCl. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 1974; 5(No.4): 11.
English; 9601
Restraint of animals/ anaesthetics/ ostriches/ Ketamine hydrochloride/
immobilization by drugs

541. Rodgers S; Vanhooser S; Welsh R; and Silkwood T. Preliminary Studies of
Primary Ostrich Fibroblasts for the Isolation of Ratite Viruses. Avian
Diseases 1994; 38(4): 866-872.
English; 15 ref.
An ostrich egg at 21 days of development was used to propagate primary embryo
cell cultures. Primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells (for fibroblasts)
were prepared by routine trypsinization techniques. The ostrich embryo
fibroblasts were tested for their ability to propagate stock avian viruses of
infectious bronchitis virus, paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1), PMV-2, PMV-3,
infectious bursal disease virus, quail bronchitis virus, avian reovirus,
turkey coronavirus, and two ostrich-originating specimens (one of which was a
possible coronavirus identified by electron microscopy). Cytopathic effects
were seen by light microscopy in cell cultures inoculated with PMV-1, turkey
coronavirus, and the two ostrich specimens. Hemagglutinating titers of 4 or
more were determined for PMV-1, turkey coronavirus, and the two ostrich
specimens after inoculation onto monolayers of ostrich embryo fibroblasts.
Hemagglutination-inhibition tests confirmed the identification of PMV-1 when
homologous antisera were used as the specific inhibitor. Bovine coronavirus
antisera inhibited the hemagglutination of one of the cultured ostrich
specimens. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ viruses

542. Roos A; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of alanine aminopeptidase from ostrich (Struthio camelus)
duodenal mucosa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B Comparative
Biochemistry 1993; 104(4): 817-823.
1. Ostrich aminopeptidase was purified by salt fractionation, Sephadex G-200
and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M chromatography of a pH 6.9 duodenal extract. 2. The
final preparation was homogeneous when subjected to gradient gel
electrophoresis with a M-r of 290,000. 3. The effects of pH, temperature and
metal ions on aminopeptidase activity were examined. 4. Kinetic parameters
(K-m, k-cat and k-cat/ K-m) for two substrates (APNA and LPNA) were
Enzyme kinetics

543. Rosser B and George J. Some histochemical properties of the fiber types
in the pectoralis muscle of an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Anatomical
Record 1984; 209(3): 301-305.
English; 46 ref.
The muscle fibers of the cranial slip of M. pectoralis pars thoracica of an
emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were studied histochemically for intracellular
lipid, succinic dehydrogenase, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase, and
acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the muscle consisted of
approximately 28% slow-tonic and 72% fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The tonic
fibers were considered to be characteristic of a postural muscle, and the
fast-twitch glycolytic fibers to reflect the inability of the muscle to
engage in sustained activity. The general absence of slow-tonic fibers from
the pectoralis of other avian species so far studied may be attributed to
inadequate sampling of the deeper regions of the muscle. (Author's abstract)
emus/ muscle anatomy/ pectoralis muscle

544. Rouille Y; Chauvet M; Chauvet J; and Acher R. [Phylogeny of
neurohypophyseal hormones in birds: microidentification of mesotocin and
vasotocin in the ostrich (Struthio camelus)]. C R Soc Seances Soc Biol Fil
1986; 180(1): 35-42.
Ostrich (Struthio camelus) neurohypophysial hormones have been isolated from
5 freeze-dried posterior pituitary glands. Purification has involved three
steps: a first molecular sieving on Sephadex G-75 for eliminating proteins, a
second molecular sieving on Bio-Gel P4 for separating the two active
principles and a high pressure reverse-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) on
Nova-Pak C 18 with an 10 mM acetate-acetonitrile gradient for isolating each
hormone. The active peptides have been identified by their retention time in
HPLC and their amino acid composition. Mesotocin and vasotocin have thus been
characterized. Although the phylogeny of Ratites is disputed, in particular
their possible common origin with Carinates, which include most of the living
birds, species of the first sub-class seem to have the same neurohypophysial
hormones as those of the second.
Animal/ English Abstract/ Oxytocin analysis/ Pituitary Hormones, Posterior
analysis/ Birds genetics/ Oxytocin analogs and derivatives/ Phylogeny/
Pituitary Gland, Posterior analysis/ Vasotocin analysis

545. Rousseaux C and Dalziel J. Aspergillus pneumonia in an ostrich (Struthio
camelus). Australian Veterinary Journal 1981; 57(3): 151-152.
English; 9601; 2 fig.; 4 ref
A fatal case of pulmonary A. fumigatus infection is reported in a farm
lungs/ Respiratory diseases/ Mycoses/ case reports/ pneumonia/ ostriches/
Aspergillus fumigatus/ Birds/ Fungi/ Struthioniformes/ Aspergillus/
Aspergillus fumigatus on ostrich

546. Ruempler G. Accidental injuries and methods of treatment in zoo birds.
Tierarztliche Praxis 1975; 3(4): 425-430.
German; 9601
PREDATORY BIRDS/ Fractures/ wings/ Beak/ Surgery/ Amputation/ accidents/
trauma/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ owls/ birds/ Flamingo/ Emu/ Crane/
Avocet/ Curlew/ Hornbill

547. Ruempler G. Diseases of rearing in running birds (Ratitae). Voliere
1978; 1(1): 20-22.
German; 9601; 6 ref
Perosis/ zoo animals/ birds/ ostriches/ Emu/ Nandu/ Cassowary

548. Rzhetsky A; Kumar S; and Nei M. Four-cluster analysis: A simple method
to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1995; 12(1):
A simple statistical test for comparing three alternative phylogenetic
hypotheses for four monophyletic groups is presented. This test is based on
the minimum-evolution principle, and it does not require any information
regarding the branching order within each monophyletic group. It is
computationally efficient and can be easily extended to five or more
monophyletic groups.

549. Saayman H; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. Isolation and characterization of a
neurophysin from ostrich neurohypophyses. International Journal of Peptide
and Protein Research 1985; 26(4): 416-424.
A neurophysin has been isolated from ostrich neurohypophyses using acid
acetone extraction, salt fractionation and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The
crude neurophysin eluting from the Sephadex G-75 column was subjected to a)
reverse-phase HPLC followed by Sephadex G-75 chromatography, b) DEAE-Sephadex
A-50 chromatography or c) isoelectric focusing. The different homogeneous
ostrich neurophysin fractions so obtained were compared i.t.o. amino acid
composition, spectral properties, N-terminal amino acid residues and PAGE.
They all revealed a single N-terminal Ala residue and displayed spectral
properties (A280/ A260 less than 1) which are typical of mammalian
neurophysin-like polypeptides. Ultracentrifugation studies on purified
ostrich neurophysin over a range of concentrations revealed a reversible
concentration dependent association behaviour characterized by the presence
of dimeric complexes at higher concentrations. Partial sequencing from the
N-terminus revealed the molecule to be VLDV-like. The purified molecule was
also submitted to CNBr fragmentation.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Amino Acids analysis/ Animal/ Chromatography, Gel/
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/ Chromatography, Ion Exchange/ Cyanogen
Bromide/ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/ Isoelectric Focusing/ Molecular
Weight/ Peptide Fragments analysis/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/ Birds
physiology/ Neurophysins isolation and purification/ Pituitary Gland,
Posterior analysis

550. Saayman H; Naude R; Oelofsen W; and Isaacson L. Mesotocin and vasotocin,
two neurohypophysial hormones in the ostrich, Struthio camelus. International
Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 1986; 28(4): 398-402.
Two neurohypophysial hormones have been isolated from an avian species, the
ostrich, Struthio camelus. Both have been characterized by amino acid
analysis and sequence determination. The data obtained suggest that the
oxytocin-like hormone is [Ile8-oxytocin] (mesotocin) and the vasopressin-like
hormone is [Ile3-vasopressin] (vasotocin). Bioactivity measurements based on
urinary conductivity showed vasotocin to be about five times as active as
Amino Acid Sequence/ Animal/ Chromatography, Gel/ Chromatography, High
Pressure Liquid/ Oxytocin isolation and purification/ Support, Non U.S.
Gov't/ Birds physiology/ Oxytocin analogs and derivatives/ Pituitary Gland,
Posterior analysis/ Vasotocin isolation and purification

551. Saez H; Despeignes J; Battesti M; and Rinjard J. Immunological research
in animals. Serum precipitins detected in the first hundred subjects tested
with fungal antigens. Economie et Medecine Animales 1972; 13(5): 289-298.
French; 9601
The agar gel immunodiffusion test was used to test the blood of 100 animals
(64 mammals, 36 birds) which died at the Paris Zoological Gardens. Ten
animals showed mycotic lesions. All animals were tested with 11 different
antigens: 3 of Aspergillus fumigatus, 1 each of A. fischeri, A. flavus, A.
nidulans, Candida krusei and C. tropicalis and 3 of C. albicans. During the
investigation 10 other antigens, including a thermophilic C. sp., were used.
Antibodies were detected in 5% of the animals: A. fumigatus, A. flavus and C.
krusei 2% of animals each; A. fischeri, A. nidulans and C. sp. 1% each. No
reaction was observed in the 10 subjects affected by buccal or
bucco-oesophageal candidiasis and by aspergillosis with corresponding
antigens of the pathogen. There was also no reaction with serum from newborn
or stillborn mammals. In the positive cases senility, lung affection and a
non-fungal parasite were observed.
immunology/ Aspergillosis/ mycoses/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/
Aspergillus/ Papio/ Candida/ ostriches/ aspergillosis of animals/ candidiasis
of animals/ immunodiffusion test/ Crane/ Wombat/ precipitins in zoo animals

552. Saez H; Rinjard J; and Strazielle L. Simultaneous Aspergillus flavus and
Candida albicans infection, and rectal prolapse, in a young emu born in
captivity. Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 1979; 155(9): 689-692.
French; 9601; 11 ref
This male emu in the Paris zoo was found at 42 days old to have Candida
albicans infection limited to the pharyngeal region, early Aspergillus flavus
infection in miliary lesions in the lungs, and a 3 cm long prolapse of the
rectum. The PM findings in a series of 13 other emu chicks, stillborn at the
Paris zoo, are also summarized. They included two cases of rectal prolapse,
three of aspergillosis and four of candidiasis, including one other case in
which all three conditions were present simultaneously.
Mycoses/ zoo animals/ Birds/ Fungi/ Aspergillus/ Candida/ Struthioniformes/
Candida albicans/ Aspergillus flavus/ infection in emu/ mycoses in emu/
Candida albicans on emu/ Aspergillus flavus on emu/ emu

553. Saez H and Rodrigues de Miranda L. Two new yeast species of animal
origin isolated at the Zoological Garden, Paris: Cryptococcus feraegula and
Candida nanaspora. Bulletin-Trimestriel-de-la-Societe-Mycologique-de-France
1988; 104(3): 213-215.
2 ref
Descriptions are given of Cryptococcus feraegula isolated from Papio papio,
Rhea americana and Daubentonia madagascariensis; and Candida nanaspora
isolated from Cebus apella.
Birds/ Zoological gardens/ Cryptococcus feraegula/ Taxonomy/ Candida
nanaspora/ Hosts/ Zoo animals/ France/ Papio papio/ Isolation/ Rhea
americana/ Daubentonia madagascariensis/ Cebus apella/ Mycoses/ Cryptococcus
deuteromycotina/ Candida 

554. Sagartz J; Swayne D; Eaton K; Hayes J; Amass K; Wack R; and Kramer L.
Necrotizing typhlocolitis associated with a spirochete in rheas (Rhea
americana). Avian Diseases 1992; 36(2): 282-289.
Includes references.
Necrotizing typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 13 juvenile common rheas (Rhea
americana) from three separate and geographically isolated Ohio flocks, with
mortality ranging from 25% to 80%. At postpartum examination, a diphtheritic
membrane covered ulcerated cecal mucosa. Histologically, cecal sections
showed necrosis and granulomatous to-suppurative inflammation that extended
into the submucosa and often surrounded large eosinophilic colonies of
bacteria. Warthin-Starry staining showed these colonies to be composed of
entangled spirochetes that invaded the submucosa and frequently were present
transmurally. Similar organisms were identified by Warthin-Starry staining in
the cecum of a juvenile rhea from a fourth flock that histologically had mild
lymphocytic typhlitis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy
demonstrated the presence of a spirochete in the ceca, Anaerobic culture
yielded a gram-negative, beta-hemolytic spirochete. Coccidia, histomonads,
and Salmonella spp. were consistently absent.
rhea/ intestinal diseases/ typhlitis/ cecum/ mucosa/ necrosis/ inflammation/
spirochaetales/ diagnosis/ treponema/ ohio 

555. Saiff E. The middle ear of the skull of birds: the ostrich, Struthio
camelus L. Morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 1981; 73(2):
English; ill

556. Sales J. Ostrich meat review: A South African viewpoint. Canadian
Ostrich 1995; 4(9): 20, 22, 24-25.
Ostriches are slaughtered at approximately 14 months of age yielding
approximately 35 kg of meat. Table 1 indicates the average muscle mass of the
muscles of adult ostriches usually used as steaks and fillets. Also discussed
in the paper are meat quality characteristics of ostrich meat. The nutritive
composition of ostrich meat is reviewed. Table 2 lists the nutritive
composition of ostrich meat in comparison to beef and chicken. The author
concludes with a discussion of the future for ostrich as a meat animal.
ostriches/ meat

557. Sales J and Mellett F. The Determination of the Age of Ostrich Carcasses
from Ossification of the Pectoral Girdle (Ossa Cinguli Membrii Thoracici).
Animal Science 1995; 60(Part 3): 499-501.
English Article
Although the extent of ossification between the caracoid and clavicle bones
of the pectoral girdle (ossa cinguli membrii thoracici) in the ostrich
carcass cam be used to determine between ossification classes within the age
range 8 to 14 months (considered as the optimal time of slaughter of
ostriches), it is not an accurate tool for estimating the exact age at
slaughter. It is possible to distinguish between carcasses originating from
the birds between 10 and 12 months of age, at which ostrich meat toughens.
Age determination/ Ossification/ Ostriches/ Pectoral girdle

558. Sales J and Mellett F. Post-mortem pH decline in different ostrich
muscles. Meat Science 1996; 42(2): 235-238.
English; 11 ref.; 9603
Post-mortem glycolysis, as described by muscle pH decline, was investigated
in several ostrich muscles. While the gastrocnemius pars interna,
femorotibialis medius, iliotibialis lateralis and iliofemoralis showed the
normal descending pH decline pattern, the ambiens as well as the
iliofibularis showed a very rapid pH decline until 2 hr post mortem
whereafter pH increased.
ostriches/ meat/ pH

559. Sales J; Poggenpoel D; and Cilliers S. Comparative physical and
nutritive characteristics of ostrich eggs. World's Poultry Science Journal
1996; 52(1): 45-52.
English; 37 ref.; 9606
The physical characteristics and chemical composition of ostrich eggs are
reviewed in the process of investigating their suitability for table
consumption. Some comparisions are made between ostrich eggs and those of
other avian species, and it is concluded that their physical apearance may
make them attractive to consumers. The extremely strong shells of ostrich
eggs make them very resistant to breakage during handling and transportation,
while also serving as a basis for the making of curios. The limited data
available indicate that the contents of ostrich eggs is similar to that of
other avian species in terms of the proportion of main components and
chemical composition. Although the production of fresh ostrich eggs for
consumption is currently not seen as having great potential, there appears to
be no reason why those not used as hatching eggs should not be utilized for
table consumption.
ostriches/ eggs/ nutritive characteristics/ physical characteristics

560. Sales, J and Smith, WA. Incubation and management Smith, WA, Editor.
Practical guide for ostrich management and ostrich products. [Matieland,
South Africa]: Alltech Inc.; 1995; 3-7. 44pp. 
English; 7 ref.; 9603
Discusses both natural and artificial incubation and the management of
chicks, growing birds and breeders. 
ostriches/ incubating/ managment

561. Samberg Y; Hadash D; Perelman B; and Meroz M. Newcastle disease in
ostriches (Struthio camelus): field case and experimental infection. Avian
Pathology 1989; 18(2): 221-226.
English; 6 ref
In an outbreak of Newcastle disease, 13 of 46 ostriches aged 5-9 months died
over three weeks; 34 birds aged 11 months in a neighbouring flock were
unaffected. Clinical signs included limp necks, torticollis, cervical
muscular tics, loss of balance, recumbency, paralysis and oedema of the head.
Pathological signs were petechiae on the heart and enlarged livers. Virus was
isolated from the brain only of one affected bird. Attempts to isolate virus
from the liver, spleen, heart and kidneys were unsuccessful. Three of 5 birds
(3 months old) died within 5-10 days after challenge with the virulent
Israel-67 strain of Newcastle disease virus (106 ELD50 i.m. and aerosol
together), another was killed after showing typical signs. Haemagglutination
inhibition titres after 5 days exceeded log25. The virus was reisolated from
different organs of all 4 dead birds.
Struthioformes/ Age/ Symptoms/ Nervous system diseases/ Newcastle disease/
Ostriches/ Israel 

562. Sambraus H. Behavioral-Disorders in the Food-Intake of Ostriches.
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1995; 108(9): 344-346.
German Article
The behaviour of ostriches (Struthio camelus) was observed. The most striking
behaviour disorders was feather pecking. However, the animals showed four
other behaviour patterns, which also must be qualified as behaviour
disorders: Pecking sand, pecking wire, pecking their own feathers and pecking
into air, occurred in a random succession. This is a result of the nutrition,
which differs from the natural feeding situation, as the animals are fed
exclusively on pellets so that the food consumption is completed within a
very short time. This results in an accumulation of action specific energy
within the functional circle of nutrition. Therefore in the husbandry of
ostriches in Central Europe not only the necessary energy and sufficient
composition of nutrition should be considered. It is necessary as well, that
the food be of a consistency which guarantees food intake of appropriate
satisfactory duration.
Ostriches/ Behavior disorder/ Feed intake/ Animal welfare/ Motivation

563. Sambraus H. The Circadian-Rhythm in the Behavior of Ostriches
(Struthio-Camelus) Kept in Pens. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche
Wochenschrift 1994; 107(10): 339-341.
German Article
One hundred and twenty ostriches, kept as domestic animals on a farm in
Israel were observed. Three behaviour categories were recorded: standing/
walking, sitting/ lying and eating/ drinking. The animals spent more than 60%
of the day standing and walking; activities with a non-life preserving
function. Before we begin with the husbandry of ostriches in central Europe
the behaviour needs of the animals must be determined. Only then can we
assess whether the welfare of the animals is compatable with the method of
animal husbandry we imagine for central Europe.

564. Sambraus H. Comfort Behavior of the African Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus).
Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1994; 101(8): 307-308.
German Article
Comfort behaviour of ostriches exists in care of plumage and sand bathing.
Both are essential for the animals. 120 animals were observed in this
respect. Some remarks concern the chances of ostrich production in central
Europe. Care of plumage will be possible here. Special devices must be
constructed to allow sand bathing of the animals at every season.

565. Sambraus H. Feather Pecking of Ostriches in Captivity. Tierarztliche
Umschau 1995; 50(2): 108-111.
German Article
Observations were made on 120 ostriches, 40 males and 80 females, on a farm
in Israel. They were kept in an enclosure with little natural vegetation and
were fed concentrates and chopped hay. Many of the ostriches were feather
pecking, with a proportion featherless on the upper and hind quadrants of
their bodies. A greater percentage of females was affected which can be
explained by the different social behaviour of the two sexes as cocks are
more isolated. The main reason for feather pecking in these ostriches was the
kind of feeding. It is recommended that suitable species specific husbandry
systems should be investigated before the keeping of ostriches is legalised
in central Europe.

566. Sambraus H. The Sexual-Behavior of the African Ostrich
(Struthio-Camelus). Tierarztliche Praxis 1994; 22(6): 538-541.
German Article
The African ostrich (struthio camelus) is different from other birds not only
because it is a running bird (Ratitae), but also because it urinates and the
male bird has a penis. On a specialized farm in Israel the sexual behaviour
of ostriches was studied. Courtship behaviour and mating have a very refined
pattern. The copulation, which starts with an immissio of the penis and ends
with an orgasm, lasts about one minute. Most of the copulations take place
during the morning hours. Occasionally, female ostriches demonstrate
courtship behaviour to other females. Sometimes female ostriches mount other
females as in the case of copulation.
Ostrich/ Sexual Behavior/ Territory/ Courtship/ Copulation/ Homosexuality

567. Sambraus H. Social Ranks in Some Groups of African Ostriches
(Struthio-Camelus) in Namibia. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics -
Zeitschrift Fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie 1995; 112(3): 234-238.
German Article

568. Samour J; Irwin-Davies J; and Faraj E. Chemical immobilisation in
ostriches (Struthio camelus) using etorphine hydrochloride. Veterinary Record
1990; 127(23): 575-576.
English; 4 ref
Trials to assess the efficiency of etorphine hydrochloride-acepromazine
maleate and its combination with xylazine hydrochloride in the chemical
capture of ostriches were carried out under field conditions at the Al-Areen
Wildlife Park. The birds were part of a flock of free-ranging ostriches kept
within an enclosed area measuring 2 kmX2 km. In the first trial, 12 ostriches
between 10 and 12 months old were given, intramuscularly, 3.6 mg etorphine
hydrochloride and 15 mg acepromazine maleate, which was delivered in 2 ml
darts fitted with unbarbed needles using a blow gun. In the second trial, 4
adult male ostriches were given, intramuscularly, 6 mg etorphine
hydrochloride, 25 mg acepromazine maleate and 200 mg xylazine hydrochloride
which was delivered in 5 ml darts with unbarbed needles using a long-range
projector. All the birds were darted in the thigh or lumbosacral region using
a feeding vehicle at a distance of 5 to 20 m. The results of both trials were
satisfactory with birds showing signs of sedation within one to two minutes.
Usually the birds began with a frenetic run, they would then stop in an area
where they showed incoordination in their movements before collapsing to the
ground. In the first trial birds attempted to stand when approached. They
remained tense and needed restraining when they were weighed (mean bodyweight
80.6+/ -3.2 kg). They remained sedated for 10 to 20 minutes. Regurgitation
occurred in the smallest bird in this group. It died of inhalation pneumonia.
In the second trial there was a significant improvement in the degree of
sedation and muscle relaxation achieved. The birds did not attempt to stand
and manual restraint was not needed to examine and weigh the birds (mean
bodyweight 152+/ -3.5 kg). The birds remained under good sedation for 30
mins. The birds were up and fully recovered one to two minutes after the
intravenous injection of diprenorphine hydrochloride (4.5 mg to trial 1 birds
and 7.5 mg to trial 2).
Birds/ Wild animals/ Anaesthesia/ Etorphine/ ostriches/ capture of animals/

569. Samour J; Markham J; and Nieva O. Sexing ratite birds by cloacal
examination. Veterinary Record 1984; 115(8): 167-169.
English; 8 ref
Rhea and emu chicks weighing 410-7251 g and ostrich chicks of 18-22.5 kg were
examined with a human proctoscope fitted with a suitably sized, stainless
steel tube connected through a fibreoptic cable to a powerful light source.
The lubricated proctoscope was inserted into the cloaca to a depth of 3-5 cm
of the manually restrained birds. The obturator was withdrawn and the ventral
wall of the cloaca examined. All male ratites have a penis which is visible
in the urodaeum. Females have two canals in the same area, but there is no
obvious clitoris in chicks as there is in adults. Digital examination is also
described. The penis is easy to detect while the clitoris is difficult.
Zoo animals/ Sex/ Ratites/ Endoscopy/ Struthioniformes/ Sex diagnosis/
Ostrich/ Birds/ Cloacal examination/ Ostriches 

570. Samson J. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches. Canadian Ostrich
1995; 4(6): 24,26-28.
Part one of a three part series. Normal behaviors are grouped as
activity-related, social or sexual. Abnormal behaviors are described:
feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, anorexia and adipsia, toe and face
pecking, dietary indescretion, pica, aggression and fly-catching.
ostriches/ behaviour

571. Samson J. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada. Canadian
Veterinary Journal 1996; 37(7): 412-414.
English; 6 ref.; 9606
Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are
brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months.
Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as
twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when
excessively confined.They include for all age groups of ostriches,
feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia
and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate
husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their
ostriches/ Canada/ abnormal behavior/ behavioral stargazing/ pica/ anorexia/
adipsia/ aggression/ feather-picking/ dietary indiscretion

572. Samson J. Behaviorial problems. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2): 74-76.
Addresses common behavioral problems seen in ostriches. The observations are
based on personal experience and breeders. Series of questions are answered
on feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, not drinking well, how to prevent
dietary indescretion (i.e. impactions), and how to safely enrich the
environment for birds.
ostiches/ bahaviour

573. Samson J. Environmental enrichment for ostriches. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(8): 14,16.
Discusses techniqes to enrich the environment for better production. The
techniques are categorized by age of the birds: all ages, chicks, juveniles
and adults.
ostriches/ environment

574. Samson J. Health hazards for the ostrich handler. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(2): 24-25.
There are four diseases ostrich handlers could contract from ostrich farming.
Avian turberculosis (TB) while uncommon in ostriches is still prevalent. The
zoonotic risk is quite low for avian TB. Typically people with a poor immune
system are at risk. Discuss health hazards with veterinarian or medical
doctor if handling a bird with the disease. Pneumonitis is a human lung
disease. An allergy develops to environmental dust. Ostriches like to kick
dust around which can lead to a large amount of dust being inhaled. After
exposure, people who are allergic to the dust will become very tired a few
hours later. They may also have chills and fever, coughing, wheezing and
anorexia. Symptoms can last from a few days to a couple of weeks. Condition
can be diagnosed by doctors if they are aware of an association with dusty
barns. Can lead to permanent damage. Hantavirus is the cause of Hantavirus
pulmonary sundrome (HPS) which is a severe pneuomonia with an over 60%
mortality rate. The virus infects mice and is spread to humans when breathing
in dust containing mouse feces, uring, and saliva. Ostrich farmers with dusty
barns and mice should attempt to decrease both. Salmonella is not common in
ostriches but can be highly contagious to humans.
ostriches/ zoonoses/ avian tuberculosis/ pneumonitis/ hantavirus/ salmonella

575. Samson J. Raising ostriches in northern climates. Canadian Ostrich 1994;
3(1): 62-64.
Article attempts to be a brief synopsis of conditions affecting ostriches in
colder climates. Divided into two parts - adverse effects of raising birds in
cold climates and recommendations to alleviate the problem. Adverse effects
are confinement related (feather picking, bilateral corneal opacity,
behavioral stargazing, respiratory diseases, obesity and dehydration) or cold
related (frostbites, hypothermia and trauma related injuries).
ostriches/ cold weather

576. Sanbraus H. Circadian rhythm in the behaviour of ostriches kept in pens.
Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 1994; 107(10): 339-341.
8 ref
120 ostriches, kept as domestic animals on a farm in Israel, were observed.
Three behaviour categories were recorded: standing/ walking, sitting/ lying
and eating/ drinking. The animals spent more than 60% of the day standing and
walking; activities with a non-life preserving function. The need to
determine the behavioural needs of ostriches before any sort of husbandry is
envisaged in central Europe in order to determine whether the welfare of
ostriches is compatible with husbandry in central Europe.
biological rhythms/ movement/ feeding behaviour/ drinking/ animal welfare/
circadian rhythm/ behaviour/ animal behaviour

577. Sanford S and Rehmtulla A. Impaction in a rhea. Canadian Veterinary
Journal 1993; 34(3): 184-185.
1 ref
Rhea americana/ Rarites/ Digestive system diseases/ Case reports/ Impaction/
Pathology/ Gizzard 

578. Sanford S; Rehmtulla A; and Josephson G. Tuberculosis in farmed rheas
(Rhea americana). Avian Diseases 1994; 38(1): 193-196.
English;13 ref.
Avian tuberculosis was diagnosed in two mature rheas on different ratite
farms over a 2-year period. Both birds had died after progressively losing
body condition. Caseonecrotic granulomas were scattered throughout the liver
and spleen in both birds. Similar granulomas were in the lung of one bird and
bilaterally in the subcutis cranial to the shoulder in the other bird. Smears
of several granulomas from both rheas revealed large numbers of acid-fast
bacilli. Histologically, the granulomas had caseonecrotic, non-mineralized
centers surrounded by giant cells. Large numbers of acid-fast bacilli were
seen free in the necrotic material and within inflammatory cells. Amyloidosis
of the liver and spleen occurred in one rhea. Mycobacterium avium complex was
isolated at a reference laboratory from hepatic granulomas submitted from one
rhea. (Author's abstract)
avian tuberculosis/ rheas

579. Sasaki H; Kangethe E; and Kaburia H. Blood Meal Sources Of Glossina
Pallidipes And G Longipennis (Diptera, Glossinidae) In Nguruman, Southwest
Kenya. Journal Of Medical Entomology 1995; 32(3): 390-393.
English; 9601
In total, 1,952 glossina pallidipes austen and 1,098 g. longipennis corti
adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in nguruman, southwestern
kenya, by ng2g traps during the dry season of 1992. of these, 339 individuals
(11.1%) had blood meals, of which 155 (45.7%) were identified by direct
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. the most frequent blood meal source was
bushbuck, followed by ostrich, elephant, buffalo, and warthog. few meals were
taken from cattle. the finding of frequent blood meals from ostriches is new
for g. pallidipes and may indicate that ostriches are an important host. more
detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis
is required.
Tsetse/ blood source/ enzyme linked immunosorbent assay/ tsetse/ trap

580. Sato Y; Yasuda J; Sinsungwe H; Chimana H; and Sato G. An Occurrence of
Stomach Impaction in Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus) on a Farm in Zambia
Associated with High Mortality. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 1994;
56(4): 783-784.
English Note
Fifty-one ostriches (Struthio camelus), 6 weeks old, were imported from
Namibia and introduced onto a farm in Zambia. Soon after introduction, most
of the birds manifested clinical symptoms such as anorexia and diarrhea and
19 birds died within 1 week. The proventriculus and gizzard in the 4 dead
birds were full of solid masses of lucerne hay mixed with maize and
consequently the gizzard was extremely impacted by them. Neither pathogenic
bacteria nor parasites were detected from the autopsied birds and 8 fecal
samples. After diagnosis, the ostrich feed was improved and a demulcent was
given immediately; then all ostriches that remained on the farm recovered. In
conclusion, these data confirmed that the present case was stomach impaction
in ostriches.
Impaction/ Ostrich/ Zambia

581. Saxena A; Zlotorzycka J; and Agarwal G. Mallophaga from birds and
mammals in zoological gardens. Review article: In vitro rearing of
Mallophaga. Mallophagenfunde aus Vogeln und Saugetieren in zoologischen
Garten. Review article: In vitro rearing of Mallophaga. Angewandte
Parasitologie 1983 ; 24 (3): 178-186. p. 166-178.
Mallophaga, review of work done on in vitro rearing.
Struthiolipeurus nandu Arthropoda Rhea americana Host/ Struthiolipeurus
stresemanni Arthropoda Rhea americana Host

582. Scheideler S and Angel R. Feeding big birds. Large Animal Veterinarian
1994; 49(2): 28, 30.
5 ref
Digestion and nutrient requirements of ratites, such as ostriches, emus,
kiwis, rheas and cassowaries, are discussed. Vitamin E and selenium are of
primary concern in ratite diets.
Struthionidae/ Dromaiidae/ Rheidae/ Apterygidae/ vitamin E/ selenium/
nutrient requirements/ ostriches/ emus 

583. Scheideler, SE. Nutrition of ratites and psittacines. Kornelsen, MJ.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL
32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 319-324. 
English; 10 ref.
The first part of the paper deals with ratites. Dietary examples and special
nutrition concerns for ratites are discussed. Table 1 provides nutrient level
ranges of typical ostrich ration (starter, grower and breeder). Table 2 list
metabolizable energy, neutral detergent fiber and fat digestibilities in
ostriches by age in weeks.
ostriches/ ratites/ nutrition

584. Scheideler, SE, Wallner-Pendleton, EA, Schneider, N, and Carlson, M.
Determination of baseline values for skeletal (leg bone) growth,
calcification, and soft tissue (liver) mineral accretion. Kornelsen, MJ.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL
32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 111-120. 
English; 9 ref. Published by American Ostrich 1994; 6:22-59.; 9603
Mineral are nutrients essential to good health in animals. Mineral deficiency
or excess can cause disease, so often animal health evaluation requires the
determination of mineral status. Mineral status can be determined by analysis
of serum, liver, bone, and feed. However, the normal or adequate mineral
concentartion ranges in tissues must be known to determine the mineral
status. Presently in the ostrich, few data have been reported on normal
baseline values of bone mineralization or tissue mineral accretion in various
physiological states. Ostrich nutritionists and veterinarians have had to
rely on the poultry literature for formulations and case interpretations of
mineral requirements and related disease. Poultry nutritionists have been
able to associate many disease states such as tibial dyschondroplasia,
rickets, or perosis with mineral imbalances. However, literature on normal or
abnormal bone calcification values and bone mineral content is absent for the
field of ostrich research. Knowledge of mineral toxicities in avian species
is also well documented. Depending on the age of the bird, they can be
extremely susceptible to copper, selenium, or magnesium toxicity. To date,
little information is available about which trace mineral may be toxic to
The objective of the research reported herein is to determine baseline values
for bone size, ash, and mineral accretion and liver trace mineral accretion
in various age birds and various categories of cause of death. (Author's
ostriches/ minerals/ bones/ calcification/ trace minerals

585. Schoentgen F; Jolles J; and Jolles P. Complete amino acid sequence of
ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg white lysozyme, a goose type lysozyme.
European Journal of Biochemistry 1982; (3): 489-497.

586. Scholtz M; Bruin Dd; Olver M; Roux C; Hofmeyr H; and Barnes P. The
likely efficiency of prenatal energy utilization. South African Journal of
Animal Science 1981; 11(2): 99-100.
English; 9601; 12 ref
Of 48 ostrich eggs 10 were used to estimate the combustion value of the egg
by bomb calorimeter and 38 were hatched in an incubator; 30 were infertile,
in 6 the embryo died during incubation and 2 hatched. The eggs used to
estimate combustion value had a mean mass of 6.9991 g and mean energy content
of 8.8776 KJ. The masses of the 2 hatched eggs were known and their energy
content was estimated by linear regression. Mean gross efficiency was 64.8%
and mean average loss was 35.2%. It seems that an approximate value of 60 and
65% for prenatal efficiency may be acceptable for all animals. Prenatal
energy intake can thus be estimated using this efficiency figure.
ENERGY CONSUMPTION/ embryos/ birds 

587. Schoon H; Brunckhorst D; and Pohlenz J. Spongiform encephalopathy in an
ostrich (Struthio camelus). A case report. Tierarztliche Praxis 1991; 19(3):
German; 10 ref
Clinical signs and PM examinations including histopathology of an adult
female ostrich destroyed because of central nervous and locomotion disorders
are described. A male ostrich had died with similar symptoms earlier but PM
examination was not done in that case. In this case systemic arteriosclerotic
lesions were combined with adiposis and signs of spongiform encephalopathy,
localized in the brain stem and the medulla oblongata. Aetiology remained
unknown. Differential diagnosis is discussed and the disease compared to the
similar findings in mammals with BSE/ scrapie.
histopathology/ diagnosis/ differential diagnosis/ brain/ postmortem
examinations/ zoo animals/ birds/ nervous system diseases/ ostriches/
spongiform encephalopathy/ case reports

588. Schroder, HD and Seidel, B. Diseases of nandus or rheas (Rheidae).
Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des 31. Internationalen
Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere; 1989; Dortmund.
Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Akademie-Verlag; 1989 111-116. 
20 ref.
Zoo animals/ Birds/ Diseases/ Histomonas/ Struthioniformes 

589. Schutte K. The composition of ostrich urine. South African Journal of
Science 1973; 69(2): 56-57.
English; 9601
Urine collected from 2 male domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in the
afternoon and morning and urine from a female in the morning contained, in
the supernatant fluid, in mg/ 100 ml, urea 400, 300, 200 uric acid 154, 124,
114, creatinine 5.2, 2.2, 1.8, Ca2+ 9.1, 2.5, 2.5, phosphate 29.0, 29.0, 22.0
and, in m-equiv/ litre, Na 78, 74, 102, K 306, 262, 230 and Cl 218, 131, 126.
Uric acid deposited by centrifuging was none, 756 and 603 mg/ 100 ml. pH was
urine/ composition/ birds/ ostriches/ urine composition

590. Schwede, GJ. Western encephalitis in emus: symptoms and vaccine
protocol. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September 1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 1993 299-300. 
English; 1 ref.
Western Equine Encephalitis caused widespread disesase in emus throughout the
Sothwest in the summer of 1992. In retrospect, we realized that we had seen
this disease sporadically in isolated cases for several years but had not
identified what we were dealing with due to its various clinical
presentations. The typical encephalitis with a recumbent paddling animal is
not the most common presentation with emus. Once we recognized the problem,
we had excellent results in preventing the disease with vaccinations in the
vast majority of birds. (Author's abstract)
emus/ Western Equine Encephalitis/ vaccination

591. Scott, JR and Garner, S. Endoscopic evaluation of respiratory tract
disease in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association
of Avian Veterinarians; August 31 - September 4, 1993; Nashville.:
Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 196-198. 
English; 7 ref.
Two cases of acute pneumonia and air sac disease in ratites are presented.
Techniques of flexible endoscopy are discussed including visualization of
affected areas of the trachea, lung and air sac and collection of samples for
cultue, cytology and histopathology. These techniques allow for a minimally
invasive method for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract
disease in ratites. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ endoscopy/ dyspnea/ pneumonia/ air sac disease

592. Shah N and Dholakia P. A note on isolation of Salmonella weltevreden
from emu (Dromiceius [Dromaius] novae hollandiae). Indian-Veterinary-Journal
1987; 64(9): 801-802.
10 ref
Casuariiformes/ Aviary birds/ Stress/ Transport of animals/ Salmonella/
Salmonellosis/ Zoo animals

593. Shakespeare A. Recumbency in ostriches. Compendium of Continuing
Education for Practicing Veterinarians 1995; 17(11): 1440-1447.
17 ref.; KL+
Key Facts: Thorough clinical examination of a recumbent bird should
demonstrate causes related to trauma, such as broken bones and associated or
unassociated wounds. The most important cause of weakness in recumbent
ostriches is an impacted proventriculus. An impaction can often be palpated
through the abdominal wall (just within and behind the rib cage) as an
enlarged, firm, doughy mass. Prolonged recumbency can result in progressive
ischemic muscle damage and contracted tendons. Three cases are discussed.
ostriches/ recumbency/ impaction

594. Shanawany M. Fertility in breeding ostriches. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(7): 46,48-49.
Reprinted from The Ostrich Journal. Lists three main reasons ostrich eggs
fail to hatch. Infertility could be the result of incorrect male/ female
ratio, age of breeding flock, preferential mating, inheritance, malnutrition,
poor health of the breeding flock and bad management.
ostriches/ fertility

595. Shane S; Camus A; Strain M; Thoen C; and Tully T. Tuberculosis in
commercial emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1993; 37(4):
English; 12 ref.
Extensive granuloma formation typical of tuberculosis was observed in a
mature female emu. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of acid-fast
bacilli in lesions and culture of a Mycobacterium with growth characteristics
resembling M. avium from liver tissue. Individual emus on the affected farm
and an epidemiologically related unit gave a positive skin reaction to
intradermal M. avium tuberculin. The implication of tuberculosis in
commercial emus is noted in relation to the growth of the industry in North
America and to management and commercial practices that encourage
dissemination of infection within the species and to other exotic and
domestic animals. (Author's abstract)
emus/ tuberculosis/ Mycobacterium avium

596. Shane, SM and Tully, TN Jr. Disease and reproductive losses in emus.
Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994;
Sacramento, California.; 1994 22-24. v. 43rd).
emus/ mortality 

597. Sharp, G. Ostrich management techniques in Zimbabwe. Ostrich workshop
for veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island
Ostrich Ranch; [1992]10 p. 
Presentation was a synopsis of a paper entitled "Intensive ostrich
production as an alternative form of land use" prepared for the
conference on "Alternative Land Use - What Options", Harare,
Zimbabwe. Discusses: why ostriches?, utilisation of the ostrich carcass,
production systems, veterinary considerations, economic viability, marketing,
legislation and policy and practical aspects of intensive ostrich production.

598. Sharp G. Management of ostrich breeder flocks. Journal of the Zimbabwe
Society for Animal Production 1993; 5: 79-82.
The acquisition and management of breeding stock, paddock facilities,
handling of the birds, and general flock management are discussed.
management/ tropics/ ostriches 

599. Shepherd A; Swanepoel R; Leman P; and Shepherd S. Field and laboratory
investigation of Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus, family
Bunyaviridae) infection in birds. Transactions of the Royal Society of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1987; 81(6): 1004-1007.
English; 17 ref
A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was diagnosed in November
1984 in a worker who fell ill after slaughtering ostriches (Struthio camelus)
on a farm near Oudtshoorn in Cape Province, South Africa. Diagnosis was
confirmed by isolation of CCHF virus from the patient's serum and by specific
antibody response. It was suspected that infection was acquired either by
contact with ostrich blood or by inadvertently crushing infected Hyalomma
ticks while skinning ostriches. Reversed passive haemagglutination-inhibition
antibody to CCHF virus was detected in the sera of 22 of 92 ostriches from
farms in the Oudtshoorn district, including 6 of 9 from the farm where the
patient worked, but not in the sera of 460 birds of 37 other species. In
pathogenicity studies, domestic chickens proved refractory to CCHF infection,
but viraemia of low intensity (maximum titre 2.5 log10 mouse i.c. LD50/ ml)
followed by a transient antibody response occurred in blue-helmeted guinea
fowl (Numida meleagris). These results offer the first direct evidence that
some bird species are susceptible to CCHF virus.
Acari/ Ixodidae/ Tickborne diseases/ Nairovirus/ Bunyaviridae/ Arboviruses/
Zoonoses/ Hyalomma/ Congo virus/ South Africa/ Man/ Ostriches/ Guineafowls/
Fowls/ Birds/ Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever/ Epidemiology/ Crimean Congo
haemorrhagic fever virus/ Occupational hazards

600. Shivaprasad, HL. Neonatal mortality in ostriches: an overview of
possible causes. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September 1993; Nashville.: Association of
Avian Veterinarians; 1993 282-293. 
English; 26 ref.
The ostrich industry is growing by leaps and bounds in the United States. It
is being promoted as a form of alternative agriculture with leather, meat and
feathers as the main products. With the increase in number of birds
throughout the country, there is an increasing demand for veterinary
diagnostic services. Even though ostriches have been domesticated for more
than 100 years, the literature on their medical problems is very limited.
This poses a tremendous problem to the veterinarians and the diagnosticians
alike. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review what is available
on diseases of ostriches and give an overview of common causes of neonatal
mortality in ostrich chicks because the majority of the problems in ostriches
appear to be in chicks less than three months of age. Adult ostrich birds are
fairly resistant to many diseases, and as such, are free of significant
diseases. The data is taken form the case files on ostriches submitted to the
CVDLS Fresno branch between 1990 and 1992. (Author's abstract)
Tables show the diseases associated with 414 cases submitted to the CVDLS
Fresno, age and sex distribution, and common diseases of organs or systems.
ostriches/ chicks/ diseases

601. Shivaprasad H; Jeffrey J; Castro A; Droual R; Chin R; MeteYer C; Walker
R; Reynolds B; Larkin D; DeBaere TG; and Woolcock P. Summary of diagnostic
findings in ostriches submitted to California Veterinary Diagnostic
Laboratory System Fresno. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease
Conference 1992; (41st): 19.
English. In ostrich file.
ostriches/ animal diseases/ california

602. Shivaprasad, HL, Woolcock, PR, Chin, RP, Meteyer, CU, Jeffrey, JS,
Droual, R, Castro, AE, Nordhausen, RW, and Barr, BC. Identification of
viruses from the intestine of ostriches. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30,
1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 442-443. 
English; 0 ref.; poster presentation
The intestine and contents from 192 ostriches were examined by negative
staining electron microscopy to identify viruses. Myxovirus-like virus was
identified in 37 cases. Other viruses indentified included astrovirus (2),
virnavirus-like (2), "picornavirus-like" (1), adenovirus (1) and
single cases of viral particles ranging in size from 35 to 40 nm and 15 to 18
nm. Paramyxovirus-type 1 (2) and paramyxovirus-type 2 (1) were isolated in
embryonating chicken eggs.
ostriches/ viruses

603. Shwaluk T and Finley D. Proventricular-ventricular impaction in an
ostrich chick. Canadian Veterinary Journal 1995; 36(2): 108-109.
KL1+; 10 ref.; English
A 16 day-old, 1.5 kg ostrich chick was presented with a 12 hour history of
depression, poor-doing, and scant feces. The owner had treated the bird with
mineral oil after palpating the proventriculus and suspecting an impaction.
On physical examination the chick was depressed, weak, and dehydrated.
Proventriculus was mildly firm but not gritty. Radiographs indicated the
proventriculus and ventriculus appeared denser than normal but no distinct
objects. Tentative diagnosis was proventricular-ventricular impaction. A
proventriculotomy was performed due to lack of response to the laxative and
the chick's declining condition. Surgical technique is described and recovery
regime. Owner reported the chick was eating, drinking, and defecating
normally after 3 days. Brief review of proventricular impaction including
treatment (non-surgical and surgical), anesthesia protocols, and possible
surgical complications.
impaction/ ostrich chick/ surgery

604. Sibley C. On the phylogeny and classification of living birds. Journal
of Avian Biology 1994; 25(2): 87-92.

605. Sibley C and Frelin C. The egg white protein evidence for ratite
affinities. Ibis 1972; 114(3): 377-387.
English; 45 ref; 9603
Egg white proteins from a number of bird species were compared using
isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. From their studies, the authors
concluded that: the large ratites (ostrich, cassowary, emu and rheas) are
more closely related to one another than to any one of them is to any other
group of living birds; two species of rheas are closely related; emu and
cassoary are closely related but less so than the two rhea species; kiwi is
enigmatic but may be closer to the tinamous than any other group; and the
tinamous are not closely related to the large ratites. (KL)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ cassowaries/ rheas/ kiwis/ tinamous

606. Siegfried, WR. Ostrich. Mason, IL. Evolution of domesticated animals.
London: Longman; 1984; 364-366. 
ostriches/ domesticated birds/ feathers

607. Singh Dhillon, A. High mortality in young ostriches. Proceedings of the
Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 1993; Sacramento,
California.; 1993 15-16. v. 42nd).
ostriches/ mortality 

608. Singh Dhillon, A and Fazzari, S. An unusual high mortality in young
ostriches. Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb.
27-Mar. 1, 1994; Sacramento, California.; 1994 19-21. v. 43rd).
ostriches/ mortality 

609. Skadhauge E; Maloney S; and Dawson T. Osmotic adaptation of the emu
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical
Systemic And Environmental Physiology 1991; 161(2): 173-178.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is well adapted to the Australian
semi-desert, although it has a limited renal concentrating ability. One
problem is the balance between the ability to resorb ions and water from
ureteral urine during its reflux into the coprodeum and rectum (colon), and
the rate of ureteral inflow. To elucidate this problem the osmotic and
nutritonal state of wild birds needs to be studied in order to integrate
laboratory and field investigations. This paper reports plasma values and the
composition of gut contents from birds shot in the arid interior during the
hot, dry summer. The wild birds showed little sign of osmotic stress with
only marginally elevated plasma osmolality, and near-isotonic contents of the
coprodeal/ rectal segment (332 +- 6 mOsm). Intestinal contents showed that
the birds were feeding on berries of bushes with either a high (Rhagodia) or
a low (Santalum) content of NaCl. The coprodeal/ rectal concentration of Na+
and Cl- were high enough to permit solute-water flow. There was little sign
of fermentation. In vitro investigation in the Ussing chamber of isolated
coprodeum and rectum epithelium revealed an inwardly directed current which
was amiloride inhibitable and amino acid independent, suggesting electrogenic
Na absorption of around 4 mu-mol cntdot h-1 cntdot cm-2 mucosal area
regardless of the NaCl intake. Based on previously determined transport
parameters of the coproduem/ rectum epithelium (Dawson et al. 1985) and
ureteral excretion rates of water and electrolytes (Dawson et al. 1991), it
is concluded that the lower gut can resorbe the major part of the water
coming from the kidneys (and ileum) on both low and high NaCl intakes. The
lower gut is most important in the xeric adaptation. The reason for the
apparently high transport capacity, larger than in other birds, of the lower
gut (serosal area) was a high degree of folding of the mucosal surface
(increasing surface area by a factor of five).
Santalum Sp./ Rhagodia Sp./ Rectum/ Coprodeum/ Sodium Chloride/ Renal
Function/ Diet/ Urine Modification/ Semi Desert

610. Skadhauge E; Warui C; Kamau J; and Maloiy G. Function of the lower
intestine and osmoregulation in the ostrich: preliminary anatomical and
physiological observations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology
1984; 69(4): 809-818.
The gross anatomy of the lower intestine of the African ostrich (Struthio
camelus) was investigated in four adult birds shot in the wild. The presence
of 80 cm long paired caeca, and approximately 10 m of colon between ileum and
the cloaca was confirmed. Urine, but not faeces, was found in the coprodeum.
Retrograde flow into the colon was not observed. Samples of contents from the
lower intestine were secured from these birds and the water content,
osmolality and concentrations in the supernatant of short-chain fatty acids
(SCFA), acetate, Na, K and Cl and pH were measured. In the caeca and the orad
wide part (2-3 m) of the colon an avid production of SCFA takes place since
the concentration of SCFA reached around 200 mM in these segments. As judged
from a pronounced fall in the concentrations of Na and SCFA along the length
of the colon, these ions are absorbed together with water. The water content
falls from 92 to 67% (i.e. from 11.5 to 2.0 ml H2O/ g dry matter). The
mid-gut fermentation of carbohydrate is in agreement with the observation
that the birds were feeding exclusively on Euphorbia heterochroma. This
succulent plant (water content 87%) apparently makes the birds independent of
surface water. Laboratory studies were performed on two captive male chicks.
Hyperosmotic NaCl loading was unable to activate the nasal glands to
secretion. Their ducts passed directly from the frontal/ lacrimal bone to the
nasal cavity. Dehydration confirmed a maximal osmolality of the cloacal urine
of around 800 mosmol/ l, the osmotic urine to plasma ratio being 2.5. Feeding
of either a low- or a high-NaCl diet did not affect the transepithelial
electrical potential difference of the coprodeal wall. It remained less than
5 mV, lumen negative.
Animal/ Animals, Laboratory anatomy and histology/ Animals, Laboratory
physiology/ Animals, Wild anatomy and histology/ Animals, Wild physiology/
Birds anatomy and histology/ Birds classification/ Comparative Study/
Electrolytes analysis/ Fatty Acids analysis/ Intestines anatomy and
histology/ Intestines analysis/ Male/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/ Birds
physiology/ Intestines physiology/ Water Electrolyte Balance

611. Smetana P. Emu farming in Australia. Proceedings of the Australian
Society of Animal Production 1990; 18: 107-109.
Meeting held on July 8-12, 1990, Adelaide, South Australia.
emus/ animal production/ game farming/ australia 

612. Smith C. Ostrich Chick Survival Presents Challenge. Journal of the
American Veterinary Medical Association 1993; 203(5): 637-643.
English Article

613. Smith C. Research roundup: ostrich chick survival presents challenge.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1993; 203(5): 637-643.
Diseases, nutrition, and genetics of young ostriches, and problems during
incubation and hatching are discussed.
poultry diseases/ ostriches/ mortality 

614. Smith, DA, Kwiecien, JM, and Smith-Maxie, L. Encephalitis in emus
resulting from migration of Baylisacaris sp. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31-September 4,
1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 301-303. 
English; 10 ref.
Verminous encephalitis has been reported in emus and an ostrich as a result
of migration of larvae of Baylisascaris sp and Chandlerella quiscali.
Clinical examination and/ or necropsies were performed on seven emus showing
neurological signs including ataxia and incoordination. On histological
examination of the brains, malacia and macrophage accumulation were noted,
expecially in the cerebellum. Ascarid larvae whose morphology was consistent
with Bayliacaris sp were found in the brain of one animal. These clinical and
histological findings were consistent with previous reports of the disease.
No effective treatment has been described, however some veterinarians use
ivermectin administered at four to eight week intervals to reduce non-neural
tissue migration by this parasite. (Author's abstract)
emus/ ostriches/ encephalitis

615. Smith N; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. Kinetic and thermodynamic
characterization of ostrich (Struthio camelus) trypsins and chymotrypsins.
International Journal of Biochemistry 1993; 25(3): 367-372.
Temperature and pH optima for amidase and enterase activities were obtained
for ostrich trypsin and chymotropsins. The effect of CaCl-2 on ostrich
trypsins were examined. Activation of ostrich chymotrypsinogen by ostrich and
bovine trypsin were compared. Kinetic parameters (K- m, k-cat and k-cat/ K-m)
for three tryptic and five chymotryptic substrates were obtained. The effect
of inhibitors (PMSF, TLCK, TPCK, LBTI, benzamidine and indole) on the
activity of the enzymes was examined.
Bovine/ Amidase/ Enterase/ Chymotrypsinogen/ Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride/
N Alpha P Tosyl L Lysine chloromethyl ketone/ Benzamidine/ Indole

616. Smith N; Naude R; Oelofsen W; Lazure C; and Patthy A. The isolation and
partial characterization of trypsinogen, pancreatic secretory trypsin
inhibitor and multiple forms of chymotrypsinogen and trypsin from the
pancreas of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). International Journal of
Biochemistry 1992; 24(6): 877-885.
1. PSTI, two chymotrypsinogens and two trypsins were purified to homogeneity
by acid extraction, salt fractionation, SP-Sephadex C-50 chromatography and
RP-HPLC. 2. A third chymotrypsinogen, a trypsinogen and another trypsin were
purified using an alkaline extraction procedure, followed by Trasylol- and
Benzamidine-Sepharose affinity chromatography and hydroxylapatite
chromatography. 3. The enzymes differed in amino acid composition as well as
in specific activities towards synthetic amidase and esterase substrates. 4.
N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined for one chymotrypsinogen and
one trypsin.
ostriches/ pancreas/ trypsinogen/ trypsin inhibitors/ trypsin/
chymotrypsinogen/ purification/ amino acids

617. Smith, WA, Editor. Practical guide for ostrich management and ostrich
products. [Matieland, South Africa]: Alltech Inc.; 1995; 44pp. 
English; 9603
The introduction gives an overview of the history of the ostrich industry in
South Africa. The four chapters cover incubation and management, feeding and
feed management, ostrich deseases and ostrich products.
ostriches/ incubating/ feeding/ diseases/ feathers/ leather/ products

618. Smith W; Cilliers S; Mellett F; and van Schalkwyk S. Ostrich production:
A South African perspective. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(10): 18-20.
Part one. Introduction gives a brief history of the ostrich industry in South
Africa, including statistics on percentage of income from ostrich products.
The aim of the series of papers is to provide a short overview of the most
recent South African developments in the areas of: genetics and reproduction;
layer bird management and egg hatching; nutrient requirements and feed-stuffs
values; diseases and mortality; ostrich products and the future of the
ostrich industry. This part covers genetics and reproduction: repeatability
of various production parameters; average reproduction performance; average
chick mortality and practical comments on the topic.
ostriches/ genetics/ reproduction/ South Africa

619. Smith W; Cilliers S; Mellett F; and van Schalkwyk S. Ostrich production:
A South African perspective. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(11): 14,16.
English; 9606
Part two of the series deals with layer bird management and egg hatching.
Reviews procedures and conditions for collecting eggs, storing and incubating
(temperature, relative humidity, position and rotation). Discusses the South
African experience with infertile eggs and embryonic deaths with causes and
some suggestions for improving production.
osriches/ hatching/ layer bird management

620. Smith, WA and Sales, J. Feeding and feed management Smith, WA, Editor.
Practical guide for ostrich management and ostrich products. [Matieland,
South Africa]: Alltech Inc.; 1995; 8-19. 44pp. 
English; 24 ref.; 9603
Reviews the digestive system of the ostrich, growth curves and nutrient
requirements and feedstuff values. There are twelve tables on the subjects
reproduced from previous publications.
ostriches/ growth/ nutrition/ feeding

621. Soley J. Centriole Development and Formation of the Flagellum During
Spermiogenesis in the Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Anatomy 1994;
185(Part 2): 301-313.
English Article
The formation and development of the ostrich sperm tail follows the general
pattern described for vertebrate sperm but differs in a number of important
aspects when compared with other nonpasserine birds. Midpiece formation is
characterised by the development of a long (3 mu m) distal centriole which
determines the length of the midpiece. The distal centriole surrounds a pair
of microtubules embedded in a core of dense material. A prominent annulus,
which remains stationary during spermiogenesis, demarcates the midpiece/
principal piece junction. Ostrich spermatids display similar cytoplasmic
densities (chromatoid body, annulus, granulated bodies, reticulated bodies
and mitochondria-associated material) to those observed in mammalian
spermatids. In the ostrich, however, the chromatoid body is not observed to
contribute towards the formation of the annulus while the granulated bodies
develop within radial bodies and not in their vicinity as in mammals. Whereas
in mammals granulated bodies have been linked to coarse fibre formation they
appear to perform a limited function in ostrich spermatids as only
rudimentary outer dense fibres are formed. No specific role is attributed to
the reticulated bodies but the mitochondria associated material is implicated
in the formation of intermitochondrial cement. The formation of the principal
piece and end piece of the flagellum is modelled on that of the mammalian
spermatid. The axoneme emerges from the free end of the distal centriole and
the ribs and longitudinal columns are progressively formed from a layer of
amorphous material situated between the axoneme and the plasmalemma. The end
piece is formed by an extension of the principal piece consisting of axonemal
microtubules closely surrounded by the plasmalemma. The formation of a long
distal centriole containing a central pair of microtubules, the stationary
nature of the annulus and the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath around the
principal pie:ce distinguishes spermiogenesis in the ostrich and rhea from
that of other nonpasserine birds. These features appear to be characteristic
of more primitive avian families.

622. Soley J. Ultrastructure of Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus) Spermatozoa .1.
Transmission Electron-Microscopy. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary
Research 1993; 60(2): 119-130.
English Article
The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites
(Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and
birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate
and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety
of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper
describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with
published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a
short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical
nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within
the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and
consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3,0 mum) distal centriole
which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the
distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of
electrondense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath.
Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the
mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece
by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing
a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous
sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of
the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of
axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that
of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the
presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the
structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to
sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive
avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the
ratites and tinamous constitute a monophyletic group. The evidence presented
also reinforces the hypothesis that the ratites were the first group to
branch off from the main avian stem, to be followed by the Galliformes &
Anseriformes. Although it was impossible to determine whether the sperm of
the tinamou are more ''primitive'' than those of the ostrich or rhea, it is
clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from
tinamou sperm. 

623. Soley J and Roberts D. Ultrastructure Of Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus)
Spermatozoa .2. Scanning Electron Microscopy. Onderstepoort Journal of
Veterinary Research 1994; 61(3): 239-246.
The three-dimensional structure and size of ostrich sperm is unknown. In this
study, the morphology and dimensions of ostrich sperm were determined by
scanning electron microscopy of semen samples obtained from sexually mature
males during the breeding season. The results indicate that sperm cells of
the ostrich are of the sauropsid type characteristic of non-passerine birds
and, in general appearance, resemble those of the chicken, turkey, guinea
fowl, budgerigar and tinamou. They differ from tinamou sperm, however, in
that they do not show a small bump at the tip of the acrosome. Ostrich sperm
are shorter (69.6 mum total length) than those of the chicken, turkey and
guinea fowl, but longer than those of the budgerigar. A lack of information
makes it impossible to compare the dimensions of ostrich sperm with those of
other ratites such as the rhea. In ostrich and guinea fowl, the sperm head is
proportionately longer than that of the chicken, turkey and budgerigar as
determined by tail to head ratios. Two distinct groups of ostriches could be
distinguished on the basis of differences in the length of various sperm cell
components. This may reflect persistent genetic (subspecies) variations in
the domestic ostrich population. [References: 28]
Guinea fowl/ Semen/ Birds

624. Sommer J; Bossen E; Dalen H; Dolber P; High T; Jewett P; Johnson E;
Junker J; Leonard S; and et al. To excite a heart: A bird's view. Acta
Physiologica Scandinavica Supplementum 1991; 0(599): 5-22.
Ultrastructural investigations of avian cardiac muscle, including ratite
hearts, have provided great insights into the mechanisms as to how excitation
leads to contraction in the heart. The geometry of the conduction fibers of
ratite hearts confirms earier observations on birds showing that the geometry
of the conduction system and its component cells is adapted to hearts of
different sizes and rates of contraction so as to maintain a differential in
conduction velocities beteen the conduction system and the working fibers.
The study of the ratite conduction fibers bears out the idea of an inverse
relationship between the size of the gap junctions and the input resistance
of cardiac cells. The anomalous extended junctional SR typical of all avian
hearts, prescribes the notion of direct contact transduction into calcium
release for contraction of an excitatory signal propagating at the cell
surface. Couplings appear well suited to maintain direct, if transitory,
connections to the extracellular space in addition to harboring channels for
intracellular calcium release.
Intracellular Calcium Release/ Conduction Fiber/ Conduction Velocity/ Heart
Contraction/ Ultrastructure

625. Speer, BL. An update on infectious viral diseases of the ostrich and
emu. Arizona, California & Nevada Joint Veterinary Conference; September
27-30, 1993; Reno, Nevada.; [1993] 533-536. 
English; 0 ref.; 9606
This paper looks at viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases and mycoplasmas in
ostriches and emus. Viral diseases are discussed at a more indepth level with
casusative agent, clinical signs, transmission, diagnosis and prevention
being discussed for avian influenza, pox, Newcastles disease, coronavirus,
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
There is a brief discussion of gram positive and negative bacterial diseases,
fungal diseases (aspergillosis and candidiasis) and mycoplasmas.
ostriches/ emus/ viral diseases/ Newcastles disease/ avian influenza/ pox/
Eastern equine encephalitis virus/ Western equine encephalitis virus/
coronavirus/ E. coli/ Salmonella/ Staphyloccus/ Streptococcus/ Clostridium/
Spirochetes/ Campylobacter/ Aspergillus/ Candida/ Mycoplasmas

626. Spencer L. Ostrich Issues Challenges to AVMA. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 1995; 207(5): 529-538.
English Editorial

627. St. Jean G and Anderson D. Ventral abdominal hernia with intestinal
incarceration in a rhea. Agri-Practice 1995; 16(10): 20-21, 24.
English; 4 ref.; 9603
This case report describes the clinical signs of a ventral abdominal hernia
in a 4 -year-old rhea. The hernia was possibly due to a kick from a male
during breeding activities. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia
with isoflurane. Incarcerated intestine was found at surgery. Adjacent layers
of the hernia ring were apposed and a closed continuous suction drain was
placed into the subcutaneous tissue. The rhea recovered from surgery and is
doing well 6 months later. Surgery on ratites is becoming more common as the
population of these birds increases because of their monetary value. Ventral
hernia with possible incarceration of abdominal contents should be included
in the differential diagnosis for ventral swelling in ratites. (Author's
rheas/ ventral abdominal hernia/ surgery

628. Stapel S; Leunissen J; Versteeg M; Wattel J; and de Jong W. Ratites as
oldest offshoot of avian stem - evidence from alpha-crystallin A sequences.
Nature 1984; 311(5983): 257-259.
English; 24 ref.; 9603
One of the most disputed issues in avian phylogeny is the origin of the
ratites, the large flightless birds of the Southern Hemisphere. It is still
not generally agreed whether the ostriches, rheas, emus and cassowaries, and
probably kiwis, form a natural, monophyletic group, although much recent
evidence supports this view. Also, their phylogenetic relationship with the
other avian orders remains unresolved; comparative protein sequence studies
might shed new light on this problem. Therefore, we determined the amino acid
sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A in ostrich, rhea and emu,
and in representatives of 13 other avian orders. Comparison of these
sequences with known alpha A sequences of mammals, reptiles, frog and dogfish
provides strong evidence that the ratites, as a monphyletic assemblage,
represent the first offshoot of the avian line. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ evolution

629. Stenzel D; Cassidy M; and Boreham P. Morphology of Blastocystis sp. from
domestic birds. Parasitology Research 1994; 80(2): 131-137.
13 ref
A study of Blastocystis sp. from domestic birds was undertaken to determine
if morphological differences occurred. Fresh faecal material from domestic
chickens, ducks and geese and from commercially farmed ostriches (Struthio
camelus) was obtained. Blastocystis sp. from chickens was morphologically
very different from that from the other hosts, having within the nucleus
discrete spots of chromatin rather than a crescentic band (ducks and geese)
or an elliptical band (ostrich). A thick surface coat surrounded all
Blastocystis sp. cells in the faecal material, with isolates from the ostrich
having the thickest surface coat relative to the cell diameter. Cysts were
more commonly found in the chicken samples but were also detected in the duck
and ostrich samples. This study suggests that 3 morphologically distinct
groups are represented: one in the chicken, one in the ostrich and another in
ducks and geese. These tentative conclusions require confirmation by
molecular techniques.
morphology/ Blastocystis/ fowls/ ducks/ geese/ ostriches 

630. Stewart, JS. Ostrich behavior and behavioral problems. Kornelsen, MJ.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 103-109. 
English; 7 ref.
The behaviors of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) are complex and varied. They
are of interest not only for their ethological value, but also for their
significance in the realm of commercial ostrich production. It is important
for the ostrich producer and the attending veterinarian to be familiar with
the normal behavior of the species, to accommodate these behaviors in
everyday management, and to implement management changes in response to
behaviors that may have a negative impact on farm productivity.
For descriptive purposes, behaviors may be placed into three broad
categories. Maintenance behaviors are those performed by the individual
ostrich as it functions in day to day life. Social behaviors are the
interactions between an ostrich and other ostriches or other species of
animals. Reproductive behaviors are a special subset of social behaviors
entailing all aspects from courtship to chick rearing . This paper will
provide an overview of the principal behaviors of the ostrich, following
these categories.
Behaviors are reactions to the physical and social environment in which the
ostrich is placed. It is to be anticipated that an abnormal environment, such
as captivity, will induce abnormal behaviors. Most often these abnormal
behaviors are simply extensions of normal behaviors conducted in an aberrant
form or frequency. It is the second purpose of this paper to review some
significant behavioral problems in captive ostriches, discuss the causes, and
suggest appropriate management changes to reduce their incidence and
associated economic impact. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ behaviour

631. Stewart, JS. Overview of the ratite industry: Past, present & future.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of
Avian Veterinarians; 1992 304-306. 
English; 2 ref.; 9603
Commercial ostrich farming, while seemingly new to many parts of the world,
is in fact an old established industry. Ostrich products include leather,
meat and feathers, and maintain a high market value. The current and expected
future demand for these products far exceed the supply. The renewed
internationall interst in commercial ostrich production is fraught with
production difficulties that are likely to retard saturation of this market
for years.
Commercial emu farming is a relatively recent venture. The principal products
include leather, meat and oil. Although emus have proven capable of being
reared in large scale production, the market for emu producats remains to be
developed. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ emus/ ostriches/ industry

632. Stewart, JS. Ratite incubation. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of
the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994 September 1-5,
1992; Rena, Nevada New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians;
1992 336-339. 
English; 1 ref.; 9603
The principles of hatchery management for ratite eggs are similar to those
for other avian species. Hatching success depends upon both the quality of
the egg produced and the methods with which it is handled. Egg quality is
influenced by breeder nutrition and health, as well as genetics. Prompt and
proper egg collection, sanitization and storage will improve hatch rates.
Temperature and humidity control, air quality, egg position and turning
protocols are characteristics of the incubators and hatcheers, and properly
designed equipments is critical for successful ratite incubation.
ratites/ incubation/ hatching

633. Stewart, JS. Ratite (ostrich and emu) industry and management practices.
Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994;
Sacramento, California.; 1994 15-19. v. 43rd).
ostriches/ emus/ animal husbandry/ poultry industry

634. Stewart J. A simple proventriculotomy technique for the ostrich. Journal
of the Association of Avian Veterinarians 1991; 5(3): 139-141.
English; 3 ref
Surgery/ Obstruction/ Stomach diseases/ Ostriches 

635. Stocker G and Irvine A. Seed dispersal by cassowaries (Casuarius
casuarius) in north Queensland's rainforests. Biotropica 1983; 15(3):
18 ref
Fresh undisturbed dung piles were collected monthly from July 1977 to July
1979. Numbers of large (_0.5 cm diam.) seeds were recorded and all the
collected material was placed in pots in a heated greenhouse. Seedlings were
identified and numbers of each species recorded after a minimum of 7 months.
Seeds of 78 species were identified in the dung, of which 70 germinated.
Results showed that cassowaries are dependent for their survival on the fruit
of rainforest trees. These birds are the only extant frugivores large enough
to disperse effectively many of the plant species in the rainforests of this
Casuarius casuarius/ Birds/ Biology/ Casuarius/ Vegetation types/ Rain
forest/ Australia, Queensland/ Seed/ Seed dispersal

636. Streicher E; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and characterization
of pepsinogens from the proventriculus of the ostrich Struthio camelus. Comp
Biochem Physiol B 1985; 82(1): 67-72.
Three pepsinogens were isolated and purified from the proventriculus of the
ostrich Struthio camelus, by a combination of chromatography steps on
DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-100 and Hydroxylapatite. The purified pepsinogens
manifested peptic activity towards haemoglobin as substrate after activation,
but resembled chicken pepsinogens in that they appeared to lose their
potential peptic activities during storage. All three pepsinogens contained
glycine as N-terminal amino acid, but differed in their overall amino acid
compositions. The pH and temperature optima of the activated pepsinogens were
determined, as well as their molecular weights.
Amino Acids analysis/ Animal/ Hydrogen Ion Concentration/ Isoenzymes
metabolism/ Kinetics/ Pepsinogen metabolism/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/
Thermodynamics/ Birds metabolism/ Isoenzymes isolation and purification/
Pepsinogen isolation and purification/ Proventriculus enzymology

637. Sutherland J; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of proelastase from the pancreas of the ostrich (Struthio
camelus). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology C Comparative Pharmacology
And Toxicology 1991; 98(2-3): 337-344.
Cationic proelastase from the pancreas of the ostrich was purified by an
ammonium acetate extraction, (NH-4)-2SO-4 fractionation and SP- Sephadex C-50
chromatography. Relative molecular weight of the proenzyme is about 25,000.
The amino acid composition of ostrich proelastase is similar to that of
catfish elastase B, which is a Ser protease. The effects of pH, temperature
and inhibition (LBTI, alpha-1-PI, PMSF and elastatinal) on elastolytic
activity were investigated. Elastatinal, a specific inhibitor of elastase,
revealed a K-i of 4.46 mu M.
Catfish/ Lima Bean Trypsin Inhibitor/ Alpha 1 Protease Inhibitor/
Phenylmethanesulfonyl Fluoride/ Elastatinal/ Elastase B/ Amino Acid
Composition/ Molecular Weight/ Elastolytic Activity

638. Swart D and Heydenrych H. The quantifying of flue quality in ostrich
plumes with special reference to the fat content and cuticular structure of
the barbules. South African Journal of Animal Science 1982; 12(1): 65-70.
English; 9601; 15 ref
The fat content (ether extract) and cuticular structure of the fibres
(barbules) of ostrich plumes were studied in relation to the 5 standardised
categories of subjectively evaluated fatty appearance used in practice. The
cuticular structure of the barbules was also compared with the surface
structure of the fibres of mohair and Merino, Dohne Merino and South African
Mutton Merino wool. There was no significant relationship of subjectively
evaluated fatty appearance with the ether extract values of ostrich plumes or
wool. The softness, lustre and fatty appearance of ostrich plumes, wool and
mohair were shown to be related to the degree of smoothness of the cuticular
structure of the fibres.
plumage/ quality/ ostriches/ plumes/ flue quality

639. Swart D; Heydenrych H; and Poggenpoel D. Relative economic importance of
quality traits in ostrich feathers. South African Journal of Animal Science
1984; 14(1): 45-50.
Afrikaans; 20 ref
Prices obtained for 222 single feathers and 498 feather lots were used to
determine the relative importance of 23 feather quality traits by means of
partial regression coefficients. The most important traits were feather size,
appearance (evenness and shape), flue quality (softness and lustre) and
weathering, in that order.
Plumage/ Feathers/ Quality/ Ostriches 

640. Swart D and Kemm E. Effect of dietary protein and energy concentrations
on the growth performance and feather production of ostriches. South African
Journal of Animal Science 1985; 15(4): 146-150.
Afrikaans; 7 ref
From 250 to 462 days old 9 groups of 6 ostriches, male or female, in feedlots
had freely as meal diets of lucerne, maize, ostrich carcass meal and minerals
with 14, 16 or 18% protein combined with 3 different roughage:concentrate
ratios. From 60 to 110 kg liveweight, daily weight gain and feed conversion
ratio in the groups ranged from 129 to 240 g and from 10.0 to 15.4, averages
189 g and 12.8, compared with 179 g and 14.8 for control ostriches on a
conventional farm diet of lucerne 70 and maize 30%, with 14% protein.
Performance was best with 35% dried lucerne and 14% protein. Overall mean
mass of plucked body feathers was 707 g; differences among groups for feather
yield or quality were not significant.
Weight/ Protein intake/ Ostriches/ Energy intake/ Feathers 

641. Swart D; Mackie R; and Hayes J. Fermentative Digestion in the Ostrich
(Struthio-Camelus Var Domesticus), a Large Avian Species That Utilizes
Cellulose. South African Journal of Animal Science 1993; 23(5-6): 127-135.
The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was studied in vitro to assess
the possible contribution of microbial fermentation to the energy economy of
growing ostrich chicks. Structure, capacity and contents of the
gastro-intestinal track were examined to identify major sites of microbial
activity and VFA energy yield. Radioactive substrates were used to confirm
that the products derived from fermentative digestion could provide nutrients
to the host animals. In this experiment the theoretical energy contribution
of VFA could be as high as 76% of the metabolizable energy intake of the
growing ostrich chick. The absorption and oxidative metabolism of end
products from cellulose fer-mentation was demonstrated to contribute to the
metabolizable energy requirements of the growing ostrich.
Fermentation Sites/ Vfa Energy/ Volatile Fatty Acids

642. Swart D; Mackie R; and Hayes J. Influence of Live Mass, Rate of Passage
and Site of Digestion on Energy-Metabolism and Fiber Digestion in the Ostrich
(Struthio-Camelus Var Domesticus). South African Journal of Animal Science
1993; 23(5-6): 119-126.
Energy metabolism and digestion of dietary fibre in growing ostrich chicks
were studied at different live masses (5 - 50 kg) by means of a total excreta
collection method and a radioactive indicator method. Passage rate of digesta
particles through the digestive tract and site of digestion were also
investigated. Passage Tate within live mass groups varied considerably (from
21 to 76 h). Overall mean passage rate was 40.1 h and it was independent of
live mass. Digestibility coefficients for cell walls (NDF), hemicellulose and
cellulose were 47%, 66% and 38% respectively, and were not influenced by live
mass. The hindgut provided a suitable nutritional environment for
fermentative microflora, especially in the enlarged haustrated colon of the
ostrich. Of the total metabolizable energy in the diet, 12% disappeared in
the hindgut.
Cellulose/ Hemicellulose/ NDF

643. Swart D; Rahn H; and de Kock J. Nest microclimate and incubation water
loss of eggs of the African ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).
Journal of Experimental Zoology Supplement 1987; 1(239-46)
The microclimate of the nest and the rates of egg water loss were studied at
weekly intervals throughout the 41-day incubation period in six ostrich
nests. Overall mean values were a central egg temperature of 34.9 degrees C
associated with saturation vapor pressure of 42 torr, a mean nest vapor
pressure of 11 torr, and an ambient vapor pressure of 8.4 torr. The egg water
loss increased from 4,000 to 4,800 mg X day-1 over the incubation period, and
the total water loss was equal to 13.2% of the initial egg mass of 1,368 gm.
The mean rate of water loss (4,403 mg X day-1) divided by the water vapor
conductance of the shell (147 mg X day-1 X torr-1) equals 30 torr. When this
value is added to the nest vapor pressure of 11 torr, it predicts an egg
saturation vapor pressure of 41 torr, similar to that derived from the
central egg temperature.
Humidity/ Incubators veterinary/ Temperature/ Water metabolism/ Birds
embryology/ Embryo, Non Mammalian physiology/ Zygote physiology

644. Swart D; Siebrits F; and Hayes J. Growth, Feed-Intake and
Body-Composition of Ostriches (Struthio-Camelus) Between 10 and 30 kg Live
Mass. South African Journal of Animal Science 1993; 23(5-6): 142-150.
Data on cumulative feed intake, growth rate and chemical body constituents of
24 ostrich chicks, from a comparative slaughter experiment, were utilized to
describe patterns of efficiency of feed utilization, deposition rates of
protein, fat and body energy, as well as patterns of energy intake over the
live mass interval 10-30 kg, by employing the empirical, allometric
autoregression growth model. The ratio of daily energy storage in protein
accretion to that of fat accretion was 1.3:1 at 20 kg live mass and changed
to 1:2 at 30 kg live mass. The change in energetic ratio coincided with a
breaking-point in the log-linear relationship between live mass and
cumulative metabolizable energy (ME) intake at 23 kg live mass, thus
separating the growth curve into two different growth phases as reflected by
different patterns of energy intake, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, body
composition and the composition of growth. The relative apportionment of ME
towards total body energy increased almost linearly across both phases and
was closely related to deposition rate of body fat and inversely related to
energy loss as heat expenditure. Gross efficiency of protein deposition
remained constant within growth phases but decreased across phases. In terms
of metabolic body size, the priority for the allocation of ME to the
deposition of body energy in protein or fat, changes and is correlated with
changes in heat production that would alter the maintenance needs of the
growing animal.
Efficiency/ Energy Deposition/ Feed Conversion

645. Swart D; Siebrits F; and Hayes J. Utilization of Metabolizable Energy by
Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus) Chicks at 2 Different Concentrations of Dietary
Energy and Crude Fiber Originating from Lucerne. South African Journal of
Animal Science 1993; 23(5-6): 136-141.
The effect of changing dietary energy and crude fibre concentrations on the
utilization of metabolizable energy (ME) was investigated in four growing
ostrich chicks by addition of lucerne meal to a maize-lucerne based diet. The
experiment was carried out in an indirect open circuit calorimeter. When ME
concentration was lowered by 7.5%, cell wall digestibility decreased by 9%
and energy metabolizability (ME/ GE) by 15% (P < 0.05). Energy loss as
methane was negligible and was not influenced by dietary energy or crude
fibre concentration. Maintenance energy requirement was 0.44 MJ/ W, kg0.75/
day and the efficiency of ME utilization for growth was 0.32. The efficiency
of ME utilization tended to deteriorate with decreasing energy or increasing
crude fibre concentration in the diet. It was concluded that future research
should be aimed at quantifying the influence of crude fibre on ME utilization
over an extended range of dietary energy concentrations.
Calorimetry/ Efficiency/ Gas Exchange

646. Swasy, A. No chickens or geese for this farm; here, birds have 
character. Wall Street Journal (East Edition), New York; June 2, 1993;
A1, A7.
emus/ animal husbandry/ pennsylvania 

647. Swerida, DF. Lysosomal storage disease in an emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 447. 
English; 0 ref.; poster presentation
Reports a case study of an emu diagnosed as having a genetic lysosomal
storage disease. The symptoms could also be caused by plant toxicity
(Astragalus) but the plant does not grow in Florida and no sign was found in
the bird's pen and straw bedding.
emus/ neurological disorders

648. Tacconi G and Valente C. A case of tuberculosis in nandu Mycobacterium
avium. Su di un caso di tubercolosi del nandu (Rhea americana). Su di un caso
di tubercolosi del nandu (Rhea americana). Rivista di Zootecnia e Veterinaria
1981; 9(4): 234-236.
Italian; 8 ref.

649. Taylor C; Dmi'el R; Fedak M; and Schmidt Nielsen K. Energetic cost of
running and heat balance in a large bird, the rhea. American Journal of
Physiology 1971; 221(2): 597-601.
Birds metabolism/ Temperature/ *Birds physiology/ *Body Temperature
Regulation/ *Exertion/ *Heat/ *Locomotion/ *Oxygen Consumption

650. Terzich M and Vanhooser S. Postmortem findings of ostriches submitted to
the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Avian Diseases 1993;
37(4): 1136-1141.
English; 15 ref.
A review of 121 ostrich necropsies from the files at the Oklahoma Animal
Disease Diagnostic Laboratory was conducted. The birds ranged in age from
unhatched embryos to 4 years; the majority were less than 3 weeks old. The
most common cause of death was ostrich chick fading syndrome (OCFS). OCFS is
characterized by depression, anorexia, and death 3-5 days after onset of
clinical signs in ostriches less than 3 weeks old. Escherichia coli and/ or
Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from various organs in these cases, and
mortality ranged from 40% to 100%. Other conditions observed were edema in
chicks associated with high incubator humidity levels, aspergillosis, leg
deformities, and impaction of the proventriculus. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ necropsies

651. Tommura T; Kotani T; and Mochizuki H. Comparative studies on
arteriosclerosis in wild and domestic animals. i. spontaneous
arteriosclerosis in the emu, Dromiceius novaehollandiae. Japanese Journal of
Veterinary Science 1970; 32 (1 ): 25-34.
English summary. bibliography: p. 30-31.

652. Topaz (P. Bag 7220 Highland, Harare. Ostrich Workshop for Veterinarians;
April 11-12, 1992; University of Zimbabwe. Portland Oregon: Island Ostrich
Ranch; [1992]Various paging. 
Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Zimbabwe Veterinary
Faculty, April, 1992. Papers cover: ostrich industry in Zimbabwe, applied
ostrich anatomy and physiology, physiology of egg production and incubation,
physical aspects of incubation in ostriches, incubation techniques, pathology
of ostrich eggs and investigation of incubation problems, ostrich management
techniques in Zimbabwe, general principles of ostrich nutrition, ostrich
nutrition in Zimbabwe, veterinary problems of ostriches, and ostrich medicine
and surgery guidelines.
ostriches/ nutrition/ surgery/ incubation/ eggs/ diseases

653. Topps, J. General principles of ostrich nutrition. Ostrich workshop for
veterinarians; April 11-12, 1992; Zimbabwe. Portland, Oregon: Island Ostrich
Ranch; [1992]4 p. 
Discusses the anatomy of the gut, energy substrates, protein, essential
minerals and vitamins. Includes observed deficiency problems.
ostriches/ nutrition/ vitamins/ minerals

654. Tuckwell C. Farming of emus and processing of emu meat. Food Australia
1993; 45(12): 574-575.
English. Includes references.
emus/ poultry farming/ food processing/ eggs/ poultry meat/ food composition/
nutritive value/ food storage/ food industry/ trends 

655. Tully, TN Jr. Eastern equine encephalitis in emus. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 316-317. 
English; 7 ref.; 9603
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is included in the group of alpha
(Group A) arboviruses that include western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE). The name of the disease is derived
from the clinical signs commonly associated with infected horses although
many avain species may be infected and serve as reservoir hosts. Native
passerine species and columbiforms have been found to be asymptomatic
carriers of EEE. Captive whooping cranes (Grus americana), turkeys (Meleagris
gallopavo), chukars (Alectoris chukar), pheasants (Phasianus colchicus),
domestic ducks (Anas sp.), domestic chickens (Gallus sp.), and bobwhite quail
(Colinus virginianus) have been shown to be susceptible to EEE. EEE was
isolated from a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in south central
Louisiana exhibiting clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and peracute
mortality. (Author's abstract)
emus/ eastern equine encephalomyelitis

656. Tully, TN Jr. Examination and joint isolation for lameness in ratites.
Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of
Avian Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 141-142. 
English; 2 ref.
Lameness has been defined as an indication of a structural or junctional
disorder in one or more limbs that is manifested in progression or in the
standing position. In horses, lameness exams have been extensively studied
and perfected because of their importance to the racing industry and general
health of the animals. The importance of lameness exams in the ratite
industry may double that of their equine conterpart because of the bipedal
anatomy. Musculoskeletal abnormalities, both developmental and acquired, are
well known to ratite veterinarians. Many avian musculoskeletal abnormalities
are difficult or impossible to treat at this time, because of a lack of
diagnostic technique and subsequent surgical procedures. This article will
review the general lameness exam and ita application to ratite species,
(Author's interpretive summary)
ratites/ lameness

657. Tully, TN Jr and Shane, SM. Multivalent equine encephalomyelitis vaccine
to protect emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September
1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 297-298. 
English; 4 ref.
Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis have been diagnosed in emus in
the southwestern and eastern United States since 1991. Both viral diseases
cause high morbidity and in the case of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis
(EEE) high mortality occurs in susceptible flocks. Emus that have been
vaccinated with an inactivated multivalent equine vaccine are protected from
exposure to both EEE and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE). A one year
study was performed on southeastern United States flocks to determine
protective antibody titers stimulated by vaccination. Seventy percent of the
birds developed a protective titer after receiving an initial vaccination
followed by a single booster one month later. (Author's abstract)
emus/ Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis/ Western Equine Encephalomyelitis/
vaccination/ encephalitis

658. Tully, TN Jr and Shane, SM. Salmonella pullorum seroconversion in emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994 31 August-4
September 1993; Rena, Nevada Nashville.; 1993 315-317. 
English; 2 ref.
Experimental infection of juvenile emus with 2 x 10(8) cfu S. pullorum per-os
resulted in stimulation of antibodies detectable with the whole blood plate
agglutination test, 9 days post-infection. It was not possible to re-isolate
S. pullorum from viscera of infected birds 15 days post-infrction in this
pilot study. It is suggested that the S. pullorum agglutination test be
included in routine health examinations. (Author's abstract)
bacterial diseases/ salmonellosis/ host range/ Salmonella pullorum

659. Tully TJ; Shane S; Poston R; England J; Vice C; Cho D; and Panigrahy B.
Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
Avian Diseases 1992; 36(3): 808-812.
Includes references.
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in flock of emus in south
eastern Louisiana. The outbreak involved juvenile and adult breeders ranging
in age from 20 to 36 months, with an attack- rate of 76% and a case fatality
rate of 87%. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation and characterization of
the viral agent, arid by detection of EEE antibody in two recovered emus.
High mortality was preceded by marked depression, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and
emesis of blood stained ingesta. On postmortem examination, hemorrhagic
enteritis and multiple petechia of viscera were observed. Microscopic changes
included severe necrosis of hepatocytes, intestinal mucosa, and necrotizing
vasculitis of the spleen and lamina propria of the intestine. No nervous
system lesions were observed. This outbreak occurred concurrently with EEE in
horses and was attributed to unseasonably heavy rainfall with an abundance of
arthropod vectors and proximity to free-living reservoir host species.
emus/ eastern equine encephalitis virus/ flocks/ outbreaks/ morbidity/
mortality/ diagnosis/ histopathology/ case reports/ reservoir hosts/ disease
vectors/ rain/ louisiana 

660. Tully T; Pechman R; Cornick J; and Morris J. A Subchondral Cyst in the
Distal Tibiotarsal Bone of an Ostrich (Struthio-Camelus). Journal of Avian
Medicine and Surgery 1995; 9(1): 41-44.
English Note
A 4-yr-old male ostrich was examined because of 1-yr intermittent lameness of
the right leg that had diminished the bird's breeding ability. No treatment
had been given before examination, and no obvious lesions were seen on
physical examination. Radiographic examination of the right leg revealed
evidence of a subchondral cystlike lesion underlying a subchondral bone
irregularity in the medial aspect of the distal tibiotarsal condyle.
Injection of the right tibiotarsal joint with 12 ml of Carbocaine alleviated
the lameness. Arthroscopy of the right tibiotarsal joint was attempted, but
the lesion could not be fully visualized. Arthrotomy was performed, and the
4-mm cystlike lesion was curetted and debrided until healthy subchondral bone
was observed. The bird recovered uneventfully and 6 mo after surgery had a
normal gait and normal breeding behavior.
Ostriches/ Osteochondrosis/ Subchondral bone cyst

661. Twigg L; King D; Davis H; Saunders D; and Mead R. Tolerance to, and
metabolism of, fluoroacetate in the emu. Australian-Wildlife-Research 1988;
15(3): 239-247.
36 ref
Birds/ Wild animals/ Emus/ EMUS/ Fluorine/ Struthioniformes 

662. Ullrey D and Allen M. Nutrition and feeding of ostriches. Animal Feed
Science and Technology 1996; 59(1-3): 27-36.
English; 30 ref.; 9606
Dietary habits in the wild and gastrointestinal anatomy and function have
established that the ostrich is an herbivore. Ostriches are not turkeys, but
turkeys may be the best avian model we have from which to predict the
ostrich's nutrient needs. To minimize leg abnormalities in ostrich chicks, it
may be helpful to restrict weight gain by limiting dietary protein
concentrations below those recommended for starting turkeys and by using
higher fiber diets. Non-slip surfaces and exercise also are very important.
Egg production by ostriches laying a normal annual clutch does not
significantly increase the dietary calcium requirement. When egg production
is forced by continually removing eggs, calcium requirements should be met by
dietary concentrations of 16 g/ kg. Alternatively, ad libitum access to
granulated calcium carbonate or oyster shell could be provided. Until the
nutrient requirements of ostriches are better understood, zoos and ostrich
farmers with small flocks may find a single life-cycle diet is a rational
means to meet nutrient needs and keep feed fresh. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ nutritient requirements/ gastrointestinal anatomy/
gastrointestinal function

663. Ungureanu C; Paunescu G; Taga M; Iordache A; Nicolescu A; Micu N; Cociu
M; and Wagner G. [Vibriosis in an American rhea (nandu)]. Archiva
Veterinaria, Roumania 1973; 9(Fasc.1-2): 93-103.
German; 9601
birds/ vibrio 

664. van der Westhuizen, E and Earle, A, Compilers. Ostrich bibliography.
Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria, Academic Information Service;
1993; iii + 316 pp. 
many ref. 
This bibliography was compiled from reference collections belonging to 4
South African ostrich experts (R. Brooke, F. Huchzermeyr, A. Bezuidenhout and
H. Ebedes) as well as from the CAB ABSTRACTS, BIOSIS and Agricola databases
and other bibliographies. Many references have abstracts attached, which are
usually based on the authors summaries. Entries are arranged alphabetically
by first author under main subject headings. Additional descriptors have been
allocated where necessary and items are listed alphabetically under these
descriptors in a separate list of descriptors. There is also an author list.
Both the descriptor and author lists have numbers allocated to each entry to
enable the user to distinguish between the entries. The user is directed to
the entry of interest by means of the main subject heading and author names,
rather than by the numbers. The bibliography is well produced and should
prove most useful. It is not clear whether it is available in electronic
diseases/ bacterial diseases/ viral diseases/ parasites/ mycoses/ anatomy/
haematology/ reproduction/ immobilization/ physiology/ meat/ feathers/
ostriches/ bibliographies 

665. Van Der Westhuizen N; Naude R; and Oelofsen W. The isolation and partial
characterization of chymotrypsinogen from the pancreas of the ostrich
(Struthio camelus). International Journal of Biochemistry 1989; 21(1): 91-97.
1. Cationic chymotrypsinogen from the pancreas of the ostrich was purified to
homogeneity by sulfuric acid extraction of pancrei, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation
and SP-Sephadex C-50 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. 2. The final
preparation was homogeneous when subjected to SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing
and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. The Mmin value obtained from
amino acid analysis was 25,572 Da. A mean sedimentation coefficient of 2.575
S was obtained by sedimentation velocity centrifugation. 3. N-terminal
analysis by dansylation showed an Ala residue which is the N-terminal of a
neochymotrypsinogen. 4. The effects of pH, temperature and inhibitors (LBTI,
PMSF, TPCK and DFP) on the chymotryptic activity were examined. A Km-value
for ATEE as substrate was found to be 0.57 mM.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Amino Acids analysis/ Centrifugation, Density Gradient/
Chromatography, Ion Exchange/ Chymotrypsinogen metabolism/ Enzyme Activation/
Hydrogen Ion Concentration/ Isoelectric Focusing/ Molecular Sequence Data/
Temperature/ Birds metabolism/ Chymotrypsinogen isolation and purification/
Pancreas enzymology

666. Van Heerden J; Hayes S; and Williams M. Suspected vitamin E selenium
deficiency in two ostriches. Journal of the South African Veterinary
Association 1983; 54(1): 53-54.
Paresis of the limbs of two 4-month-old ostriches fed a diet predominantly of
crushed maize was investigated. Raised levels of serum aspartate transaminase
and creatine kinase were demonstrated in both birds. The less severely
affected ostrich recovered after a single intramuscular injection of a
vitamin E-selenium preparation but the other died despite therapy. An autopsy
of the latter revealed focal pale areas in the thigh muscle. Microscopically
affected muscle fibres showed degeneration, necrosis and regenerative
changes. Fibrinoid degeneration and necrosis of some arterioles was observed
as well as varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis. The above findings
suggest a diagnosis of vitamin E-selenium deficiency.
Animal/ Birds/ Case Report/ Paralysis etiology/ Vitamin E Deficiency
complications/ Bird Diseases etiology/ Paralysis veterinary/ Selenium
deficiency/ Vitamin E Deficiency veterinary

667. VanDerHeyden, N. Cardiomyopathy in three emu chicks. Kornelsen, MJ.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 127-129. 
English; 3 ref.
Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in three emu chicks - two antemortem and one
post-mortem. None of the chicks were related, and they originated from two
separate flocks. All of the chicks had been fed the same commercial ratite
diet since hatch. Symptoms suggestive of vitamin E deficiency had previously
been noted in the chicks and their clutchmates, and a vitamin E and selenium
injection had been administered to all of the chicks. An attempt was made to
link the cardiomyopathy to vitamin E deficiency; however, there was no clear
evidence to substantiate this theory. Liver vitamin E and selenium levels
were obtained on two of the affected chicks, and serum vitamin E and selenium
levels were obtained on representative chicks from both flocks. A sample of
the starter feed the chicks had been reared on was also analyzed from vitamin
E levels and selenium levels, and felt to be adequate. (Author's interpretive
emus/ diet/ cardiomyopathy/ vitamin E/ selenium

668. VanDerHeyden, N, Fulton, RM, DeNicola, DB, and Hicks, K. Lymphoma in an
ostrich (Struthio camelus). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans.
Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 310-312. 
English; 2 ref.; 9603
A three-year-old female ostrich was presented with a history of weight loss
and diarrhea. Hematology revealed marked lymphocytosis and
hypergammaglobulinemia. Lymphoma was diagnosed from a biopsy of a neck mass.
Hematolgy and clinical chemistry values in the ostrich will be discussed.
(Author's abstract)
ostriches/ lymphoma/ hematology values/ clinical chemistry values

669. Vanhooser S; Stair E; Edwards W; Labor M; and Carter D. Aortic rupture
in ostrich associated with copper deficiency. Veterinary and Human Toxicology
1994; 36(3): 226-227.
6 ref
Four cases of aortic ruptures in ostriches associated with deficient levels
of copper in the liver (mean 3.375 mug/ g wet weight, range 2.0 to 5.0 mug/ g
; normal 8.9 mug/ g) are described. The aortic lesions were consistent with
vascular lesions described in turkeys and fowls with copper deficiency.
pathology/ histopathology/ aneurysm/ liver/ aorta/ rupture/ copper/
ostriches/ deficiency diseases

670. Vanhooser S and Welsh R. Isolation of Salmonella Species from Ratites.
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 1995; 7(2): 268-269.
English Note

671. Vanjaarsveld F; Naude R; Oelofsen W; and Travis J. The isolation and
partial characterization of alpha2-macroglobulin from the serum of the
ostrich (Struthio camelus). International Journal of Biochemistry 1994;
26(1): 97-110.
1. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) activity is present in the serum of the
ostrich, Struthio camelus. The chromogenic synthetic peptide substrates BAPNA
and ATNA were hydrolysed by trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively, in the
presence of ostrich serum and the alpha(2)M in ostrich serum protected
trypsin from being inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor. Ostrich alpha(2)M
proved to be a potent inhibitor of bovine pancreatic trypsin and
chymotrypsin. 2. alpha(2)M was purified to apparent homogeneity by PEG
precipitation, DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, Bid-Gel A-5m and Zn2+-affinity
chromatography. 3. Ostrich alpha(2)M migrated as a single band (M(r) 779,000)
during non-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed increased
mobility after reaction with trypsin. Denaturation dissociated ostrich
alpha(2)M into half-molecules. Denaturation with reduction further
dissociated the protein into quarter-subunits. 4. Isoelectric focusing
revealed a pI of 5.3. 5. The amind acid composition of ostrich alpha(2)M is
typical of an alpha(2)M, comparing favourably with those of other animal
species. The carbohydrate composition of the purified protein, in percentage
dry weight of the molecule, was galactose:mannose (1:1), 4.55;
N-acetylglucosamine, 2.35; N-acetylneuraminic acid, 0.58; and fucose, 0.77.
6. alpha(2)M was assessed immunologically by Ouchterlony double-diffusion and
Western blot analysis with polyvalent antisera directed against ostrich
alpha(2)M. 7. Ostrich alpha(2)M seems to show many physical, chemical and
kinetic properties similar to those of other known alpha(2)Ms, but is
expected to differ from other alpha Ms when considering the primary structure
of the bait region, the area differing among alpha Ms from different species
and determining its specificity. [References: 43]
Crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus. Alpha macroglobulin. Human/ alpha 2
macroglobulin. Affinity chromatography./ Proteinase inhibitor. Plasma.
Purification. Binding. Trypsin./ Alpha2 macroglobulin

672. Vassall Adams P. The sinus venosus of the adult avian heart - present or
absent? Journal of Anatomy 1979; 128(2): 427.
English; 9601
Heart valves/ Vena cava/ animal anatomy/ heart/ poultry/ ostriches/ fowls/
pigeons/ Birds/ PICA PICA/ Magpie/ Starling/ Herring gull

673. Veazey R; Vice C; Cho D; Tully TJ; and Shane S. Pathology of Eastern
equine encephalitis in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology
1994; 31(1): 109-111.
9 ref
In separate outbreaks on 2 farms, 50 miles apart, in Louisiana, USA, in late
August to late October and late October 1991, 13 of 24 emus (1.5-3 years old)
and 7 emus (2-4 years old), died. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
(EEEV) was isolated from liver, spleen and intestines of 11 birds comprising
members of both flocks. Postmortem examination of 16 birds indicated that
EEEV shows visceral tropism in the emu. The reason for this is unknown but it
is suggested that the liver is the target organ for virus replication in
birds. Diffuse lymphoid necrosis found in emus suggests that in this species
the virus may target lymphocytes as well. The only preventative measures
available to emu farmers are vector control and use of an inactivated equine
vaccine (not approved for use in birds) which may not afford adequate
protection in all avian species.
emus/ pathology/ histopathology/ disease control/ hepatitis/ splenic
diseases/ equine encephalomyelitis virus/ USA 

674. Vodkin M; McLaughlin G; Day J; Shope R; and Novak R. A rapid diagnostic
assay for eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral RNA. American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993; 49(6): 772-776.
English; 20 ref
A coupled reverse transcription/ polymerase chain reaction assay was designed
to rapidly, sensitively and specifically detect eastern equine
encephalomyelitis virus RNA. The assay successfully detected the viral RNA in
a single-blind study of a set of field samples composed of either pooled
mosquitoes (Culex erraticus and Anopheles crucians) or bird (emu, Dromaius
novaehollandiae) tissue. These results suggest that it would be practical to
use this assay for deciding when and where to implement mosquito abatement.
Diptera/ disease vectors/ arboviruses/ Alphavirus/ Togaviridae/ birds/ wild
birds/ polymerase chain reaction/ RNA/ diagnostic techniques/ diagnosis/
eastern equine encephalitis virus/ Culex erraticus/ Anopheles crucians/ emus/
detection/ Culicidae/ biotechnology 

675. Vohra P. Information on ostrich nutritional needs still limited.
Feedstuffs 1992; 64(28): 16-17, 21.
ostriches/ poultry feeding/ nutrient requirements/ diet planning/ information

676. Vorster B. Nutritional muscular dystrophy in a clutch of ostrich chicks.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 1984; 55(1): 39-40.
Afrikaans; 3 ref
Six ostrich chicks became lame at 6 weeks of age. Two died and were found to
have muscular dystrophy. The other 4 responded to treatment with vitamin E
and selenium. The ostriches were fed mainly lucerne.
Nutritional disorders/ Ostrich/ Muscular dystrophy/ Ostriches 

677. Vyver AVD. Viewpoint: the world ostrich industry: will South Africa
maintain its domination? Agrekon 1992; 31(1): 47-49.
English; 3 tab
For over a century, South Africa has dominated the world ostrich industry.
However, the question as to whether the growth in demand previously
experienced will continue into the future, and whether South Africa will
continue to dominate the ostrich market, remains unanswered. Since the 1960s,
the most important ostrich product has been leather. In 1986, before the
sanctions, South Africa exported 90 000 skins to the USA. After 1986, South
Africa had to find new markets and, as a result, the shortage of skins in the
USA caused prices to rise. This made ostrich farming an attractive
proposition within the USA, and the industry grew from zero to 15 400 birds
between 1986 and 1990. Farming of ostriches in South Africa is heavily
regulated by legislation, and South Africa must reassess its current policy
options if it is to remain competitive in the future.
USA/ Ostriches/ hides and skins/ production/ world markets/ terms of trade/
South Africa

678. Wade J. Increasing chick survivability: The basics. Canadian Ostrich
1995; 4(4): 24,26,28.
Discusses the basic considerations of incubation for chick survivability
(cooling eggs, turning eggs, ventilation and circulation, incubation
temperature, incuation humidity and cleanliness) and planning a chick rearing
facility. Recommends considering an all-in/ all-out design and lists the
advantage of the design. A couple of diagrams of a facility are included.
ostriches/ incubation/ chick rearing

679. Wade, JR. Ratite pediatric medicine and surgery. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 340-353. 
English; 9 ref.; 9603
A discussion of general husbandry and management of ratite chicks from hatch
to ninety days describes chick identification, facility design (including
heat and ventilation recommendations), hygiene, feeding requirements, and
basic chick rearing principles. Following this discussion is a description of
the clinical signs, diagnostics, treatments and preventions for commmon
pediatric diseases. Specific diseases are classified under the headings of
neonatal, diagestive, orthopedic, respiratory, ocular, integument and
neurological system problems. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ husbandry/ management/ chicks/ diseases

680. Wahoski M. Emu egg candlers explained. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 40.
Discusses the process of looking into an incubated egg. Gives graphical
reprsentation of normal and abnormal air-cell at various stages of
development (1 week, 21 days, and 30 days). Lists criteria for evaluating the
performance of an emu egg candler.
emus/ egg candling/ eggs

681. Wallace, D. Rearing ostriches in Saskatchewan. [n.l.]: Saskatchewan
Agriculture Development Fund Final Report; 1991; D-89-05-0547. 18 p.
Project had several objectives - (1) demonstrate ostrich husbandry, housing,
feeding, grazing, handling, incubating, disease control and product
management and development (not demonstrated as there is only a limited
number of ostriches in North America); (2) do cost/ benefit analysis and
profit potential forecast. Housing, transportation, disease control, and feed
are all discussed. All procedures in the project are described, diagrams of
pens, and cost analysis documented.
ostriches/ Saskatchewan

682. Wallach, JD and Boever, WJ. Diseases of exotic animals. Medical and
surgical management. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: W.B. Saunders Co; 1983;
xii + 1159pp. 
English, many ref.
The 18 chapters in the first section of the book, which covers mammals, are
entitled; Primates, Rodents and Lagomorphs, Ruminants, Felidae, Canidae,
Procyonidae, Mustelidae, Viverridae and Hyaenidae, Ursidae, Marsupialia and
monotremes, Edentates, Wild swine and peccaries, Insectivora, Bats
(Chiroptera), Hyrax, Cetaceans and sirenians, Pinnipeds, and Perissodactyla,
Proboscidae (elephants) and Hippopotamidae. The second section, Aves,
comprises three chapters on game birds, waterfowl, and Ratites; raptors; and
aviary birds, and the final section entitled Ectotherms, has two chapters on
reptiles and amphibians, and tropical fish. The chapters cover physiology
(which usually includes normal values for blood chemistry and haematology),
chemical restraint, and diseases. Information on apparatus for restraint of
animals, and on special feeds which are commercially available in the USA, is
listed in the appendix. Individual chapters are listed in Index Veterinarius.
Animal diseases/ Veterinary medicine/ Wild animals/ Aviary birds/ Reptilia/
Aquarium fish/ Books/ Diseases/ Zoo animals

683. Wallach, JD and Boever, WJ. Game birds, waterfowl, and Ratites. Diseases
of exotic animals. Philadelphia, USA: W. B. Saunders; 1983; 831-889. 
English; 211 ref., 35 fig.
Reviews/ Diseases/ Galliformes/ Anseriformes/ Phasianidae/ Columbiformes/
Pigeon/ Heron/ Flamingo/ Pelican/ Birds 

684. Ward W; Matthews M; Murray N; and Robinson N. An Ostrich Dinucleotide
Repeat Polymorphism At The Vias-Os2 Locus. Animal Genetics 1994; 25(4): 291.
A (GT)17 microsatellite was isolated from an ostrich genomic DNA library and
designated VIAS-0S2. Polymerase chain reaction amplification products of the
microsatellite revealed the presence of 4 alleles; heterozygosity and
polymorphism information content estimated from gene frequencies in 73
unrelated ostriches were 0.34 and 0.39 respectively. Codominant Mendelian
segregation of the alleles was observed in a 2-generation family.

685. Watanabe T; Inagaki N; Litthauer D; and Oelofsen W. An
immunohistochemical study of the pancreatic islet cells of the ostrich.
Biological Structures And Morphogenesis 1990 1991; 3(4): 139-146.
Ostrich pancreas was investigated by immunohistochemical methods to elucidate
the distribution of endocrine cells immunoreactive to glucagon, insulin,
somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide antisera. Five populations of islets
having distinct cellular contents could be recognized. Cells staining with
anti-glucagon form a large zone around the central mass of the insulin-cells
in the islet. A few glucagon-cells also lie among acinar cells. Anti-insulin
immunoreactive cells are located in the center of islets as a cell cluster in
the absence of other cell types. Somatostatin-cells stained with
anti-somatostatin serum are distributed in a discontinuous outermost layer
around several glucagon cell clusters together constituting the islet.
Solitary somatostatin-cells are also dispersed within the exocrine
parenchyma. The pancreatic polypeptide- immunoreactive cells are found both
at the edge of islets and among exocrine cells.
Glucagon/ Insulin/ Somatostatin/ Pancreatic Polypeptide

686. Watters, CE, Joyce, KL, Heath, SE, and Kazacos, KR. Cyathostoma
infection as the cause of respiratory distress in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 151-155. 
English; 6 ref.
Two emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were presented for respiratory distress
within two weeks of purchase from a large breeding facility. The birds
exhibited open mouth breathing, coughing, and hemoptysis. Fecal and tracheal
endoscipic examinations revealed infection with Cyathostoma sp., possibly C.
bronchialis. An investigation of the breeding farm of origin suggested a
common source of infection, but the origin of infection could not be
determined. Possible risk factors for infrction of ratites with Cyathostoma
are discussed. (Authors' interpretive summary)
emus/ Cyathostoma/ respiratory diseases

687. Weiler B. Successful emu incubating and chick care. Canadian Ostrich
1994; 3(4): 76-79.
An emu producer provides tips on incubating and chick care.
emus/ chicks/ incubating

688. Weisbroth S and Seelig AJ. Struthiolipeurus rheae (Mallophaga:
Philopteridae), an ectoparasite of the common rhea (Rhea americana). Journal
of Parasitology 1974; 60(5): 892-894.
Birds/ Mallophaga anatomy and histology/ Pediculosis parasitology/ *Bird
Diseases parasitology/ *Mallophaga/ *Pediculosis veterinary

689. Weisman Y; Huminer D; Malkinson M; Meir R; Kliche S; Lipkin W; and
Pitlik S. Borna disease virus antibodies among workers exposed to infected
ostriches. Lancet 1994; 344(8931): 1232-1233.

690. Weisman Y; Malkinson M; Ashash E; and Nir A. Serum therapy of a paretic
syndrome of ostriches. Veterinary Record 1993; 133(7): 172.
The results of 2 field trials to investigate the value of serum therapy of
the disease which is suspected to of of viral aetiology is reported. Serum
from a pool derived from birds 7 to 10 days after the first signs of the
disease was used. In the first trial 4 ostriches injected subcutaneously in
the thigh at 3 and 14 days old with 0.5 ml and 1 ml of serum, respectively,
showed no clinical symptoms of the disease up to 6.5 months of age while 3 of
4 control birds died from paresis at 25-28 days of age. In the second trial 4
batches of 20 two-day-old ostriches were each divided into 2 groups; the
first group was injected at 2, 7, 14 and 21 days of age with 0.5, 1, 1 and 2
ml, respectively, of pooled serum from paretic birds, the second with pooled
serum from 11-month-old clinically normal ostriches. 6 of the first group and
5 of the second were affected by paresis. The average age (+/ -standard
error) of onset of paresis in the treated group was significantly higher
(68.86+/ -6.09 days) compared with the control group (25.6+/ -7.53 days).
Thus the serum pool prepared from infected birds delayed the onset of the
disease but did not protect against mortality.
Viral diseases/ Disease control/ Disease prevention/ Ostriches/ paralysis/
therapy/ Paresis 

691. Weisman, Y, Malkinson, M, Perl, S, Ashash, E, Meir, R, Nir, A, and
Ludwig, H. Borna disease in ostriches. Proceedings of the Western Poultry
Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994; Sacramento, California.; 1994 22.
v. 43rd).
ostriches/ borna disease virus

692. Weisman Y; Malkinson M; Perl S; Machany S; and Lublin A. Paresis in
young ostriches. Veterinary Record 1993; 132(11): 284.
A spastic paretic condition affecting young ostriches in a large Israeli
commercial enterprise caused morbidity in birds up to 90 days old; in 1992,
mortality reached 14% out of a total juvenile mortality of 26%. Most of the
paralysed chicks were between 2 and 6 weeks old, with an average age of 28
days. The onset of the paresis was quite sudden and the birds were unable to
stand when disturbed. Appetite was unaffected during the early stages of the
paresis but their inability to defaecate and urinate resulted in the death of
the ostriches within 8 days. On PM examination a dilated cloaca filled with a
voluminous quantity of yellowish fluid was seen. In some of the ostriches a
bilateral haemorrhage running parallel to the lumbosacral spine was seen.
Extensive examination of the nervous system revealed neuronal degeneration
and a marked multifocal glial reaction in the lumbosacral region of the
spinal cord and occasional glial foci in the vicinity of the dorsolateral
nucleus of the medulla oblongata. Biochemical, toxicological and
bacteriological examination were negative and no genetic or environmental
factors were evident. Attempts to isolate a causative virus from the affected
ostriches are in progress. In the meantime convalescent serum therapy has
been initiated.
Birds/ Paralysis/ Ostriches/ Israel 

693. Widdowson B. Hints on raising happy chicks. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(10):
Discusses various factors which can impact on chicks. The essentials are
keeping them dry, warm, well fed and watered and with adequate ventilation.
Reviewed are: heat lamps, floor surfaces, pen surface, pen progression,
feeding and water.

694. Willimas J; Siegfreid W; Milton S; Adams N; Dean W; Du Plessis M;
Jackson S; and Nagy K. Field metabolism, water requirements, and foraging
behavior of wild ostriches in the Namib. Ecology 1993; 74(2): 390-404.
We measured the field metabolic rate (FMR) and water influx rate (WIR) of the
largest species of bird, the Ostrich (Struthio camelus), which lives in the
Namib (Southwest Africa) desert, one of the driest regions on earth. Along
with doubly-labeled water (DLW) measurements of FMR and WIR, we examined the
availability of plants in various habitats, the plants selected by
Ostricheas, and the daily activity patterns of these birds. During 6-8 d
periods, adult Ostriches (88.25 kg) had an FMR of 18 040 kJ/ d, while
subadult birds (50.75 kg) metabolized energy at a rate of 15 428 kJ/ d. Adult
energy expenditure was 26% lower than predict, but subadults had an FMR
nearly equivalent to expectation, suggesting that adults may be more
efficient at acquiring resources. Conclusions remain tentative because data
for the Ostrich exceed previous data used for allometric equations by almost
an order of magnitude. Gravel and stoney plains together accounted for 84% of
the study area, whereas washes occupied lt 1%. Vegetation cover was sparse in
all habitats, varying between 7 and 19% in most areas, by comprising apprxeq
15% along drainage lines. Ostriches foraged on gravel plains nearly 65% of
their daytime hours and 25.5% of their day in washes. They consumed a narrow
range of green plants with Monechma arenicola, Schmidita kalahariensis,
Blepharis spp., Trianthema triquetra, and Dicoma capensis representing the
principal items in the diet. From a time-activity budget, Ostriches spent 7.5
h of their 24-h day walking, and roosted at night for 11.5 h. Transport
between food patches accounted for 62.2% of FMR while nighttime rest was
19.0%. Preening and other maintenance behaviors were responsible for lt 1% of
the Ostriches' energy budget. Ostriches had a frugal water economy when
compared to other nonpasserine birds, with both subadults and adults having
lower WIRs than predicted. Values for WIR were higher than allometric
predictions based on four other desert birds previously studied, but because
Ostriches are two orders of magnitude larger in body mass, firm conclusions
await further data. Calculations of the water economy index (WEI), the ratio
of water influx in FMR (in millilitres of water per kilojoule), showed that
Ostriches conserved water like smaller desert birds. Four species of desert
birds had WEI values averaging 0.16 mL/ kJ: values for the Ostrich averaged
0.17 mL/ kJ. An itemized water budget suggeste that adults did not drinkg
during the periods of observation, while water intake by subadults averaged
729 ml/ d. This suggests that adults may have lower minimum water
requirements than subadults. Combining available data for FMR and WIR with
data for the Ostrich, we constructed new allometric equations than nearly
span the entire range of bird size and include 62 species of birds.
Struthio camelus/ Juvenile/ Adult/ Habitat/ Diet/ Energy expenditure/
Allometry/ Southwest Africa

695. Willson M. Gut retention times of experimental pseudoseeds by emus.
Biotropica 1989; 21(3): 210-213.
28 ref
Pseudoseeds (buttons and beads of a specific gravity within the range of real
seeds) were retained in the digestive tract of captive emus very commonly for
1-2 d, but a considerable number were held for over 1 week and up to several
weeks. These retention times were similar to those of several other large,
fruit eating vertebrates that often disperse the seeds of the fruits eaten.
Retention time did not vary consistently with pseudoseed dimensions but did
differ greatly among birds and trials. Many of the ingested pseudoseeds were
deposited at nightly camp sites. Long retention times and patchy deposition
patterns have several possible but undocumented consequences for seed
Seed dispersal/ emus/ Seeds/ transit time

696. Wilson G; Hill G; and Barnes A. An aerial survey of feral pigs and emus
in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 1987; 14(4):
Aerial surveys of feral pigs in the Goondiwindi region of Queensland showed
an overall observed density of about 1 per square kilometer. On mature wheat
crops in October, up to four feral pigs per square kilometer were seen amidst
substantial crop damage. Emus were less abundant and seen more evenly over
all habitats at an average of 0 multiplied by 3 per square kilometer. Factors
affecting sightability are discussed.
emus/ introduced species/ aerial surveys/ Sus scrofa/ Dromaius novae
hollandiae/ Australia, Queensland, Goondiwindi

697. Winterfield R and Thacker H. Verminous encephalitis in the emu [Probable
transmission to domestic birds]. Avian Diseases 1978; 22 (2): 336-339.

698. Wissman M and Parsons B. Dead in shell. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(7):
Part one of two. Discusses various factors and conditions which may cause
embryo mortality. Stresses the importance of keeping accurate records
concerning their breeding flock.
ratites/ embryo mortality

699. Wissman M and Parsons B. Dead in shell. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(8):
Part two of two. Continues discussion on various factors and conditions which
may cause embryo mortality and how to prevent it. Chart of breeder flock diet
deficiency influences in embryos (Vitamin A, Vitamin D3, Riboflavin,
Pantothetic acid, Biotin, Vitamin B12, Vitamin K, Vitamin E, Folacin,
Calcium, Phosphorus, Zinc, Manganese, and Selenium).
ratites/ embryo mortality

700. Withers P. Energy, water, and solute balance of the ostrich Struthio
camelus. Physiological Zoology 1983; 56(4): 568-579.
English; 33 ref
The basal metabolic rate of an adult ostrich is only 58% of the value
predicted for a 100-kg nonpasserine bird. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) of
ratite birds seems to be best summarized as BMR (ml O2/ h) = 389 kg0.73,
which is parallel to and has about 60% of the intercept of the relationship
for nonpasserine, carinate birds. The water economy of the ostrich is similar
to that of other large savannah and desert animals such as antelope and
camel, although the partitioning of water loss differs. The ostrich has a
lower evaporative water loss and a higher faecal and urinary loss than
mammals of similar bodyweight. Solute balance is also discussed.
Energy exchange/ Ostriches/ Water metabolism

701. Wolfe R. Reflection of Canada's ostrich industry position. Canadian
Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 18-21.
English; 0 ref.; 9606
Reviews the ostrich industry in Canada with respect to the softening of
demand for certain ages of birds, current prices, and future trends. Also
discusses importation of ostriches from the United States and trade between
the two countries. Lists nine points which have led to a change in strategy
for trade with the U.S.
ostriches/ Canada/ ostrich industry

702. Yagil R; Grevenbroek MV; Creveld CV; and Levy A. Urine production in
ostriches. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 1990; 45(3): 187-188.
English; 14th Symposium of Veterinary Medicine, Koret School, Israel, 26-28
June, 1988
Water balance/ Drinking/ Excretion/ Urination/ Ostriches/ Urine 

703. Yamada M; Yoshikawa H; Tegoshi T; Matsumoto Y; Yoshikawa T; Shiota T;
and Yoshida Y. Light microscopical study of Blastocystis spp. in monkeys and
fowls. Parasitology Research 1987; 73(6): 527-531.
English; 14 ref
Blastocystis spp. were found in the faeces and caecal lumen of 15 of 26
captive monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata, M. mulatta, M. radiata and Saimiri
sciurea but not Callithrix jacchus or Saginus oedipus) and in all the birds
(10 chickens and 2 Struthio camelus) examined. The parasites were similar to
the human parasite B. hominis except for variations in the size and contents
of the central vacuoles. This is the first record of Blastocystis in birds.
Primates/ Birds/ Zoo animals/ Apicomplexa/ Poultry/ Domestic animals/
Laboratory animals/ Blastocystis/ Monkeys/ Ultrastructure/ Fowls/ New host
record/ Struthio camelus/ New host records

704. Yamashiro D; Ho C; and Li C. Adrenocorticotropin. 57. Synthesis and
biological activity of ostrich and turkey hormones. International Journal of
Peptide and Protein Research 1984; 23(1): 42-46.
Synthesis of ostrich and turkey corticotropin (ACTH) has been accomplished by
the solid-phase method. Each was identical to the natural hormone in high
performance liquid chromatography. Relative potencies in a lipolytic assay in
isolated rabbit fat cells were: human ACTH, 100; ostrich ACTH, 53; turkey
ACTH, 28. In isolated rat fat cells relative lipolytic potencies were: human
ACTH, 100; ostrich ACTH, 2; turkey ACTH, 13. It was concluded that lipolytic
potency is sensitive to alterations in structure throughout the entire length
of the ACTH sequence in the rat fat cell assay.
Adipose Tissue drug effects/ Adipose Tissue metabolism/ Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone pharmacology/ Animal/ Birds/ Comparative Study/ Human/ Indicators and
Reagents/ Lipolysis drug effects/ Rats/ Species Specificity/ Structure
Activity Relationship/ Support, Non U.S. Gov't/ Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S./
Turkeys/ Adrenocorticotropic Hormone chemical synthesis

705. Yasumura K; Okamoto K; Shimamura S; Nakamura M; Odaguchi K; Tanaka A;
and Yajima H. Synthesis of the nonatriacontapeptide corresponding to the
entire amino acid sequence of ostrich adrenocorticotropic hormone Struthio
camelus. Chem Pharm Bull. 1982; 30(3): 866-873.

706. Zuniga J. Are you ready for those emu eggs? Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12):
Discusses incubation parameters such as temperature and humidity, hatching,
and trouble shooting during incubation and hatching.