Emu Bibliography

Compiled by Ken Ladd
Last updated: August 16, 1996
172 References

1. Avian influenza virus in ratites--1993. Foreign Animal Disease Report
1993; 21(4): 9-10.
emus/ rhea/ avian influenzavirus/ epidemiology/ usa 

2. Summary of equine encephalitis surveillance January 1, 1993 - October 15,
1994. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association; October 29
- November 4, 1994; Grand Rapids, MI. Richmond, VI: United States Animal
Health Association; 1994 282-285. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Provides statistics on the number of submissions received and the number of
positive cases of both Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine
Encephalitis (WEE) and which state. For 1993, there were 4 cases of emus with
EEE and 2 emus with WEE. For January 1 to October 15, 1994 there were 5 cases
of emus with EEE and 2 cases of emus with WEE.
emus/ Eastern Equine Encephalitis/ Western Equine Encephalitis

3. Allen J and Stevens M. Diversification in the woolbelt; Other on-station
activities for wool pastoralists. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia
1994; 35(1): 30-34; 35-37.
The first paper (Allen, pp.30-34) discusses requirements and prospects for
new non-traditional enterprises in Western Australia's wool belt areas. It
covers: floriculture; aquaculture; export hay; farm tourism; commercial
timber; horticulture; goats; deer; alpacas; emus; and ostriches. The second
paper (Stevens, pp.35-37) discusses the prospects of various options for
Western Australian wool growers: horticulture; beef cattle; goats; farm
tourism; kangaroo meat; emus; sandalwood; and dried quandong fruit (Santalum
acuminatum). Also discussed are ways of improving the performance of the wool
enterprise by means of improved ram and ewe selection, reproductive
management and clip preparation.
adjustment of production/ sheep farming/ diversification/ ancillary
enterprises/ production possibilities

4. Angel, CR. Research update: Age changes in digestibility of nutrients in
ostriches and nutrient profiles of status of the hen and chick. Proceedings
of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31
- September 4, 1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993
English; 17 ref.
A digestibility study was conducted with 3, 5, 10, 17 week old and 30 month
old ostriches. Metabolizable energy (ME) values and fat and neutral detergent
fiber (NDF) digestibilities were determined. The formulated ME of the diet
(chicken ME basis) was 1983 kcal/ kg. The determined values with ostriches
were: 3 weeks, 1731; 6 weeks, 2337; 10 weeks, 2684; 17 weeks, 2739; and 30
months, 2801 kcal/ kg. Fat digestibility was 44.1% at 3 weeks and 91.1% by 17
weeks of age. NDF digestibility was 6.5% at 3 weeks, 51% at 10 weeks and
61.6% at 30 months. Also, vitamin and mineral levels were determined in the
eggs of ostriches and emus and compared with poultry values. Deficiencies or
excesses of vatamins and/ or minerals in the laying hen, and thus in the egg,
can lead to infertility, poor hatchability and early chick health problems.
Specifics are described. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ nutrition/ nutrients/ digestibility/ fat/ neutral detergent fiber

5. Ayers J; Lester T; and Angulo A. An Epizootic Attributable To Western
Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection In Emus In Texas. Journal of the American
Veterinary Medical Association 1994; 205(4): 600-601.
An epizootic of encephalomyelitis attributable to western equine encephalitis
virus was identified in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) from several flocks
in western Texas in July 1992. Affected emus ranged from 3 months to 3 years
old. Morbidity of emus in 8 flocks ranged from 15 to 50%, and 17 of 193
(8.8%) emus died. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation and
characterization of the causative virus and detection of antibody to the
virus in emus that were currently ill and emus that had been ill but
recovered. Clinical signs varied from mild to severe and included anorexia,
lethargy with sternal recumbency, ataxia, muscle tremors, head tilt,
unnatural positioning of the head on the back, acute onset of paralysis, and
lateral recumbency with paddling. A few emus died without prior evidence of
clinical disease. Postmortem examination revealed 3 to 5 ml of clear
pale-yellow pericardial fluid that contained a fibrin clot. Volume of the
contents of the proventriculus and ventriculus were less than anticipated.
Microscopic examination of numerous tissues revealed multifocal vasculitis
with infiltration of plasmacytes, lymphocytes, and a few heterophilic
leukocytes. The epizootic developed during a period of unseasonably heavy
rainfall that resulted in higher numbers of mosquitoes than was typical for
that season of year. A concurrent increase in the number of horses with
encephalomyelitis attributable to western equine encephalities virus was not
reported. [References: 5]
Emus/ Arboviruses/ Encephalitis virus/ Western equine/ Encephalomyelitis

6. Baccetti B; Burrini A; and Falchetti E. Spermatozoa and relationships in
Palaeognath birds. Biology of the Cell 1991; 71(1-2): 209-16.
In this paper the authors describe the ultrastructure of the mature
spermatozoon and the spermatid in Struthio camelus and Dromaius
novaehollandiae. The first species is characterized by a rod-like
perforatorium within an endonuclear canal in the anterior third of the
nucleus, while the second is characterized by an extremely reduced completely
extranuclear perforatorium. Other differences are in the sperm dimensions,
the number of mitochondria and the length of the axonemal accessory fibers.
Considering both the present data and previous findings, Palaeognath birds
appear to be a peculiar and monophyletic group, characterized by: 1), a
conical acrosome surrounding the nucleus; 2), a fibrous sheath around most of
the axoneme; and 3), an elongated distal centriole occupying the entire
midpiece. Within this group, Tinamiformes seem to be more primitive than
Struthioniformes. In the latter order Dromaius is distinctly different from
the reduced Struthio and Rhea which are closely related to one another by the
presence of a rod-like endonuclear perforatorium.
Birds/ Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/ Spermatogenesis/ Spermatids
ultrastructure/ Spermatozoa ultrastructure

7. Barman N; Sharma R; Chakraborty A; Saikia G; Hussain A; and Boro B.
Bacterial and fungal flora of zoo birds. Indian-Journal-of-Animal-Sciences
1994; 64(3): 266-269.
9 ref
Assam/ India/ aviary birds/ zoo animals/ Nyticorax nyticorax/ Ardeidae/
Ciconiiformes/ Cygnus atratus/ Anser indicus/ budgerigars/ Dendrocitta
vagabunda/ emus/ Acridotheres tristis/ Anthropoides virgo/ Gruidae/
Casuarius casuarius/ Corvidae/ Cuculus canorus/ Cuculidae/ turkeys/
peafowls/ ostriches/ Monasa/ Bucconidae/ Piciformes/ Anseridae/
Aspergillus fumigatus/ Candida krusei/ Escherichia coli/ Salmonella/
Citrobactera/ Edwardsiella/ Pasteurella/ Proteus/ Enterococcus/
bacterial diseases/ mycoses/ hosts 

8. Bermudez A; Johnson G; Vanier M; Schroder M; Suzuki K; Stogsdill P;
Johnson G; O'brien D; Moore C; and Fry W. Gangliosidosis in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(2): 292-303.
English; 16 ref.
A 6-month-old female emu (Dromaius novaebollandiae) died following acute
central nervous system signs. Hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections revealed
that neurons of the brain were distended with nonstaining 1-to-2-mu m
vacuoles. Ultrastructural examination of the affected neurons revealed
numerous membranous cytoplasmic bodies (MCBs) similar in appearance to the
MCBs seen in mammalian gangliosidoses. A full sibling of this emu was donated
for study. This 7-month-old female emu was stunted compared with hatchmates.
Neurologic examination revealed hypermetric gait, persistent head tremor and
mild ataxia. No gross lesions were evident at postmortem. Histopathologic and
electron microscopic findings were similar to those in the index case in that
swollen, pale neurons were present in the cerebrum, pons, medulla,
cerebellum, spinal cord, spinal ganglia, autonomic ganglia, myenteric plexus,
and ganglion cell layer of the retina. Analysis of brain gangliosides of the
affected 7-month-old emu revealed 14- and 25-fold increases of GM1 and GM3
gangliosides, respectively, compared with control emus. The total brain
ganglioside sialic acids were, on a wet weight basis, 519 mu g/ g (control
A), 658 mu g/ g (control B), and 1800 mu g/ g (affected emu). The familial
association seen with this condition suggests that emus are affected by an
inherited disorder similar to mammalian gangliosidoses. (Author's abstract)
emus/ gangliosidosis

9. Blue-McLendon, A. Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in emus. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 326-327. 
English; 3 ref.; 9603
Cerebrospinal nematodes were diagnosed in emus in 1991 in birds located in
the Gulf Coast Region of Texas. Only emu chicks that hatched in the spring of
1991 were affected. Chandlerella quiscali, a filarid nematode that normally
affects grackle birds was found in the brain and spinal cord of the affected
emu chicks. (Author's abstract)
emus/ parasites

10. Blue-McLendon, A, Ambrus, S, Graham, D, and Craig, T. An outbreak of
cerebral nematodiasis in emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife
Veterinarians Annual Conference; November 15-19, 1992; Oakland.
[Philadelphia]: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; [1992] 191-192. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
Discusses an outbreak, June 1991 in Texas, of cerebral nematodiasis in emus
between 2 and t months of age. The nematodes were found in histological
sections of the brain and spinal cord. The filarids found in the emu chicks
were determined to be Chandlurella quiscali.
emus/ cerebral nematodiasis/ Chandlurella quiscali

11. Brown T; Roberts W; and Page R. Acute hemorrhagic enterocolitis in
ratites: Isolation of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and reproduction
of the disease in ostriches and turkey poults. Avian Diseases 1993; 37(2):
English;12 ref.
Two emus died with acute hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Eastern equine
encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus was isolated in Vero cells from non-pooled
samples of brain and intestine. Enterocolitis with splenic and hepatic
necrosis was reproduced by intramuscular or oral inoculation of this isolate
in two ostriches and three turkey poults. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus/ turkeys

12. Budras K; Hullinger R; Rautenfeld D von; and Berens von Rautenfeld D.
Lymph heart musculature in birds. Journal-of-Morphology 1987; 191(1): 77-87.
37 ref., 3 pl
The lymph heart is a paired organ located dorsal to the transverse process of
the first two free caudal vertebrae. They propel lymph in the embryo, and
this function persists in adults of many species. They degenerate in fowl,
and are only vestigial in pigeon (corpora lymphospongiosa phalli). The
authors examined domestic duck and goose, also emu and rhea. Muscle cells
differed in structure from myocardial and skeletal muscle cells, and most
closely resembled smooth muscle. Innervation of the lymph heart is described.
Tissue ultrastructure/ Duck/ Goose/ Lymphatic system/ Bird/ Lymph heart/
Muscle tissue/ Ultrastructure 

13. Budras K and Meier U. The epididymis and its development in ratite birds
(ostrich, emus, rhea). Anatomy and Embryology 1981; 162(3): 281-299.
English; 37 ref; 9603
The epididymis of ratitae is subdivided into a main part and an appendix
epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis consists of the ductus aberrans and
ductuli aberrantes. The ductus aberrans is the cranial continuation of the
ductus epididymidis. The appendix epididymidis is cranially attached to the
adrenal gland. In the main part of the epididymis the largest part of the
rete testis is found.
The rete testis is composed of an intratesticular rete (also named tubuli
recti), an intracapsular rete (with a longitudinal cistern and a true rete),
and an extratesticular rete (predominantly consisting of approximately 20
longitudinal channels). The rete testis develops most likely embryonally from
buds of the glomerular capsules of the mesonephros. The ductuli efferentes
proximales also arise from these capsules, while the ductuli efferentes
distales develop from the proximal and distal tubules and
intermediate-segments of the mesonephros. The ductus epididymidis originates
from the Wolffian duct and meanders dorsolaterally through the epididymis.
ostriches/ rheas/ emus/ epididymis

14. Budras K; Weyrauch K; and Marks G. Mesonephric origin of steroid-hormone
producing interrenal nodi in the epididymis of the Emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C 1987; 16(3):
German; 9 ref
Blastocytes of interrenal noduli separate postnatally from the vascular pole
of mesonephric corpuscles; the latter neither have contact to the rete testis
nor are transformed into ductuli efferentes distales, but degenerate. In the
epididymis, the blastocytes transform into nodi interrenales reaching 3 mm in
diameter. Light- and electron microscopic results and the detection of
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and steroid dehydrogenase suggest that
these nodi produce a steroid hormone. (Author's abstract)
Male genitalia/ Dromaius novahollandiae/ Casuariiformes/ Tissue
ultrastructure/ Birds/ Epididymis 

15. Bush M; Locke D; Neal L; and Carpenter J. Pharmacokinetics of cephalothin
and cephalexin in selected avian species. American Journal of Veterinary
Research 1981; 42(6): 1014-1017.
English; 17 ref; 9601
Plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and
cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes were studied. The
species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus v virginianus), pigeons
(Columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp), greater sandhill cranes
(Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). In the 1st
phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given IM in a dose of 100 mg/ kg
of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (mean 18 mu g/ ml) at 0.5
hour and were measureable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The
biological half-life of cephalothin was 16 to 54 minutes; the half-life
varied directly with increased species body weight, with the exception of the
ducks studied. In the 2nd phase, cephalexin monohydrate was given orally in
doses of 25, 35 and 50 mg/ kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached
peak (av.20 mu g/ ml) at 0.5 to 1 hour and were measurable 2.5-5.5 hours
after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalexin was 36 to
126 minutes. In the 3rd phase, differences in plasma concentrations and the
half-lives of cephalexin between fed quail and fasted quail were
insignificant. Dosage regimens for cephalothin of 100 mg/ kg 4 times a day,
and for cephalexin of 35 to 50 mg/ kg 4 times a day would be expected to
establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in large birds
(pigeons, cranes, and emus). These same doses, administered every 2 to 3
hours, would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma
concentrations in smaller birds (quail, ducks). (Author's abstract)
emus/ pharmacolokinetics/ antibiotics/ cephalosporins/ cephalothin/

16. Busse, A. Role of the primordial kidney in the prenatal development of
the interrenal organ in the emu.: Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin der Freien
Universitat Berlin; 1985. 101pp.
8pp. of ref., 28 fig. 
Birds/ Struthioniformes/ Thesis/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Embryonic
development/ Kidney 

17. Buttemer W and Dawson T. Body temperature, water flux and estimated
energy expenditure of incubating emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology, A Comparative Physiology 1989; 94(1): 21-24.
19 ref
Body temperature of incubating male emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) varied
less than that of non-incubating birds and was on average 37.8C throughout
the 56-day incubation period. Rate of water efflux of incubating birds was
less than half of that estimated for non-incubating, water-deprived emus at
the same season. Based on changes in body mass during their incubation fast,
the daily energy expenditure of incubating emus is about 60% of the daily
minimal metabolism expected for inactive non-passerine birds of the same
Energy exchange/ incubation/ emus 

18. Campodonico, P and Masson, C. Breeding and production of ratites .
Maisons-Alfort, France: CIRAD-EMVT; 1992; 98 pp. 
French; 117 ref. 
The plumage, body weight, conformation and voice patterns of the ostrich,
cassowary, rhea and emu and the natural habitats of these birds are
described. Details are given of behaviour, diseases, nutrition, reproductive
season and performance in captivity, AI, laying performance, incubation,
hatching and management, breeding history and the production of feathers,
meat, skins, eggs and cooking oil. Their potential for use as a tourist
attraction is discussed, and economic aspects are considered.
plumage/ body weight/ reproduction/ meat production/ behaviour/ management/
ostriches/ cassowaries/ rheas/ emus/ tropics/ breeding/ animal production/
ratites/ production 

19. Campodonico P and Masson C. Nutrition and reproduction of ostriches. 3.
Nutrition. Bulletin des G.T.V. 1990; (No. 4): 73-76.
Recommendations are given for the nutrition of the 4 main struthioniformes in
captivity (ostrich, rhea, emu and cassowary) based on information from 52
zoos worldwide followed by examples of diets provided in ostrich farms.
Struthionidae/ nutrition/ Ostriches 

20. Campodonico P and Masson C. Ostrich husbandry. Bulletin des G.T.V. 1990;
(No. 2 ): 59-73.
The first part of this series on ostrich husbandry summarizes knowledge on
the geographical distribution of ostriches, emus, rheas and cassowaries,
their adaptability to captivity, diseases and parasites and their treatment,
and anaesthesia.
anaesthesia/ anthelmintics/ drug therapy/ parasitoses/ ostriches/ diseases/
Struthioniformes/ birds/ parasites/ general account

21. Carter S. Poultry researchers turn attention to ratites. Small Farm Today
1994; 11(4): 42-44.
ostriches/ rhea/ emus/ animal husbandry/ animal breeding/ agricultural

22. Caughley G and Grice D. A correction factor for counting emus from the
air and its application to counts in Western Australia. Australian Wildlife
Research 1982; 9(2): 253-260.
The authors used the mathematics of the mark-recapture model to derive a
factor correcting counts of emus (Dromaeus novaehollandiae ) surveyed from
the air. The emus were neither marked nor recaptured, the correction factor
being derived from the number of emu groups counted independently by two
observers simultaneously scanning the same transect. The analysis suggests
that about 68% of emu groups on the transect are counted by a given observer
during a standard survey, and that his counts must therefore be multiplied by
1 multiplied by 47 before they estimate true density of groups. Having
determined independently the mean size of emu groups as 3 multiplied by 75 at
that time of the year, we applied this factor to counts from a survey of
1,480,000 km super(2) in Western Australia. Overall density was 0 multiplied
by 074 emus km super(-2), being highest in the pastoral zone at 0 multiplied
by 103 km super(-2) and lowest in unoccupied land at 0 multiplied by 008 km
super(-2). The difference probably reflects availability of drinking water.
emus/ Australia/ surveys/ abundance/ Dromaeus novaehollandiae/ methodology

23. Chakravarty I. A case history of mycotic infection (aspergillosis) in an
emu (Dromiceius novaehollandies) in Delhi zoo. Indian Veterinary Journal
1976; 53(11): 881-882.
English; 6 ref; 9601
The case is presented of a female emu with congestion of the lungs, pleural
and adjoining thoracic muscles studded with numerous whitish nodules and
darkened and slightly enlarged liver at post-mortem. Histopathology revealed
Mycoses/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ Aspergillus/ Fungi/ Birds/
Struthioniformes/ Aspergillus on emu/ emu

24. Clench M and Mathias J. The Avian Cecum - A Review. Wilson Bulletin 1995;
107(1): 93-121.
English Review
The ceca, intestinal outpocketings of the gut, are described, classified by
types, and their occurrence surveyed across the Order Aves. Correlation
between cecal size and systematic position is weak except among closely
related species. With many exceptions, herbivores and omnivores tend to have
large ceca, insectivores and carnivores are variable, and piscivores and
graminivores have small ceca. Although important progress has been made in
recent years, especially through the use of wild birds under natural (or
quasi-natural) conditions rather than studying domestic species in captivity,
much remains to be learned about cecal functioning. Research on periodic
changes in galliform and anseriform cecal size in response to dietary
alterations is discussed. Studies demonstrating cellulose digestion and
fermentation in ceca, and their utilization and absorption of water,
nitrogenous compounds, and other nutrients are reviewed. We also note
disease-causing organisms that may be found in ceca. The avian cecum is a
multi-purpose organ, with the potential to act in many different ways-and
depending on the species involved, its cecal morphology, and ecological
conditions, cecal functioning can be efficient and vitally important to a
bird's physiology, especially during periods of stress.

25. Clifford H and Monteith G. A three phase seed dispersal mechanism in
Australian quinine bush (Petalostigma pubescens Domin). Biotropica 1989;
21(3): 284-286.
6 ref
P. pubescens is a tree 5-6 m tall that occurs across northern Australia and
into Papua New Guinea. Its fruits are eaten by emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). During passage through the bird, the fleshy exocarp is
removed and the stony endocarp is voided in the faeces. As the faeces dry
out, the endocarp explodes, flinging its segments and seeds a considerable
distance. The seeds bear an ant-attracting elaiosome and are carried off by
ants. Following agricultural activity, the emu has been displaced from most
of SE Queensland and so the dispersal of P. pubescens may be severely
Broadleaves/ Petalostigma pubescens/ seed dispersal/ Seeds/ EMUS/ Birds/
ecology/ Dromaius/ Australia/ Queensland/ seed characteristics/

26. Coddington C and Cockburn A. The Mating System Of Free Living Emus.
Australian Journal Of Zoology 1995; 43(4): 365-372.
English; 9601
Despite their pivotal role in interpretation of the complex mating systems of
the ratites, the mating system of free living emus (dromaius novaehollandiae)
has not been characterised. here we report observations on an introduced but
free ranging population of emus at tidbinbilla nature reserve in the
australian capital territory. emus combined monogamy, polyandry and
promiscuity. all initially unpaired males paired with and incubated a clutch
for females whose primary mates were preoccupied with incubation. however,
females were also promiscuous, and most copulations we observed were extra
pair. females fight vigorously among themselves for access to unpaired males.
coupled with observations on cassowaries, these data suggest that there is no
simple correlation between habitat (grassland/ forest) and the mating system
in ratites. instead, the resolution of the complex conflicts of interest
between the sexes appears to determine the predominant mating systems
exhibited by a species.
Island brown kiwi/ apteryx australis mantelli/ organization

27. Costa N; Mcdonald D; and Swan R. Age-Related-Changes in Plasma
Biochemical Values of Farmed Emus (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Australian
Veterinary Journal 1993; 70(9): 341-344.
English Article
Blood samples were collected from 40 emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) of 4
different age groups ranging from 1 week to 14 months. Plasma values of
glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase,
aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and
magnesium were measured. Fourteen-month-old birds had lower plasma glucose
values and enzyme activities and higher plasma protein values than younger
birds. One-week-old birds had higher cholesterol and uric acid values than
other age groups. Plasma calcium, phosphorus and magnesium values did not
differ across the age profiles sampled.

28. Cracraft J. Phylogeny and evolution of the ratite birds. Ibis 1974;
116(4): 494-521.
English; 95 ref.
Postulated evolutionary trends by the author (using skeletal characters) are
used to construct a theory of relationships. The author used the premise that
phylogenetic affinity can be demonstrated only by shared character-states and
that primitive character-states held in common by different taxa provide no
information. Character analysis - evolutionary trends in the palaeognath
skeleton - looked at cranial and postcranial characters. (KL)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ cassowaries/ rheas/ kiwis/ tinamous

29. Craig-Schmidt M; Brown A; and Smith P. Unlocking the emu oil mystery:
findings could boost alternative agriculture industry. Highlights of
Agricultural Research, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 1994; 41(4):
A discussion of emu production in USA and the quality of emu meat, with
emphasis on fat composition. There are about 500 000 emus on about 10 000
ranches in the USA. Oil from the emu has cosmetic uses and there are
potential therapeutic/ pharmaceutical applications.
oils/ animal production

30. Crawford M. The oldest birds, the newest agribusiness. Small Farm Today
1992; 9(4): 36.
ostriches/ emus/ rhea/ livestock enterprises/ agribusiness

31. Crome F. Some observations on the biology of the Cassowary in northern
Queensland. Emu 1976; 76: 8-14.

32. Davies S. Emus. Australian Natural History 1963; 14: 225-229.

33. Davies, SJJF. The natural history of the emu in comparison with that of
the other ratites. Proceedings of the 16th International Ornithological
Congress Canberra: Australian Academy of Science; 1976 109-120. 

34. Dawson T and Herd R. Digestion in the emu: low energy and nitrogen
requirements of this large ratite bird. Comparative Biochemistry and
Physiology, A 1983; 75(1): 41-45.
English; 27 ref; 9601
Maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy was 284 kJ/ kg0.75 daily and
maintenance requirement for nitrogen was 0.09 g/ kg0.75 daily for 4 adult
emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 2 to 4 years old weighing 28 to 48 kg.
energy requirements/ nitrogen/ requirements/ birds 

35. Dawson T; Herd R; and Skadhauge E. Osmotic and ionic regulation during
dehydration in a large bird, the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): an important
role for the cloaca-rectum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology
1985; 70(3): 423-436.
38 ref
Water deprivation/ Urine/ Water metabolism/ Electrolytes/ Struthioniformes
/ Dehydration/ Kidney physiology

36. Degen A; Duke G; and Reynhout J. Gastroduodenal Motility and Glandular
Stomach Function in Young Ostriches. Auk 1994; 111(3): 750-755.
English Note

37. Drenowatz, C, Editor. The ratite encyclopedia: Ostrich, emu, rhea. 1st
ed. San Antonio: Ratite Records; 1995; 478 pp. 
English; bibliography at back for some chapters; 9606
Covers a wide variety of subjects written by researchers, veterinarians and
ranchers. Subjects covered: history and geography (C. Drenowatx, J. Sales,
D.V. Sarasqueta and A. Weilbrenner); anatomy of ostriches, emus & rheas
(B.A. Hopkins and G.M. Constantinescu); ratite genetics (B. Gallaway, J.C.
Patton, K. Coldwell and W. Sealey); ratite reproduction (P.C. Smith); the
ratite egg (D.C. Deeming); incubation & hatching (J. Brake and B.
Rosseland); candling (L. Kinder); ostrich breeder management (S. Barron);
ostrich chick rearing (S. Dunn); ostrich meat (C. Morris); ostrich feathers
(J. Sales); emu breeder management (V. Brackett); emu chick rearing (P.
Jodoin); working emus (K. Robinson); emu meat (L. Thompson); emu oil (S.
Birkbeck); raising rheas (M.L. Stropes and C. Ramsey); free-range rheas (K.
Bader); rhea oil (D. Fezler); ratite meat (H. Schmeider, W.J. Stadelman, R.L.
Adams, R.F. Ghiselli, K.W. McMillin and J. Berry); farm design and layout (S.
Flowers and R. Gurss); transportation and handling (L. Hague); microchip
identification (J.R. Wade and J.A. Mayhall); diseases of ratites (A. Raines);
working with your veterinarian (T. Coble); basic nutrition of ratites (D.H.
Sigler); biosecurity (R. Terry); record-keeping & managment (C. Elrod);
insurance (A. Fairly); tax considerations (W.G. Miller and D.L. Sisson); and
legal aspects (J.W. Ledbetter).
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ meat/ feathers/ oil/ chicks/ housing/
farming/ nutrition/ eggs/ incubation/ hatching/ reproduction/ genetics/
diseases/ record keeping

38. Drew, M. Ostrich medicine and surgery: The basics. California and Nevada
Veterinary Medical Associations' Joint Scientific Seminar and Exposition;
October 25-27, 1991; Reno, Nevada. 325-357. 
Gives a general description of ostriches (4 subspecies), emu, rhea (2
species) and cassowary (3 species). Discusses ostrich management including
nutrition, management of adults, hatchery and incubation management, and
chick managment. Clinical medicine for ratites is reviewed with discussion of
restraint and anesthesia, hematology and serum chemistry, pediatrics,
reproductive disease and problems, sexing, parasitic diseases, viral
diseases, bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, traumatic injuries, abdominal
surgery, and orthopedics. Tables on- 1) Incubation and hathcer environmental
condition recommendation; 2) Drugs and dosages for ratite immoblization; 3)
Hematology for ostriches; 4) Serum chemistry for ostriches; and 5) Serum
chemistry values for emus. There is an extensive bibliography.
Ostriches/ Emus/ Rheas/ Cassowaries/ Ratites/ Hematology/ Serum chemistry/
Ostrich management/ Parasitic diseases/ Viral diseases/ Bacterial Diseases/
Traumatic injuries/ Fungal diseases/ Surgery/ Pediatrics/ Immoblization

39. Duewer L; Madison M; and Christensen L. The 'exotic' sector: ostriches
and emus. Agricultural Outlook 1994; (AO-208): 15-17.
Raising flightless birds not native to the USA is still an exotic
agricultural enterprise. However, the raising of these birds, mostly
ostriches and emus, for feathers, hides, and meat is growing. In the USA, the
ostrich industry began to expand in 1985, with between 40 000 and 60 000
currently being farmed. Most of the farms are in Texas and California, but
there is at least one farm in every state. Emu numbers in the USA range from
75 000 to 100 000 on 5000 farms located mainly in Texas. The ostrich and emu
industries are now in the breeder phase of development. In this phase, the
price paid for birds reflects continued high prices for breeding stock rather
than the value of meat, hides, feathers or oil. When a sufficiently large
number of breeding animals is developed or new investors are no longer
available, breeding stock prices are likely to decrease.
plumage birds/ hides and skins/ meat/ emus/ ostriches/ production/ trends
/ USA 

40. Fezler D. Rhea oil: The most versatile and useful product of the Rhea
americana. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12): 53,55.
Lists five potential uses for the oil: nutritional supplementation, machining
cutting fluid, leather conditioning and penetrating oil, cosmetics and
analgesic, anti-inflammatory product. Discusses the refining challenge,
grades, processing and properties of rhea oil. Table of grades and potential
uses. Graph of fatty acid comparison of rhea and emu oil.
rheas/ emus/ rhea oil/ emu oil

41. Fiedler H and Perron R. Yew Poisoning in Australian Emus
(Dromaius-Novaehollandiae, Latham). Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche
Wochenschrift 1994; 107(2): 50-52.
German Article
Six, four month old, captive bred emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were found
dead in their pen without any previous indications of illness. Postmortem
examination revealed the cause of death to be taxine poisoning after
ingestion of leaves and green berries from a Yew bush (Taxus baccata) growing
outside the perimeter fencing but encroaching through the wire. After
longstanding access to the Yew bush, an unidentified stimulus prompted these
young birds to sample this toxic plant. Pathological findings included
changes in the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and most parts of the digestive
system as would be expected from the quoted sources concerning taxine
poisoning in other species. Considering the varied artificial environments in
which taxa are kept and the relative infrequency of autopsies carried out on
birds, the incidence of taxine poisoning in avian species is considered to be
probably much higher than that evidenced by reference to the published

42. Fischer F. General Pattern and Morphological Specializations of the Avian
Cochlea. Scanning Microscopy 1994; 8(2): 351-364.
English Review
In different bird species, there is a common pattern in the hair-cell
morphology and innervation of the basilar papilla; the absolute values,
however, are species-specific, In the barn-owl papilla, an extreme being
case, the basal high-frequency part of the papilla is greatly expanded. In
this behaviorally most important frequency range of the barn owl, the number
of afferent nerve terminals to neural hair cells is extensively increased.
Instead of about 2 afferent terminals as in other species, up to 20 afferents
are present. In the bird species studied (chicken, starling, emu, barn owl),
the area of the afferent nerve terminals correlates well with the best
hearing range. There is a continuous transition from neural to abneural, and
from apical to basal in the morphological hair cell parameters. Thus, the
only precise and functionally relevant classification of avian hair-cell
types (tall hair cells versus short hair cells) must be based on whether the
hair cells have an afferent innervation or not. The differentiation of the
evolutionarily-new short-hair-cell type is apparently essential in the
high-frequency area of the papilla. This probably functionally supportive
type has lost its afferent innervation; its function must therefore be within
the papilla itself.
Bird/ Chicken/ Barn Owl/ Emu/ Starling/ Hair Cell/ Basilar Papilla/

43. Fowler J; Bauck L; Cribb P; and Presnell K. Surgical correction of
tibiotarsal rotation in an emu. Companion Animal Practice 1987; 1(5): 26-30.
6 ref
Aviary birds/ Zoo animals/ Struthioniformes/ Surgery 

44. Fowler, ME. Clinical anatomy of ratites. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992;
New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 307-309. 
English; 1 ref.; 9603
Avian practitioners may be asked to provide medical care for numerous species
of birds. Ratites (ostrich, emu, rhea, cassowary and kiwi) have become
popular in private ownership during the past few years. A ratite-rearing
industry provides an alternative to other livestock enterprises.
Practitioners should have a basic understanding of ratite anatomy in order to
protect themselves from the bird's offensive and defensive blows with the
feet, and to understand how to collect laboratory samples, administer
medication, evaluate radiographs, perform surgery and distinguish between
normal and abnormal organs at necropsy. A limited amount of material can be
covered in this presentation; for more information refer to reference 1.
(Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ anatomy

45. Fowler M. Comparative clinical anatomy of ratites. Journal of Zoo and
Wildlife Medicine 1991; 22(2): 204-227.
English; 38 ref
Ratites, particularly the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae), have become popular as livestock. This paper provides a
single source of information based on the author's dissections of the
ostrich, emu, and rhea (Rhea americana), selected data accumulated from
museum specimens, and additional information extracted from the literature.
The musculoskeletal, digestive, and reproductive systems are emphasized
because of their importance in clinical medicine and management of these
animals. All ratites have heavily muscled legs for running and defence
against enemies. Unique characteristics are a noncarinate sternum and lack of
breast muscles. Stomach and intestinal morphology is highly variable among
the families represented. All male ratites have an intromittent organ
(phallus), and ostrich and emu females have a diminutive organ.
Apterygiformes/ Rheiformes/ Casuariformes/ Rhea/ Struthioniformes/ ostriches/
anatomy/ emu 

46. Frapple P and Hagan R. Taking the emu to market. Journal of Agriculture
1992; 33(3): 91-94.
emus/ hides and skins/ meat/ marketing/ blacks/ poultry farming/ carcass
composition/ food processing/ meat quality/ western australia

47. Frolka, J. Aetiology of perosis in the emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae).
Ippen, R. and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht
des XXIV. Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere ; 19.
Mai bis 23. Mai 1982; Veszprem. Berlin, German Democratic Republic:
Akademie-Verlag Berlin; 1982 77-90. 
34 ref
Birds/ Bone diseases/ Nutritional disorders/ Mineral metabolism disorders/
Amino acids/ Nutritional deficiency/ Avian perosis/ Struthioniformes/ Zoo

48. Frolka, J and Zavadil, R. Infection with nematodes of the genus
Cyathostoma in emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae) and cranes (Grus antigone).
Ippen R and Schroder HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere. Verhandlungsbericht des
XXIII Internationalen Symposiums uber die Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 24-28
Juni, 1981; Halle-Saale.; 1981 215-224. 
German; 14 ref; 9601
Emus have been bred successfully at the Lesna zoo in Czechoslovakia since the
early 1930's. Cyathostoma infections have built up over the years and
affected animals may die of suffocation if anthelmintic treatment is not
given in time. Thiabendazole at 200 mg/ kg body-weight for 3 days at the
first appearance of symptoms, and repeated after 21 to 28 days in heavy
infections, prevented death of young birds. In 1980, 18 emus born between
February and May showed first symptoms in June. They received four 3-day
treatments of 15 mg/ kg mebendazole (Mebenvet-granulate 10%) in that year,
and some were cured after each treatment. Following the last treatment in
November of all 18, no more infections were noted. Similar infections
occurred in cranes. Single treatment with 30 or 40 mg Nilverm within 48 h of
the appearance of symptoms did not give full control and did not prevent all
deaths. In 1978, thiabendazole (200 mg/ kg) in July and repeated in August
was fully effective. In 1980 thiabendazole treatment proved unsatisfactory
and mebendazole was used.
DRUG THERAPY/ anthelmintics/ mebendazole/ thiabendazole/ Helminths/
Respiratory diseases/ zoo animals/ parasites/ Cyathostoma/ Birds/ Nematoda/
Struthioniformes/ Gruiformes/ Grus antigone/ Dromiceius novaehollandiae/ zoo/
tetramisole hydrochloride

49. Gallatin L. Factors affecting decisions regarding alternative
agricultural enterprises by farmers and ranchers in Oklahoma.
Dissertation-Abstracts-International.-A,-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences 1990;
50(9): 2756.
Thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1989, 118pp., available from University
Microfilms, Inc
A telephone survey was conducted with Oklahoma farmers and ranchers
concerning their perceptions and concepts of alternative agricultural
enterprises. The first group included 383 farmers and ranchers stratified
proportionally in four districts, in order to be able to generalize the
findings statewide. The second group included farmers and ranchers that were
identified as being involved in some type of alternative agricultural
enterprise. The study was intended to provide information regarding (1)
interest and/ or involvement in alternative agricultural enterprises; (2)
types of alternative enterprises producers have adopted; (3) profitability of
enterprises as rated by Oklahoma alternative agricultural producers; (4)
factors that encouraged or discouraged adoption of alternative agricultural
enterprises; (5) information sources used by farmers and ranchers and the
rated effectiveness of these sources; and (6) demographic information about
the two groups in the study. Oklahoma farmers and ranchers were found to have
interest or involvement in alternative agricultural enterprises in all areas.
Enterprises most often identified were: tomatoes, sweetcorn, squash, okra,
green beans, cucumbers, peppers, peaches, watermelons, cantaloupe, apples,
strawberries, pecans, Christmas trees, Angora goats, and catfish. Those
enterprises rated most profitable were mushrooms, sesame, trout, alligators,
emu, dogs and feed production. The genuine desire to produce the commodity
and high potential for profit were the encouraging factors most often
mentioned. Most often noted as discouraging factors were high start up costs
and markets. Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets and other farmers were the
information sources most often used by adopters. The alternative agricultural
group had an average of 2.7 alternative agricultural enterprises per
Information services/ Profitability/ Constraints/ Diversification/ farm
surveys/ farmers' attitudes/ USA/ Oklahoma/ Sweetcorn 

50. Gaukrodger D. The emu at home. Emu 1925; 25: 53-57.

51. Gilsleider E. Ratite Orthopedics. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet
Medicine 1994; 3(2): 81-91.
English Article
Bones/ Developmental Diseases/ Emu/ Fractures/ Orthopedics/ Ostrich/ Ratite

52. Goltenboth R. Notes on the prophylaxis and therapy of diseases of birds
in zoos. Kleintier Praxis 1973; 18(1): 6-10.
German; 9601
The diseases of birds in zoos are reviewed. 4 emus infected with Syngamus
were successfully treated with thiabendazole (Thibenzol) at 200 mg/ kg
body-weight as a bolus. This eradicated the infection in 10 days. Stomach
worms in ducks, geese, toucans and turakos are treated with capsules
containing carbon tetrachloride (which is toxic) or with Concurat. The
treatment of tapeworm infections with "tapeworm capsules for hens"
(Vemie) is much less toxic.
helminths/ DRUG THERAPY/ control/ anthelmintics/ thiabendazole/ carbon
tetrachloride/ toxicity/ parasites/ birds/ zoo birds/ tetramisole

53. Grice D; Caughley G; and Short J. Density and distribution of emus.
Australian Wildlife Research 1985; 12(1): 69-73.
Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae ) are most abundant in areas used for
extensive sheep grazing. Their density is lower in grain-growing areas, lower
still in areas used for extensive cattle grazing, and lowest in those areas
that are not used for any commercial purpose (mainly deserts). This pattern
of emu density appears to be linked to climatic factors determining the
availability of food during breeding, to the availability of naturally
occurring and artificially stored surface water, and to the prevalence of
emus/ population density/ rangelands/ Australia/ food availability/ climatic
conditions/ food availability/ water availability

54. Griffiths G and Buller N. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in
semi-intensively farmed emus. Australian-Veterinary-Journal 1991; 68(3):
8 ref
During the June to July breeding seasons of 1988 and 1989 an outbreak of
disease with sudden death, slowness of movement, profuse, bright green
diarrhoea and dehydration affected emus reared on semi-intensive farms in
Western Australia. Emus 10-to-12 months-old and approaching sexual maturity
were affected but sporadic deaths occurred in adults on one farm. Mortality
was approximately 5% in affected groups. Gross PM lesions included
petechiation of fat covering abdominal walls and omentum, haemorrhagic
serosal surface of the gastro-intestinal tract and congested duodenum and
colon. The gizzard lining separated from the underlying haemorrhagic mucosa.
One mature female and pericarditis, perihepatitis and an enlarged congested
spleen. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed large numbers of
Gram-positive bacteria, sometimes with associated thromboemboli and focal
areas of necrosis in the wall of the proventriculus, small intestine and
colon and in blood vessels of the liver, kidney, lung and spleen. E.
rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung and
gut wall. Eight isolates were serotyped; serotype 21 was isolated from all 3
farms, serotype 1b from one farm. The mortalities ceased after the treatment
of affected birds with penicillin and the movement of flocks to larger
paddocks with more feeding and drinking points. The possibility that
management factors may have precipitated the outbreaks is discussed.
Bacterial diseases/ Diarrhoea/ Intensive husbandry/ Erysipelothrix
rhusiopathiae/ emus/ Australia/ birds 

55. Grimes J and Arizmendi F. Salmonella typhimurium aggllutinins in exotic
bird sera in the USA. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 1995;
7(2): 270.
English; 4 ref.; 9603
The survey was done to obtain additional data on psittacine bird sera
(previous survey published by the authors in 1992) and include other types of
exotic birds. Of the 17 ostriches tested, 1 tested positive. For emus there
were no positive tests (0/ 7). 
ostriches/ emus/ salmonella

56. . Order Casuariiformes Griner, LA. Pathology of Zoo Animals. [San Diego]:
Zoological Society of San Diego; 98-104. 
English; 0 ref; 9606
The book reviews necropsies performed over a fourteen-year period at the San
Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park. This chapter (9), gives a brief
overview of the two families (emus and cassowaries) of this order. Discusses
the findings of the necropsies and provides statistics in tables. Most emu
mortality, 94.4% occured in birds under six months of age. One table lists by
year (1966 to 1977) the sex and age of the 109 emus necropsied. A second
table indicates by year, conditions (aspergillosis, perosis, enteric
pathogens, omphalitis, and other) in emu neonates and perinates. Finally
there is a table on less common diseases in young emus. There is a discussion
under the headings: infectious diseases; and stress, trauma and malnutrition. 
For cassowaries, there is a table on diseases by species (double-wattled,
single-wattled, and Van Oort's double-wattled cassowary). There is a brief
discussion of the diseases.
emus/ cassowaries/ diseases

57. Grubb B. Use of ketamine to restrain and anesthetize emus. Veterinary
Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 1983; 78(2): 247-248.
English; 5 ref; 9601
Injectable anaesthetics/ Aviary birds/ Zoo animals/ anaesthesia/ ketamine/
Struthioniformes/ Dromiceius novaehollandiae

58. Grubb B; Jorgensen D; and Conner M. Cardiovascular changes in the
exercising emu. Journal of Experimental Biology 1983; 104: 193-201.
Cardiovascular variables were studied as a function of oxygen consumption in
the emu, a large, flightless ratite bird well suited to treadmill exercise.
At the highest level of exercise, the birds' rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)
was approximately 11.4 times the resting level (4.2 ml kg-1 min-1). Cardiac
output was linearly related to VO2, increasing 9.5 ml for each 1 ml increase
in oxygen consumption. The increase in cardiac output is similar to that in
other birds, but appears to be larger than in mammals. The venous oxygen
content dropped during exercise, thus increasing the arteriovenous oxygen
content difference. At the highest levels of exercise, heart rate showed a
3.9-fold increase over the resting rate (45.8 beats min-1). The mean resting
specific stroke volume was 1.5 ml per kg body mass, which is larger than
shown by most mammals. However, birds have larger hearts relative to body
mass than do mammals, and stroke volume expressed per gram of heart (0.18 ml
g-1) is similar to that for mammals. Stroke volume showed a 1.8-fold increase
as a result of exercise in the emus, but a change in heart rate plays a
greater role in increasing cardiac output during exercise.
Body Weight/ Heart physiology/ Organ Weight/ Oxygen blood/ Species
Specificity/ *Birds physiology/ *Blood Pressure/ *Cardiac Output/ *Exertion/
*Heart Rate/ *Oxygen Consumption

59. Herd R. Estimating food intake by captive emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae,
by means of sodium-22 turnover. Australian-Wildlife-Research 1985; 12(3):
21 ref
The rate of 22Na turnover was measured in 4 captive emus each fed on 3 diets.
There was a close relationship between 22Na turnover and the intake of
dietary sodium (r = 0.92), DM (r = 0.93), gross energy and metabolizable
energy (r = 0.94). DM intake, estimated from 22Na turnover, accounted for 89%
of the variation in actual DM intake, and suggested that 22Na turnover could
provide a reliable method for estimating food consumption by populations of
free-living emus. However, estimates of food consumed by individual animals
may not be reliable.
Feed intake/ Emus/ Estimation 

60. Herd R and Dawson T. Fiber digestion in the emu, Dromaius
novaehollandiae, a large bird with a simple gut and high rates of passage.
Physiological-Zoology 1984; 57(1): 70-84.
53 ref
The ability to digest plant fibre was examined in the emu, a large ratite
bird widely distributed in Australia. Emus digested between 35 and 45% of the
neutral- detergent fibre (NDF) in their diets (NDF content 26 to 36%).
Hemicellulose was more digestible than cellulose or lignin. The digestion and
metabolism of 14C- labelled cellulose and significant volatile fatty acid
production showed that fermentative digestion was involved in NDF digestion.
Energy from the digestion of NDF contributed up to 63% of the standard
metabolism and 50% of maintenance requirements for energy on the
highest-fibre diet. The considerable NDF digestion was achieved despite the
rate of passage of feed residues through the tract being rapid and the
gastrointestinal tract being simple in structure; the distal small intestine
(ileum) was the main site of fermentation. The mean retention time of the
fluid phase of the diet in 11 emus was 4.1 +/ - 0.2 h and that of the
particulate phase was 5.5 +/ - 0.4 h. The ability of the emu to digest and
metabolize plant fibre may assist its survival during periods of decreased
food quality and abundance in the interior of Australia.
Birds/ Digestion/ Fibre/ Australia 

61. Hicks, KD. Ratite reproduction. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of
the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans.
Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 318-325. 
English; 0 ref.; 9603
This paper focuses on an overview of ratite reproduction including: behavior,
anatomy, physiology, productivity, the egg, reproductive failure,
reproductive disease and incubation. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ ratites/ reproduction/ anatomy/ physiology/ disease

62. Hines MI; Styer E; Baldwin C; and Cole JJ. Combined adenovirus and
rotavirus entiritis with Escherichia coli septicemia in an emu chick
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(3): 646-651.
English; 20 ref.
A 2-week-old emu chick (Dromaius novaehollandiae) of approximately 200 g body
weight was presented for necropsy with a history of weakness, diarrhea,
pallor of the head, and acute death. Hemorrhagic enteritis with mild
hepatomegaly was noted on gross examination. Microscopic examination revealed
necrohemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional intranuclear basophilic viral
inclusion bodies in intestinal epithelia cells; splenic lymphoid necrosis and
fibrin exudation; hepatocellular vacuolar change; and multiple clusters of
small gram-negative bacilli in the liver, spleen, yolk sac, and intestine.
Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained fecal specimens and
thin sectins of small intestine revealed clusters of viral particles
consistent with adenovirus and rotavirus. Attempts at viral isolation from
pooled tissue speicimens were unsuccessful. Escherichia coli was isolated
from specimens of liver and intestine and from an abdominal swab.
emus/ hemorrhagic enteritis/ septicemia/ adenovirus/ rotavirus/ Escherichia

63. Hirsch K and Grau C. Yolk formation and oviposition in captive emus.
Condor 1981; 83(4): 381-382.
English; 15 ref.; 9603
Found that there was a delay in the total time of egg formation. Yolk was
deposited for 26 days with the eggs laid 10 days later. They were not able to
determine whether the delay in egg formation was due to holding the mature
ovum within the follicle (delaying ovulation) or slow passage through the
oviduct. (KL)
emus/ eggs

64. Honnas C; Jensen J; Bluemclendon A; Zamos D; and Light G. Surgical
treatment of egg retention in emus. Journal of the American Veterinary
Medical Association 1993; 203(10): 1445-1447.
6 ref
A surgical technique was developed for management of retained eggs in emus.
Clinical signs associated with egg retention included cessation of laying
activity or failure to lay eggs, lethargy, anorexia, straining, and passing
egg material, and diagnosis was made by external palpation, abdominal
radiography, and ultrasonography. The retained eggs were removed through a
paramedian abdominal incision in all birds. One bird was killed at surgery
because of severe peritonitis resulting from uterine rupture at the side of
obstruction by the retained egg. Three birds survived and were discharged
from the hospital to the owners. Egg peritonitis resulting from eggs or egg
remnants in the abdominal cavity was evident in the birds that survived
surgery. Surgery and administration of antimicrobials were successful in
resolving the peritonitis.
birds/ poultry diseases/ female genital diseases/ postoperative
complications/ peritonitis/ egg production/ emus/ retention/ surgery of
poultry/ egg retention/ surgery 

65. Houde P. Ostrich ancestors found in the Northern Hemisphere suggest new
hypothesis of ratite origins. Nature 1986; 324(6097): 563-565.
English; 18 ref.; 9603
Modern ratites (ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, emus, and kiwis) are
flightless birds which have a palatal structure termed 'palaeognathous' and
are found on daughter-landmasses of the Mesozoic supercontinent Gondwanaland.
It has been suggested that a single flightless ancestor, widely distributed
in Gondwanaland, gave rise to the various lineages of ratite birds. The
temporal calibration of the DNA molecular clock is primarily based on the
divergence of ratites, and depends on the valididty of the hypothesis. Newly
studied fossils suggest that the ancestors of ostriches are instead among a
group of North American and European birds, the 'Lithornis-cohort', that had
the potential of flight and from which the kiwis may have arisen separately.
(Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ cassowaries/ kiwis/ evolution

66. Huber, I, Herceg, M, and Maran, B. Diseases of Australian animals in the
Zagreb Zoo. Ippen, R and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere.
Verhandlungsbericht des XVIII Internationalen Symposiums uber die
Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 16-20 June, 1976; Innsbruck.; 1976 13-16. 
German; 9601
In the Zagreb Zoo, Yugoslavia, between 1925 and 1975, 2 young dingos died
from heavy infections with ascariasis and taeniasis. Among certain geese
(Huhnergansen) there were 3 cases of amidostomiasis which were treated and
cured, and 2 young emus died from inversion of the intestines with Taenia,
ascarids and heterakids.
helminths/ zoo animals/ animal diseases/ parasites/ kangaroos/ birds/
MARSUPIALS/ animals, zoo/ Marsupialia

67. Huchzermeyer, FW. Ostrich diseases 1st ed. Onderstepoort, Republic of
South Africa: Agricultural Research Council; 1994; 121 p. 
References. KL1+
This book was originally prepared for a lecture given to veterinarians having
an interest in ostrich diseases. The author indicates that it is "based
on personal experience in ostrich pathology, a general poultry pathology
background and a literature survey and contains only conditions that have
either been reported in the literature or actually seen locally and is almost
free of interpolations or speculations from poultry pathology." Data from
emus and rheas are included in some cases. The book is divided into 4 parts -
introduction, transmissible diseases, nutritional diseases, and miscellaneous
- with extensive references in the appendix. Under transmissible disease are
sections on viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections,
protozoal infections, and metazoan parasites. For nutritional diseases the
sections are deficiencies and poisoning. Miscellaneous covers some
pathological conditions, hematology, biochemistry, immobilization and
anesthesia, and physiological parameters to name a few.

68. Hunter B. The basics of chick buying and breeding. Canadian Ostrich 1994;
3(4): 72-74.
Lists steps a new breeder can take to ensure they are starting on the right
path. Questions to ask breeder. Lists characteristics of a good quality
breeding age emu. Gives goals to set on egg numbers and fertility.
emus/ breeding/ buying

69. Hunter B. Emu products. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 36-39.
Short discussion on each of the products - feathers, meat, leather, oil and
emus/ products/ feathers/ meat/ leather/ oil/ eggs

70. Hunter B. Hatching hints and more. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(1): 30,
An emu farmer describes what she has found to be effective in hatching emus.
Handling eggs, candling, incubation, use of scales, hatchers and when to sex
emus are some of the areas discussed.
emus/ hatching

71. Hunter B. The hatching process. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(2): 60-63.
Covers hatching of emus. Lists supplies needed such as 7 percent iodine
solution to treat the navel. Describes the author's experience with hatching
process - weighing eggs, transfer of eggs to the hatcheer, assisting hatching
in some cases, helping with a yolk sac that is not absorbed, and care of
emus/ hatching

72. Hunter B. Talking emu. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 52-53.
Discusses emu eggs - storing, size, shape and colour. Eggs discussed include:
"football" shaped, round, aqua tipped, chalky, cracked/ hole in
shell, soft shelled, glossy and thin shelled.
emus/ eggs

73. Hunter B. Tips for successful sexing of emus. Canadian Ostrich 1995;
4(7): 28,37.
The emu farmer does vent sexing every two weeks until 3 months of age. DNA
sexing is also done. Lists some characteristics to look for to distinguish
between males and females.
emus/ sexing

74. Huq N; Tseng A; and Chapman G. Partial amino acid sequence of osteocalcin
from an extinct species of ratite bird. Biochemistry International 1990;
21(3): 491-496.
Osteocalcin the major gamma carboxyglutamic acid containing protein of
vertebrate bone has been purified from the bones of a specimen of Pachyornis
elephantopus, a species of the extinct class of New Zealand ratite birds, the
moas. The sequence of the N-terminal region of moa osteocalcin was determined
using gas phase N-terminal sequencing. The N-terminal sequences of the
ostrich and rhea osteocalcins were also determined. Alignment of the
N-terminal sequence of osteocalcin from the extinct moa against the
osteocalcins of the extant ostrich, rhea and emu reveals the homology amongst
the ratite species is greater than the homology with the chicken osteocalcin.
Pachyornis Elephantopus/ Ostrich/ Rhea/ Emu/ Chicken/ Phylogeny/ Holocene/
Molecular Sequence Data/ New Zealand

75. Isman J. Save your hide. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(1): 46.
Skinning procedure described (including plucking), scrapping the hide and
soaking in brine. Formula for brine is 1 kg of sodium chloride to 4 litres of
water (do not use iodized salt or rock salt) or 2 pounds of salt to 1 US
gallon of water. After soaking (2 days) let hang in shaded spot for 24 hours.
ostriches/ emus/ leather

76. Jensen, JM, Johnson, JH, and Weiner, ST. Husbandry and medical management
of ostriches, emus and rheas. College Station, TX (P.O. Box 10541, College
Station, TX 77842): Wildlife and Exotic Animal Teleconsultants; 1992; 129 p. 
English; ill.
Ostriches Diseases Treatment Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Rheidae Diseases
Treatment Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Emus Diseases Treatment Handbooks,
manuals, etc

77. Jensen, JM, Matthews, NS, and Hartsfield, SM. Metabolic scaling of
ketamine in ostriches and emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians and Association of Reptilian and Amphibian
Veterinarians Annual Conference; October 22-27, 1994; Pittsburgh.
[Philadelphia]: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians; 1994 134-137. 
English; 10 ref.
Four emus and seven ostriches were anesthetically induced with intramuscular
doses of ketamine and xylazine. Ketamine doses were calculated using minimum
energy cost calculations (doses derived from domestic feline doses). Xylazine
dose was approximately 20% of the ketamine dose. Xylazine was given 20
minutes prior to ketamine to all birds, except two ostriches. All birds were
eventually maintained on isoflurane and underwent various surgical
Larger ratites received lower dosages of ketamine than smaller birds because
of the higher minimum energy cost per kilogram of body mass for smaller
birds. The anesthetic effect was the same in each bird, indicating metabolic
scaling can be used to produce effective doses of ketamine in ratites.
During isoflurane anesthesia, the ratites frequently required respiratory
assistance. The authors feel that ratites induced by this method and
maintained with isoflurane tend to have a high incidence of bradycardia and/
or hypotension requiring intro-operative treatment. Close monitoring of
cardiopulmonary function throughout anesthesia is advised.
emus/ ostriches/ anesthesia/ ketamine/ xylazine/ isoflurane

78. Jensen, JM and Schumacher, J. Endoscopic examination of the distal uterus
of ostriches and emus. Junge, RE. Proceedings of the American Association of
Zoo Veterinarians and Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians
Annual Conference; October 22-27, 1994; Pittsburgh. [Philadelphia}: American
Association of Zoo Veterinarians; 1994 138-139. 
English; 0 ref.
Describes the technique used to perform an endoscopic examination of the
uterus in ostriches and emus.
ostriches/ emus/ uterus

79. Johnson O and Skadhauge E. Structural-functional correlations in the
kidneys and observations of colon and cloacal morphology in certain
Australian birds. Journal of Anatomy 1975; 120(3): 495-505.
1. Variations in renal microstructure between the zebra finch and Senegal
dove were consistent with their relative renal concentrating abilities
(urine/ plasma ratios of 2-8 and 1-7, respectively). Compared with dove
kidneys, those of the finch contained a higher fraction of mammalian-type
nephrons (with Henle's loops), and a lower fraction of reptilian-type
nephrons (without loops). 2. Singing honeyeaters concentrated their urine
almost as well as zebra finches, although honeyeater kidneys were less
specialized (fewer mammalian-type nephrons). Such findings emphasize the need
to clarify other osmoregulatory parameters. 3. No significant microstructural
differences were found in the kidneys of domesticated as compared with those
of wild zebra finches. Hence, osmoregulatory differences between tame and
wild birds must be related to physiological factors rather than
morphological. 4. Thickness of the renal medulla seemed to be directly
correlated with urine concentrating ability. However, certain inconsistencies
obscure this relationship such that its resolution will require further
research. 5. Histological features of the mucosae of the colon and cloaca are
described. The galah and kookaburra displayed a mammalian (non-villous)
pattern of mucosal organization. Zebra finches, singing honeyeaters, and
particularly emus, possessed colonic and cloacal villi and hence an increased
surface area per volume in this region of the gut. This raises the
possibility that the colon and cloaca are involved in uring concentration and
osmoregulatory activities in these species.
Australia/ Cloaca physiology/ Colon physiology/ Intestinal Mucosa anatomy
and histology/ Kidney physiology/ Kidney Cortex physiology/ Kidney Medulla
physiology/ Organ Weight/ Sodium Chloride metabolism/ Water metabolism/ Water
Deprivation/ *Birds anatomy and histology/ *Cloaca anatomy and histology/
*Colon anatomy and histology/ *Kidney anatomy and histology/ *Kidney
Concentrating Ability

80. Jones J; Grubb B; and Schmidt Nielsen K. Panting in the emu causes
arterial hypoxemia. Respiration Physiology 1983; 54(2): 189-195.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of heavy thermal
panting on arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) tension in emus.
The birds showed no significant change in body temperature during a 3-4 h
heat stress caused by increasing ambient air temperature from 21 to 46
degrees C. However, the emus increased their respiratory frequency 10-fold
(from 5.3 to 52.9 breaths X min-1). The high respiratory frequency resulted
in a slight but significant decrease in PaCO2 (from 33.5 to 29.8 mm Hg),
coupled with a slight increase in pH (from 7.449 to 7.469). Paradoxically,
these changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the arterial
oxygen tension (from 99.7 to 84.6 mm Hg). The arterial hypoxia suggests
hypoventilation while the hypocapnia suggests hyperventilation of the lungs.
This could result from various spatial and/ or temporal changes in
ventilation/ perfusion ratios.
Acid Base Equilibrium/ Arteries/ Carbon Dioxide blood/ Heat/ Hydrogen Ion
Concentration/ Oxygen blood/ *Anoxemia etiology/ *Birds physiology/

81. Kazacos K; Fitzgerald S; and Reed W. Baylisascaris procyonis as a cause
of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in ratites. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife
Medicine 1991; 22(4): 460-465.
English; 24 ref
An ostrich (Struthio camelus) and 2 emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in a
private zoological collection in Indiana, USA, developed progressive
neurologic disease and eventually became unable to stand or walk. At
necropsy, all 3 birds had extensive multifocal encephalomalacia and
inflammation in the brain stem and cerebellum associated with larvae of B.
procyonis. The bird's pen was contaminated with faeces from 3 to 5 infected
raccoons (Procyon lotor) that had been housed in a barn loft directly
overhead. Infective B. procyonis ova were recovered from soil samples taken
within the ostrich-emu pen and from raccoon faeces and soil from under a new
cage occupied by the 3 remaining raccoons.
Nematoda/ Ascarididae/ Birds/ Zoo animals/ Carnivores/ Procyonidae/ Brain/
Struthionidae/ Dromaiidae/ Baylisascaris procyonis/ OSTRICHES/ USA/
zoological gardens/ EMUS/ Procyon lotor/ Indiana 

82. Kazacos K; Winterfield R; and Thacker H. Etiology and epidemiology of
verminous encephalitis in an emu. Avian Diseases 1982; 26(2): 389-391.
English; 8 ref; 9601
Retrospective study of a case of verminous encephalitis in a Dromaius
novaehollandiae [see Hm/ A 48, 361] showed that the parasite responsible was
a Baylisascaris sp. The emu, and another that also exhibited central nervous
system disease, had been kept on a farm in Indiana, USA, where they had fed
off the ground in an enclosure which had been occupied by a skunk 3-4 years
earlier. The parasite was probably, therefore, B. columnaris. 12 to 14 years
earlier the area had been used for raising raccoons which are host to B.
procyonis, but it is thought unlikely that eggs of this nematode could have
remained infective for so long.
epizootiology/ Epidemiology/ case reports/ Helminths/ encephalitis/
parasites/ Birds/ EMUS/ Procyonidae/ Dromaius/ Ascarididae/ Struthioniformes/
Baylisascaris columnaris/ Baylisascaris procyonis

83. Kenny D and Cambre R. Indications and technique for the surgical removal
of the avian yolk sac. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 1992; 23(1):
13 ref
Surgery/ Casuarius casuarius/ EMUS/ Anseriformes/ Anser indicus/
Chloephage picts/ Aythya valisineria/ Struthioniformes/ Yolk sac

84. Kim D-Y; Cho D-Y; and Taylor H. Lysosomal storage disease in an emu
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology 1996; 33(3): 365-366.
English; 7 ref.; 9606
Lysosomal storage disease involving the brain, spinal cord, liver, and spleen
was discovered in a 6-month-old male emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). The
diagnosis was based on light and electron microscopic studies and
histochemical staining characteristics. This is the first case of lysosomal
storage disease reported in a ratite.
emus/ brain/ nervous system/ lysosomes/ lysosomal/ storage disease

85. Kinder L; Angel C; and Anthony N. Apparent selenium toxicity in emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1995; 39(3): 652-657.
English; 24 ref.
A commercial emu breeder experienced high embryonic mortality during the
1992-93 breeding season, apparently associated with high levels of selenium.
The feed was a mixture of catfish food supplemented with a vitamin E and
selenium premix. The mixture contained an average of 1.4 ppm selenium.
Selenium analysis was conducted on eggs from several hens laid during the
period of vatamin and selenium supplementation and after the supplementation
was withdrawn. Initial egg selenium levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.1 ppm, with a
mean value of 4.2 +/ - 0.7 ppm (n = 9). Eggs collected over a 2-month period
post-withdrawal contained 2.1 +/ - 0.2 ppm selenium (n = 6). Eggs sampled
between 2 and 3 months post-withdrawal contained 1.1 +/ - 0.1 ppm selenium (n
= 4). Egg selenium levels decreased significantly over the 2-month period (P
< 0.05) for each individual sample. (Author's abstract)
emus/ selenium/ toxicity

86. Klos H; Langner H; Boenigk G; Wandelburg K; Pohl H; Grund S; Eichberg J;
and Steglich W. Chemical and physical studies on eggshells of four species of
running birds (Struthioniformes). Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin 1976;
23A(5): 413-428.
German; 9601; 15 ref
Calcium/ Magnesium/ Sodium/ Strontium/ Copper/ Iron/ Silicon/ Manganese/
Phosphorus/ Carbonate/ Pigments/ Classification/ egg shell/ Birds/ ostriches/
Rhea/ Struthioniformes/ Emu/ Cassowary

87. Kwiecien J; Smith D; Key D; Swinton J; and Smith ML. Encephalitis
attributed to larval migration of Baylisascaris species in emus. Canadian
Veterinary Journal 1993; 34(3): 176-178.
English; 14 ref
Seven emu chicks (Dromaius novaehollandiae) aged 10 week to 5 months were
examined PM between July 1990 and January 1991. These birds originated from a
farm where 3 types of ratites (emu, ostrich, rhea) were kept. All animals
showed signs of ataxia, incoordination and muscle weakness. No relevant gross
lesions were noted. Significant lesions were confined to the cerebellum. The
most consistent microscopic finding was perivascular cuffing by mononuclear
leukocytes. In one bird, 3 cross sections of a nematode of approximately 60
m in diameter were found. The clinical symptoms and lesions were consistent
with reports of verminous encephalitis attributed to infection with
Baylisascaris. The possible source of infection could have been racoons seen
on the premises, although not in direct contact with the birds.
Casuariiformes/ Case reports/ Pathology/ Nervous system diseases/ Birds/
Parasite migration/ EMUS/ Baylisascaris/ Encephalitis/ Nematoda/ Ascarididae/
Dromaiidae/ Canada 

88. Lane R. Selecting your best ratites. Canadian Ostrich 1995; 4(2): 16-18.
Poultry breeders have used line breeding to select for desirable production
parameters. Inbreeding, however, can result in a dramatic drop in eggs laid
and chicks hatched (inbreeding depression). Unlike poultry, ratites have a
relatively long generation time, need more space, have a high dollar value,
and their pedigrees are unknown. DNA fingerprints have shown that the North
American emu, ostrich and rhea populations have a relatively low level of
genetic diversity. There is an increased risk of inbreeding when randomly
selecting pairs. This suggest that ratite line breeding will be a much longer
process with a higher risk of inbreeding depresssion than poultry. Rapid
gains in desirable production parameters in ratites are still possible using
carefully developed line breeding. DNA fingerprinting can be used to
accurately define the degree of relationship between any two birds or between
birds in a group. This information can then be used to select breeding pairs.
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ ratites/ breeding/ DNA fingerprinting

89. Law J; Tully T; and Stewart T. Verminous encephalitis apparently caused
by the filarioid nematode Chandlerella quiscali in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1993; 37(2): 597-601.
English; 11 ref.
Verminous encephalitis attributed to Chandlerella quiscali was diagnosed in a
flock of emus (Dromaius novaebollandiae). Clinically affected birds showed
torticollis and progressive ataxia. Filarioid parasites with morphological
characteristics resembling C quiscali were identified in one case. Histologic
lesions in the brain and spinal cord consisted of mild to moderate
perivascular cuffing and scattered areas of variable mild necrosis. Parasites
observed within the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord often were not
associated with either necrosis or an inflammatory reaction. Ivermectin
administered subcutaneously at 4-week intervals at a dose rate of 200 mug/ kg
body weight appeared to prevent clinical signs in flocks in the presumed
endemic area. (Author's abstract)
emus/ parasites/ nematodes

90. Locke D; Bush M; and Carpenter J. Pharmacokinetics and tissue
concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species. American Journal of
Veterinary Research 1982; 43(10): 1807-1810.
English; 18 ref.
Tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in
avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied.
The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus
virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (Grus
canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of
this study, tylosin was administered IM to quail, pigeons, and emus at a
dosage rate of 25 mg/ kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosage rate of 15
mg/ kg. The average peak plasma concentrations of tylosin in quail, pigeons,
cranes, and emus were 4.31, 5.63, 3.62, and 3.26 microgram/ ml, respectively.
These peak concentrations occurred at 0.5 to 1.5 hours after administration.
The biological half-life of tylosin averaged 1.2 hours in quail, pigeons, and
cranes, and was 4.7 hours in emus. In the 2nd phase of this study, tylosin
concentrations in the tissues of quail, pigeons, and cranes were markedly
higher than were plasma concentrations at corresponding sampling times. Six
hours after antibiotic administration, tissue concentrations of tylosin in
all species remained within the minimum inhibitory concentration for most
pathogenic organisms. Dosage regimens of 25 mg of tylosin/ kg 4 times daily
for quail and pigeons, 15 mg/ kg 3 times daily for cranes, and 25 mg/ kg 3
times daily for emus would be needed to establish and maintain therapeutic
tissue concentrations. (Author's abstract)
emus/ tylosin/ antibiotic pharmacokinetics

91. Maina J and King A. The lung of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae: a
microscopic and morphometric study. Journal-of-Anatomy 1989; 163: 67-73.
28 ref
Dromaius novaehollandiae/ Casuariiformes/ Respiratory system/ Anatomy/ Gas
exchange/ Blood vessels/ Lungs/ Birds 

92. Malecki, IA, Martin, GB, and Lindsay, DR. Effect of Collection Frequency
on Semen Output in the Male Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Animal Production
in Australia PO Box 189/ Wongan Hills 6603/ Australia: Australian Society
Animal Production; 1994 435. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal
Production. v. 20).

93. Malecki, IA, Martin, GB, and Lindsay, DR. Methods for Collecting Semen
from the Male Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Animal Production in Australia
PO Box 189/ Wongan Hills 6603/ Australia: Australian Society Animal Prod;
1994 434. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production. v. 20).

94. Maloney S and Dawson T. The Heat Load from Solar-Radiation on a Large,
Diurnally Active Bird, the Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Journal of Thermal
Biology 1995; 20(5): 381-387.
1. The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is a large (40 kg) diurnal bird that
inhabits the arid inland of Australia where solar radiation levels can exceed
1000 W/ m(2) for many hours of the day. 2. We measured the solar heat load at
skin level below plumage samples from wild emus. At low wind speeds the heat
load was less than 10% of the incident radiation load. This fell to less than
1% at wind speeds above 6 m/ s. 3. Application of a simple model shows that
the radiation is absorbed close to the surface of the plumage. The resultant
heat is prevented from flowing to the skin by the coats' insulation. 4. On an
average summer day in the arid zone an emu will require less than 330 g of
water to evaporate the solar heat load.
emus/ color/ solar heat load/ solar radiation/ thermoregulation

95. Maloney S and Dawson T. Sexual dimorphism in basal metabolism and body
temperature of a large bird, the emu. Condor 1993; 95(4): 1034-1037.
English; 21 ref.
Found that male emus had a 20% lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than females.
Sexual dimorphism in BMR for avian species is usually association with a
dimorphism is size with the larger of the sexes having the lower BMR. In the
emu, there was no difference in mass between sexes in the winter. In summer
the males were smaller than females but still had a lower BMR. (KL)
basal metabolism/ physiology/ emus

96. Maloney S and Dawson T. Thermoregulation in a Large Bird, the Emu
(Dromaius-Novaehollandiae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical
Systemic and Environmental Physiology 1994; 164(6): 464-472.
English Article
The emu is a large, flightless bird native to Australia. Its habitats range
from the high snow country to the arid interior of the continent. Our
experiments show that the emu maintains a constant body temperature within
the ambient temperature range -5 to 45 degrees C. The males regulate their
body temperature about 0.5 degrees C lower than the females. With falling
ambient temperature the emu regulates its body temperature initially by
reducing conductance and then by increasing heat production. At -5 degrees C
the cost of maintaining thermal balance is 2.6 times basal metabolic rate. By
sitting down and reducing heat loss from the legs the cost of homeothermy at
-5 degrees C is reduced to 1.5 times basal metabolic rate. At high ambient
temperatures the emu utilises cutaneous evaporative water loss in addition to
panting. At 45 degrees C evaporation is equal to 160% of heat production.
Panting accounts for 70% of total evaporation at 45 degrees C, The cost of
utilising cutaneous evaporation for the other 30% appears to be an increase
in dry conductance.
Cutaneous Evaporation/ Panting/ Ratite/ Thermoregulation/ Emu, Dromaius

97. Maloney S and Dawson T. Ventilatory Accommodation of Oxygen-Demand and
Respiratory Water-Loss in a Large Bird, the Emu (Dromaius-Novaehollandiae),
and a Reexamination of Ventilatory Allometry for Birds. Journal of
Comparative Physiology B - Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology
1994; 164(6): 473-481.
English Article
Ventilation was studied in the emu, a large nightless bird of mass 40 kg,
within the range of ambient temperatures from -5 to 45 degrees C. Data for
the emu and 21 other species were used to calculate allometric relationships
for resting ventilatory parameters in birds (breath frequency =
13.5.mass(-0.314); tidal volume = 20.7.mass(1.0)). At low ambient
temperatures the ventilatory system must accommodate the increased metabolic
demand for oxygen. In the emu this was achieved by a combination of increased
tidal volume and increased oxygen extraction. Data from emus sitting and
standing at -5 degrees C, when metabolism is 1.5 x and 2.6 x basal metabolic
rate, respectively, indicate that at least in the emu an increase in oxygen
extraction can be stimulated by low temperature independent of oxygen demand.
At higher ambient temperatures ventilation was increased to facilitate
respiratory water loss. The emu achieved this by increased respiratory
frequency. At moderate heat loads (30-35 degrees C) tidal volume fell. This
is usually interpreted as a mechanism whereby respiratory water loss can be
increased without increasing parabronchial ventilation. At 45 degrees C tidal
volume increased; however, past studies have shown that CO2 washout is
minimal under these conditions. The mechanism whereby this is possible is
Allometry/ Thermoregulation/ Ventilation/ Emu, Dromaius Novaehollandiae/ GAS

98. Mann R. Predator control: a big bird for wily coyote? Emus (Dromiceius
novaehollandiae). Rangelands 1983; 5(2): 70-71.

99. Mason V. The future of food: is low fat going out of style. Canadian
Ostrich 1995; 4(4): 18-20.
Reviews what needs to be done to market ratite meat with respect to current
and future trends.
ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ meat

100. McIlroy J. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. VII.
Native and introduced birds. Australian Wildlife Research 1984; 11(2):
Birds in Australia vary greatly in their sensitivity to 1080 poison (sodium
monofluoroacetate). Median lethal doses range from 0 multiplied by 63 mg kg
super(-1) for red-browed firetails, Emblema temporalis , to approximately 278
mg kg super(-1) for the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae . Significant
differences occur between the sensitivity of different groups of birds and
may be related to differences in their metabolic rates. A few species may
also have developed a tolerance to 1080 from being exposed to indigenous
plants that contain fluoroacetate, or to insects and other animals which have
fed on such plants. The most common signs of 1080 poisoning among birds are
depression, fluffed feathers, a reluctance to move, and convulsions. Signs of
poisoning first appeared among the species tested at 1-60 h after dosing, and
deaths follow between 1 h to almost 11 days after dosing. The susceptibility
of 48 species of birds in Australia to 1080 poisoning is discussed in
relation to typical baits and poison concentrations used against vertebrate
poisoning/ sodium monofluoroacetate/ Emblema temporalis/ emus

101. Meek, PD, O'Brien, PH, Brown, H, Skira, I, Byrnes, J, Best, L, Croft,
JD, Vitolovich, P, Hopcraft, D, Wahab, A, Sinnary, SM, O'Malley, P, and Webb,
G. Wildlife use and management: report of a workshop for Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people. Bureau-of-Rural-Resources-Canberra; 1992; No.
R/ 2/ 92. iii + 91pp.
The Bureau of Rural Resources convened a workshop on wildlife use and
management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in June 1990, to
provide them with information on the issues, problems and opportunities for
wildlife use and management. The workshop brought together Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people from all over Australia. The papers included in
this report are selected from among those presented at the workshop, and
abstracts are provided at the end of the report for the remaining papers. The
papers presented in full comprise: (1) Memories of mutton-birdin' our way (H.
Brown, pp. 3-5); (2) Commercial harvesting of short-tailed shearwaters
(Tasmanian Mutton-birds) (I. Skira, pp. 7-18); (3) Aboriginal experiences of
enterprise development (J. Byrnes, pp. 19-34); (4) Attitude of nature
conservation agencies to the use of wildlife by Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander people (L. Best, pp. 35-37); (5) Employment of Aboriginal people in
rabbit control: two examples (J. D. Croft, pp. 39-42); (5) Game meat -
legislative and public health aspects (P. Vitolovich, pp. 43-46); (6)
Wildlife use, conservation and profit combined (D. Hopcraft, pp. 47-50); (7)
The future of African wildlife systems: a conservation issue (A. Wahab; S. M.
Sinnary, pp. 51-55); (8) The emu industry - present and potential (P.
O'Malley, pp. 57-60); and (9) Managing crocodiles for commercial purposes (G.
Webb, pp. 61-68). The workshop report concludes with recommendations from
participants on how to advance the commercial use of wildlife by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people. The recommendations focus on the need for
expert assistance at the local level, training programmes that deal with the
skills involved in commercial use and the need for effective independent
advice to Aboriginal communities.
Wild birds/ Nature conservation/ Emus/ Crocodiles/ Wild animals/
utilization/ management/ ethnic groups/ Australia/ Wildlife/ Conferences
/ Wildlife use and management

102. Meier, U. Formation of rete testis and epididymis in the running birds
ostrich, nandu and emu. A macroscopical, light- and electron-microscopical
investigation. 1979; 63pp. 
German; 9601; 61 ref
Anatomy/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Age/ testes/ epididymis/ MALE GENITALIA/
birds/ ostriches 

103. Mihalik, P and Srank, V. Experiences in incubating and rearing emus in
Bojnice Zoo. Ippen, R and Schroder, HD. Erkrankungen der Zootiere.
Verhandlungsbericht des XXIV. Internationalen Symposiums uber die
Erkrankungen der Zootiere; 19. Mai bis 23. Mai 1982; Veszprem. Berlin, German
Democratic Republic: Akademie-Verlag Berlin; 1982 73-75. 
Birds/ Hatching/ Feed/ Avian osteopetrosis/ Aspergillus/ Struthioniformes
/ Zoo animals/ Artificial rearing

104. Minnaar, P. A manual on emu farming. [Brenham, Tex.]: [Emu World, Inc.];
1989; 44 p. 
Cover title. ill.

105. Minnaar, P and Minnaar, M. The emu farmer's handbook. Groveton, Tex.
(Star Rt. 2, Box 8B, Groveton 75845) : Induna Co.; vii, 178 p. : ill. (some
Includes bibliographical references (p. 178). Introduction to commercial emu
farming -- Farm management -- Handling and moving emus -- Anatomy of the emu
-- Sexing the emu -- Nutrition -- Breeding season -- Path of the egg -- Care
of eggs, pre-incubation -- Incubation and hatching -- Chick care --
Artificial insemination -- Problems in the laying hen - - Treatment of
diseases and injuries -- Processing.
Emu farming Handbooks, manuals, etc

106. Mohan, R. Mycoplasma in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of
the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31 - September 4, 1993;
Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 294-296. 
English; 4 ref.
Incidence rate of mycoplasma infection in ratites is not known. A few
diagnostic laboratories have been conducting mycoplasma serology and culture,
but have not found any of the common poultry mycoplasma. This report
describes Mycoplasma synoviae-like arthritis in an eight-year-old male emu.
The diagnosis was made by detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in synovial
fluid. The organisms reacted with Mycoplasma synoviae but not with Mycoplasma
gallisepticum immunofluorescent reagent. (Author's abstract)
emus/ mycoplasma/ arthritis

107. Morgan M; Britt J; Cockrill J; and Eiten M. Erysipelothrix-Rhusiopathiae
Infection in an Emu (Dromaius-Novahollandiae). Journal of Veterinary
Diagnostic Investigation 1994; 6(3): 378-379.
English Note

108. Muller, C. Embryonic development of the cloacal bursa in the emu.:
Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin der Freien Universitat Berlin; 1985. 142pp.
11pp. of ref., 36 pl. 
Embryonic development/ Tissue ultrastructure/ Bursa cloacalis/ Thesis/ Bursa

109. Murray, MD, Palma, RL, and Pilgrim, RLC. Ectoparasites of Australian,
New Zealand and Antarctic birds. Marchant, S and Higgins, PJ. Handbook of
Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic birds. Volume 1. Ratites to ducks.
Part A, Ratites to petrels. Part B, Australian pelican to ducks. Melbourne,
Australia: Oxford University Press Australia; 1990; 1365-1374. 
59 ref. 
A host-parasite list of the lice, fleas, hippoboscid flies and ticks of
Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds (from emus (Casuariiformes) to
ducks (Anseriformes)) is presented.
Acari/ Diptera/ Phthiraptera/ Checklists/ Host parasite relationships/
Wild birds/ Sea birds/ Amblycera/ Ischnocera/ Australia/ birds/
ectoparasites/ New Zealand/ Antarctica/ Southern Hemisphere/ Ixodidae/
Argasidae/ Hippoboscidae/ Mallophaga/ Anoplura/ Siphonaptera 

110. Noble J. The effects of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae Latham) on the
distribution of the nitre bush (Nitraria billardieri D-C.). Journal of
Ecology 1975; 63(3): 979-984.

111. Noble J. On ratites and their interactions with plants. Revista Chilena
De Historia Natural 1991; 64(1): 85-118.
The fossil histories, distribution patterns and habitat preferences of both
extinct and extant members of the Ratitae are reviewed. Particular emphasis
is directed towards those physical and anatomical features of ratites which
have apparent significance in terms of vegetation dynamics, especially those
aspects relating to seed germination and seedling establishment. Apart from
the New Zealand kiwis (Apteryx spp.), the principal feature distinguishing
the ratites from other birds is their large size. Whilst the evolutionary
consequences of gigantism have resulted in the comparatively recent
extinction of some species such as the moas (the Dinornithidae and Emeridae)
of New Zealand and the elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) of Madagascar, the
large size of contemporary ratites confers an ability to ingest considerable
quantities of food, as well as particular items such as fruits and stones too
large for other birds, without having to suffer any impairment of flight.
Many of these plant foods, especially fruits such as those of the Lauraceae,
can be highly nutritious, but ratites are omnivorous and can utilize a range
of alternatives when necessary. Whether prey selection is directly related to
nutritional reward is uncertain however the breeding season of the Australian
cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) is closely linked to the period of
maximum fruit production by trees and shrubs in their tropical rainforest
habitats. Some ratites such as the moas and the mihirungs (Dromornithidae)
may also have influenced plant selection and vegetation succession through
their differential browsing of particular species and plant organs. There is
some apparent mutualism in terms of benefits conferred on plant populations
following propagule ingestion by ratites. In certain situations, seeds of
plants germinate satisfactorily only after the seed has passed through the
ratite gut. It is postulated that many of the large-fruited diaspores eaten
by ratites will only germinate rapidly in faecal microsites thereby
conferring considerable ecological benefits by promoting substantial, and
dispersed, seedling recruitment. On heavy textured soils, the semi-arid shrub
Nitraria billardieri, only establishes in abundance once the succulent fruit,
which ripens during the summer, has been eaten by emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiea). In the sandy substrates of coastal areas where fallen fruit
is readily covered by windblown sand, the species germinates readily in the
absence of avian ingestion.
Apteryx spp./ Casuarius casuarius johnsonii/ Nitraria billardieri/ Dromaius
novae hollandiae/ Fossil/ Ratite/ Habitat preference/ Distribution/
Evolution/ Gigantism/ Vegetation dynamics/ Seed/ Germination/ Extinction

112. O'Brien P; Wilson G; Ramsay B; Smetana P; and Dee C. Commercial use of
wild animals in Australia.
Proceedings-of-the-Australian-Society-of-Animal-Production 1990; 18: 101-111.
13 ref
This review is a compilation of 4 short papers with an introduction and
conclusion by the senior author. The 1st- paper entitled "potential and
problems in using wild animal resources", emphasises the need to consider
sustainability in the harvesting of wild animals, and discusses the adequacy
of current legislation in this respect. The 2nd paper on "commercial
harvesting of wild animals in Australia", lists the species that are
harvested in Australia, the states where they are harvested, the scale of
harvest, and their main products. The special qualities of wild animal
products (meat, skin, fur and miscellaneous products, e.g. pharmaceuticals)
are also discussed. The 3rd paper discusses the prospects for emu farming,
and summarises the performance of these birds in terms of skin, meat, oil,
feathers, eggs and claws. The 4th paper, on "economic benefit of
utilising Australian wild animals", discusses harvesting practices of
kangaroos and wild pigs, and the demand for their products in the
international and overseas markets.
Animal production/ Australia/ Wild animals/ Reviews 

113. O'Donnell I. The complete amino acid sequence of a feather keratin from
emu (Dromaius novae-hollandiae). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences
1973; 26(2): 415-435.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chymotrypsin/ Electrophoresis, Paper/ Formic Acids/
Hydrolysis/ Papain/ Pepsin A/ Peptides analysis/ Solubility/ Thermolysin/
Trypsin/ *Amino Acids analysis/ *Birds/ *Feathers analysis/ *Keratin

114. O'Donnell I and Inglis A. Amino acid sequence of a feather keratin from
silver gull (Larus novae-hollandiae) and comparison with one from emu
(Dromaius novae- hollandiae). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 1974;
27(4): 369-382.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Chromatography, DEAE Cellulose/ Chymotrypsin/
Electrophoresis, Paper/ Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/ Peptide
Fragments analysis/ Thermolysin/ Trypsin/ *Amino Acids analysis/ *Birds/
*Feathers analysis/ *Keratin analysis

115. Odle B. Facts About Ratites. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association 1994; 205(12): 1662.
English Letter

116. Okotie-Eboh G; Bailey C; Hicks K; and Kubena L. Reference serum
biochemical values for emus and ostriches. American Journal of Veterinary
Research 1992; 53(10): 1765-1768.
English, 7 ref.
Reference serum biochemical values were determined in blood samples from 15
male, 18 female, and 4 unsexed emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 1 to 48 months
old. Serum biochemical values also were obtained for 19 male, 26 female, and
4 unsexed ostriches (Struthio camelus) 1 to 60 months old. Parametric (mean
+/ - 2 SD) and nonparametric (fifth to 95th percentile) reference ranges and
linear trends as influenced by age were determined for enzyme activities and
concentrations of glucose, inorganic phosphate, BUN, uric acid, creatinine,
triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin. Species differences
for all analytes, except cholesterol and inorganic phosphate concentrations,
were detected. Creatine kinase values in ostriches were higher than those in
emus. There were no linear relationships between age and analyte values in
emus, and sex did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the values in emus.
Analyte values in ostriches tended to increase with age, but cholesterol,
creatine kinase, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations
decreased with age. Glucose, triglyceride, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and
cholinesterase concentrations in ostriches were not linearly associated with
age. Age had a greater effect on the analyte values of female ostriches than
it did on male ostriches. Concentrations generally increased with age in
female ostriches, except for cholesterol, cholinesterase, inorganic
phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, which decreased with age.
(Author's abstract)
emus/ ostriches/ blood chemistry/ normal values/ species differences/ age
differences/ sex differences

117. Palmer M; Phillips B; and Smith G. Application of nonlinear models with
random coefficients to growth data. Biometrics 1991; 47(2): 623-636.
The application of nonlinear random coefficient models to the analysis of
growth curve data is described. The approach is further developed for the
estimation of mean growth curves and their variability from mark-recapture
data when the age of an animal at first capture is unknown, but the time
between successive captures is known. These methods are of wide applicability
as shown by the analysis of data on the growth of emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae), noisy scrub-birds (Atrichornis clamosus), and whelks
(Dicathais aegaota). Simulations of a mark-recapture experiment on the rock
(spiny) lobster (Panulirus argus) in Mexico, using a known growth curve,
showed the effectiveness of the approach in estimating both the population's
growth curve and the variability in individual growth.
Oromaius Novaehollandiae/ Atrichornis Clamosus/ Dicathais Aegaota/ Panulirus
Argus/ Mathematical Model

118. Panigrahy B; Senne D; and Pearson J. Presence of avian influenza virus
(AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and rheas
(Rhea americana) - virus isolation and serologic findings. Avian Diseases
1995; 39(1): 64-67.
English; 8 ref.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2 and H7N1 were isolated from emus
(Dvomaius novaehollandiae) and rheas (Rhea americana) in Texas and North
Carolina. All the rheas and emus had a history of respiratory disease except
one emu, which was clinically normal. The isolates were not pathogenic for
chickens and turkeys under the conditions of the experiment. Humoral
antibodies to all known hemagglutinin (H) subtypes except H10, H13, and H14
and to all nine neuraminidase (N) subtypes were found in emus and rheas in 11
states. Therefore, emus and rheas are susceptible to infection with several
AIV subtypes.
emus/ rheas/ avian influenza virus

119. Parsons, B. Emu farming in Florida. Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30,
1994; Rena, Nevada. PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 438-439. 
English; 0 ref.; poster presentation
Emus, which are ratites indigenous to mainland Australia, are becoming
extremely popular in Florida. People interested in alternative livestock are
buying up chicks and adult birds at a staggering rate, looking for an
investment. Many people with no background in aviculture or farming have
purchased these large, expensive birds and look to the veterinary community
to help them maintain and breed emus. Eventually, they will be bred for a
meat, leather, feather, and oil market, but right now, they are being bred
strictly for a breeder's market. The red meat is low in cholesterol. Emu oil
is touted as having therapeutic properties, and may have many applications in
the cosmetic and scientiic industires. (Author's introduction)
Two sections. First deals with adult preventative medicine and the second
chick preventative medicine.
emus/ Florida/ preventative medicine

120. Patak A and Baldwin J. Structural and metabolic characterization of the
muscles used to power running in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a giant
flightless bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 1993; 175(0): 233-249.
The emu is a giant flightless bird, capable of sustained high-speed running.
Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical properties of the lower leg muscles
used to power running were investigated. The gastrocnemius is the largest
muscle in the emu leg. It has a short inelastic tendon and contains only fast
fibres. It is the major power-producing muscle of the lower leg, with a
greater capacity than the digital flexor muscles for bursts of high work
output. In marked contrast, the digital flexors have long elastic tendons and
contain both fast and slow muscle fibres. It is proposed that these muscles,
rather than the gastrocnemius, are responsible for maintaining posture and
that they facilitate elastic energy storage and retrieval in their tendons
during running. In comparison with equivalent muscles of flying and diving
birds, emu lower leg muscles display features consistent with greater power
output during both short burst and endurance running. The emu muscles are
more massive relative to body size, and the gastrocnemii of other birds
invariably contain slow fibres. This study illustrates some of the
similarities as well as differences between muscles used during flying and
running. Capacities for sustained high-energy work appear to be similar in
flying birds and running emus as judged from (1) the muscle masses used
during locomotion when expressed as a proportion of total body mass and (2)
muscle fibre type compositions and their potential for fuel catabolism. The
lower creatine kinase activity in emu leg muscles could be attributed to
higher energy demands during the initial stages of lift-off for flight.
Flying bird/ Diving bird/ Creatine kinase/ Energy storage/ Energy retrieval/
Comparative biochemistry/ Comparative physiology/ Posture/ Locomotion/ Leg/
Gastrocnemius/ Digital flexor muscle/ Slow fiber/ Fast fiber/ Comparative
anatomy/ Histochemistry

121. Phillips P and Sanborn A. An Infrared, Thermographic Study of
Surface-Temperature in 3 Ratites - Ostrich, Emu and Double-Wattled Cassowary.
Journal of Thermal Biology 1994; 19(6): 423-430.
English Article
(1) Surface temperatures of the ostrich (Struthio camelus), emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae) and double-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) were
measured using infrared thermography at ambient temperatures ranging from 0
to 27 degrees C. (2) The pattern of surface temperature regulation for
thermoregulatory purposes was similar in all species examined. Beak, lower
leg and neck surface temperatures are regulated in all species to alter heat
exchange with the environment. The feet and toes are also used by the ostrich
and emu to regulate heat exchange. The cassowary does not use the feet and
toes to the same extent but used the casque in a similar manner. (3) Standard
metabolic rates were estimated using a geometric model of a bird and
instantaneous heat loss calculated for specific body parts. (4) Up to 40% of
metabolic heat production can be dissipated across these structures which
comprise 12% and 17.5% of total body surface area. (5) The ostrich was able
to regulate surface temperature more precisely than the other species,
probably due to a larger body size. The large wings of the ostrich are useful
for thermoregulation by increasing convective heat loss.
Surface Temperature/ Ratites/ Thermoregulation/ Thermal Windows/ Ostrich/
Struthio Camelus/ Emu/ Dromaius Novaehollandiae/ Double Wattled Cassowary/

122. Pocknell A; Miller B; Neufeld J; and Grahn B. Conjunctival
mycobacteriosis in two emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology
1996; 33(3): 346-348.
English; 13 ref.; 9606
Avian tuberculosis was diagnosed in two young adult female commercial emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae) with granulomatous conjunctivitis. Histologically,
the granulomas appeared typical of avian turberculosis. Caseonecrotic cores
were surrounded by a broad ring of palisading epithelioid macrophages and
multinucleate giant cells with a moderate admixture of heterophils,
lymphocytes, and plasma cells, One conjunctival granuloma had multifocal
mineralization. At necropsy, granulomas were also found in visceral organs of
both birds. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all lesions using
Ziehl-Neelsen of Fite's stains. Culture confirmed the bacilli to be
Mycobacterium avium (complex). (Author's abstract)
emus/ conjunctivites/ eye/ Mycobacterium avium/ tuberculosis

123. Pople A; Cairns S; and Grigg G. Distribution and abundance of Emus
Dromaius novaehollandiae in relation to the environment in the South
Australian pastoral zone. Emu 1991; 91(4): 222-229.
The distribution and abundance of Emus in the South Australian pastoral zone
between 1978 and 1989 was determined by winter aerial surveys. The average
number of Emu groups present ranged from a low of 0.02 km-2 in 1983 to 0.08
km-2 in 1980, 1981 and 1988. Between 1984 and 1989, average size of these
groups was found to range from 2.22 to 4.55 Emus. Although the distribution
varied from year to year, Emu density was generally highest in the northeast
of the pastoral zone and lowest in the more arid northwest. The northeast of
the pastoral zone is a relatively productive area, containing a mixture of
land systems, particularly 'run-on' areas. The low open woodlands and tall
shrublands of the northwest and south of the pastoral zone supported low
densities of Emus. Areas of high Emus density were generally dominated by
more intensive sheep grazing, by fans and/ or hills, by red duplex soils, and
by low shrublands of predominantly bluebush. Rainfall during summer and
autumn was considered an important determinant of Emu density, with this
period being important in terms of egg production.
Egg Production/ Sheep Grazing Intensity/ Population Density/ Rainfall
Seasonality/ Aerial Survey/ Australia

124. Prager E; Wilson A; Osuga D; and Feeney R. Evolution of flightless land
birds on southern continents: transferrin comparison shows monophyletic
origin of ratites. Journal of Molecular Evolution 1976; 8(3): 283-294.
A biochemical approach was used to study the evolution of ratite birds, i.e.,
the ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, emus, and kiwis. Quantitative
immunological comparison of transferrin from ratites, tinamous, and other
flying birds indicates that all the ratites and tinamous are allied
phylogenetically and that they are of monophyletic origin relative to other
birds. To explain the current geographic distribution of ratites and the
magnitude of the transferrin distances, it is supposed that the ancestors of
these flightless birds walked across land bridges between the southern
continents during Cretaceous times.
Amino Acid Sequence/ Complement Fixation Tests/ Geography/ Phylogeny/
Species Specificity/ *Birds/ *Evolution/ *Transferrin 

125. Rae, M. Degenerative myopathy in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992;
New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 328-335. 
English; 21 ref.; 9603
A large percentage of the young ratites submitted for necropsy exhibited
evidence of degenerative myopathy. The species examined included the ostrich
(Struthio camelus), the rhea (Rhea americana) and the emu (Dromiceius
novaehollandiae). The vast majority of the birds examined were six months of
age or younger. Clicinal history was scanty, but often invloved depression,
reluctance to rise or move and rather rapid progression to death. Lesions of
acute myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration were observed. Histologic
lesions were indistinguishable from the nutritional myopathy described in
mammals and other avian species. Other possible causes of acute degenerative
myopahty may include intoxication with furazolidone, ionophores and Cassia
and capture myopathy. The role of vitamin E and selenium in avian nutrition
and halth was reviewed briefly. Some circulating vitamin and mineral levels
were presented, but additional work is necessary to relate these levels to
diet, age and sex of the bird. Determination of normal organ levels are also
needed, as well as correlation with health and disease. Overzealous
supplementaion can reult in selenium toxicosis and this must be guarded
against. Viamin E supplementation is safer and appears to prevent mortality.
ratites/ emus/ ostriches/ rheas/ degenerative myopathy

126. Randolph J; Moise N; Graham D; and Murphy C. Bacterial endocarditis and
thromboembolism of a pelvic limb in an emu [Dromaius novaehollandiae].
Journal-of-the-American-Veterinary-Medical-Association 1984; 185(11):
12 ref
Heart diseases/ Embolism/ Birds/ Struthioniformes/ Endocarditis 

127. Randolph K; Vanhooser S; and Hoffman M. Western Equine
Encephalitis-Virus in Emus in Oklahoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic
Investigation 1994; 6(4): 492-493.
English Note

128. Rao M and Chowdary C. Tuberculosis in an emu (Dromiceius
novoeholandies). Indian Veterinary Journal 1980; 57(2): 169.
English; 9601; 2 fig.; 3 ref
Aviary birds/ Bacterial diseases/ Pathology/ Neoplasms/ Melanoma/ Liver/ case
reports/ tuberculosis/ zoo animals/ Struthioniformes 

129. Reece R and Butler R. Some observations on the development of the long
bones of ratite birds. Australian Veterinary Journal 1984; 61(12): 403-405.
English; 9 ref
Observations were made on the long bones of 10 rheas, 3 emus and 3 ostriches,
from 1-day-old to 12 weeks of age. At hatching all long bones contained large
cartilaginous cones which were continuous with the growth plates, and an
osseous cortex. At one week of age ossification had commenced on the
periphery of these embryonic cones and in some bones the cones had become
separated from the growth plates. At 3 weeks of age the embryonic cones of
cartilage were still present in the proximal and distal tibio-tarsi and
narrow cartilaginous bridges connected the cones to the growth plates.
Embryonic cones were not present in other long bones of this 3-week-old rhea
nor in the long bones of ratites 6, 8 and 12 weeks of age. Other praecocial
birds such as turkey poults and chickens have cones of embryonic cartilage in
their long bones at hatching and these persist in the tibio-tarsi until 1 to
2 weeks of age. The presence of large cones of embryonic cartilage in the
tibio-tarsal bones of 3-week-old ratite birds is probably a normal
phenomenon. Awareness of this feature is necessary for the correct
differential diagnosis of the prevalent musculoskeletal disorders of ratite
Ostrich/ Rhea/ Emu/ Cartilage/ Growth disorders/ Struthioniformes/ Postnatal
development/ Limb bones/ Ossification 

130. Ridlen, C, Ballard, B, and Baxter, M. Raising emus : the proud bird that
lays the emerald egg. Houston, Tex.: Legend Graphics; 100 p. 
Emu farming

131. Riggert, TL. The management of the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae in
Western Australia. Perth: Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; 1975; 13 p. 
Includes bibliographical references. maps

132. Robinson P. Intestinal anastomosis for correction of prolapsed colon in
an emu. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 1979; 10(4): 124-126.
English; 9601
aviary birds/ colon/ surgery/ Dromaius 

133. Rosser B and George J. Some histochemical properties of the fiber types
in the pectoralis muscle of an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Anatomical
Record 1984; 209(3): 301-305.
English; 46 ref.
The muscle fibers of the cranial slip of M. pectoralis pars thoracica of an
emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were studied histochemically for intracellular
lipid, succinic dehydrogenase, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase, and
acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the muscle consisted of
approximately 28% slow-tonic and 72% fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. The tonic
fibers were considered to be characteristic of a postural muscle, and the
fast-twitch glycolytic fibers to reflect the inability of the muscle to
engage in sustained activity. The general absence of slow-tonic fibers from
the pectoralis of other avian species so far studied may be attributed to
inadequate sampling of the deeper regions of the muscle. (Author's abstract)
emus/ muscle anatomy/ pectoralis muscle

134. Ruempler G. Accidental injuries and methods of treatment in zoo birds.
Tierarztliche Praxis 1975; 3(4): 425-430.
German; 9601
PREDATORY BIRDS/ Fractures/ wings/ Beak/ Surgery/ Amputation/ accidents/
trauma/ animal diseases/ zoo animals/ owls/ birds/ Flamingo/ Emu/ Crane/
Avocet/ Curlew/ Hornbill

135. Ruempler G. Diseases of rearing in running birds (Ratitae). Voliere
1978; 1(1): 20-22.
German; 9601; 6 ref
Perosis/ zoo animals/ birds/ ostriches/ Emu/ Nandu/ Cassowary

136. Rzhetsky A; Kumar S; and Nei M. Four-cluster analysis: A simple method
to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Molecular Biology and Evolution 1995; 12(1):
A simple statistical test for comparing three alternative phylogenetic
hypotheses for four monophyletic groups is presented. This test is based on
the minimum-evolution principle, and it does not require any information
regarding the branching order within each monophyletic group. It is
computationally efficient and can be easily extended to five or more
monophyletic groups.

137. Saez H; Rinjard J; and Strazielle L. Simultaneous Aspergillus flavus and
Candida albicans infection, and rectal prolapse, in a young emu born in
captivity. Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 1979; 155(9): 689-692.
French; 9601; 11 ref
This male emu in the Paris zoo was found at 42 days old to have Candida
albicans infection limited to the pharyngeal region, early Aspergillus flavus
infection in miliary lesions in the lungs, and a 3 cm long prolapse of the
rectum. The PM findings in a series of 13 other emu chicks, stillborn at the
Paris zoo, are also summarized. They included two cases of rectal prolapse,
three of aspergillosis and four of candidiasis, including one other case in
which all three conditions were present simultaneously.
Mycoses/ zoo animals/ Birds/ Fungi/ Aspergillus/ Candida/ Struthioniformes/
Candida albicans/ Aspergillus flavus/ infection in emu/ mycoses in emu/
Candida albicans on emu/ Aspergillus flavus on emu/ emu

138. Samour J; Markham J; and Nieva O. Sexing ratite birds by cloacal
examination. Veterinary Record 1984; 115(8): 167-169.
English; 8 ref
Rhea and emu chicks weighing 410-7251 g and ostrich chicks of 18-22.5 kg were
examined with a human proctoscope fitted with a suitably sized, stainless
steel tube connected through a fibreoptic cable to a powerful light source.
The lubricated proctoscope was inserted into the cloaca to a depth of 3-5 cm
of the manually restrained birds. The obturator was withdrawn and the ventral
wall of the cloaca examined. All male ratites have a penis which is visible
in the urodaeum. Females have two canals in the same area, but there is no
obvious clitoris in chicks as there is in adults. Digital examination is also
described. The penis is easy to detect while the clitoris is difficult.
Zoo animals/ Sex/ Ratites/ Endoscopy/ Struthioniformes/ Sex diagnosis/
Ostrich/ Birds/ Cloacal examination/ Ostriches 

139. Scheideler S and Angel R. Feeding big birds. Large Animal Veterinarian
1994; 49(2): 28, 30.
5 ref
Digestion and nutrient requirements of ratites, such as ostriches, emus,
kiwis, rheas and cassowaries, are discussed. Vitamin E and selenium are of
primary concern in ratite diets.
Struthionidae/ Dromaiidae/ Rheidae/ Apterygidae/ vitamin E/ selenium/
nutrient requirements/ ostriches/ emus 

140. Schwede, GJ. Western encephalitis in emus: symptoms and vaccine
protocol. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September 1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian
Veterinarians; 1993 299-300. 
English; 1 ref.
Western Equine Encephalitis caused widespread disesase in emus throughout the
Sothwest in the summer of 1992. In retrospect, we realized that we had seen
this disease sporadically in isolated cases for several years but had not
identified what we were dealing with due to its various clinical
presentations. The typical encephalitis with a recumbent paddling animal is
not the most common presentation with emus. Once we recognized the problem,
we had excellent results in preventing the disease with vaccinations in the
vast majority of birds. (Author's abstract)
emus/ Western Equine Encephalitis/ vaccination

141. Scott, JR and Garner, S. Endoscopic evaluation of respiratory tract
disease in ratites. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association
of Avian Veterinarians; August 31 - September 4, 1993; Nashville.:
Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 196-198. 
English; 7 ref.
Two cases of acute pneumonia and air sac disease in ratites are presented.
Techniques of flexible endoscopy are discussed including visualization of
affected areas of the trachea, lung and air sac and collection of samples for
cultue, cytology and histopathology. These techniques allow for a minimally
invasive method for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract
disease in ratites. (Author's abstract)
ostriches/ emus/ endoscopy/ dyspnea/ pneumonia/ air sac disease

142. Shah N and Dholakia P. A note on isolation of Salmonella weltevreden
from emu (Dromiceius [Dromaius] novae hollandiae). Indian-Veterinary-Journal
1987; 64(9): 801-802.
10 ref
Casuariiformes/ Aviary birds/ Stress/ Transport of animals/ Salmonella/
Salmonellosis/ Zoo animals

143. Shane S; Camus A; Strain M; Thoen C; and Tully T. Tuberculosis in
commercial emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Avian Diseases 1993; 37(4):
English; 12 ref.
Extensive granuloma formation typical of tuberculosis was observed in a
mature female emu. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of acid-fast
bacilli in lesions and culture of a Mycobacterium with growth characteristics
resembling M. avium from liver tissue. Individual emus on the affected farm
and an epidemiologically related unit gave a positive skin reaction to
intradermal M. avium tuberculin. The implication of tuberculosis in
commercial emus is noted in relation to the growth of the industry in North
America and to management and commercial practices that encourage
dissemination of infection within the species and to other exotic and
domestic animals. (Author's abstract)
emus/ tuberculosis/ Mycobacterium avium

144. Shane, SM and Tully, TN Jr. Disease and reproductive losses in emus.
Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994;
Sacramento, California.; 1994 22-24. v. 43rd).
emus/ mortality 

145. Sibley C and Frelin C. The egg white protein evidence for ratite
affinities. Ibis 1972; 114(3): 377-387.
English; 45 ref; 9603
Egg white proteins from a number of bird species were compared using
isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. From their studies, the authors
concluded that: the large ratites (ostrich, cassowary, emu and rheas) are
more closely related to one another than to any one of them is to any other
group of living birds; two species of rheas are closely related; emu and
cassoary are closely related but less so than the two rhea species; kiwi is
enigmatic but may be closer to the tinamous than any other group; and the
tinamous are not closely related to the large ratites. (KL)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ cassowaries/ rheas/ kiwis/ tinamous

146. Skadhauge E; Maloney S; and Dawson T. Osmotic adaptation of the emu
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical
Systemic And Environmental Physiology 1991; 161(2): 173-178.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is well adapted to the Australian
semi-desert, although it has a limited renal concentrating ability. One
problem is the balance between the ability to resorb ions and water from
ureteral urine during its reflux into the coprodeum and rectum (colon), and
the rate of ureteral inflow. To elucidate this problem the osmotic and
nutritonal state of wild birds needs to be studied in order to integrate
laboratory and field investigations. This paper reports plasma values and the
composition of gut contents from birds shot in the arid interior during the
hot, dry summer. The wild birds showed little sign of osmotic stress with
only marginally elevated plasma osmolality, and near-isotonic contents of the
coprodeal/ rectal segment (332 +- 6 mOsm). Intestinal contents showed that
the birds were feeding on berries of bushes with either a high (Rhagodia) or
a low (Santalum) content of NaCl. The coprodeal/ rectal concentration of Na+
and Cl- were high enough to permit solute-water flow. There was little sign
of fermentation. In vitro investigation in the Ussing chamber of isolated
coprodeum and rectum epithelium revealed an inwardly directed current which
was amiloride inhibitable and amino acid independent, suggesting electrogenic
Na absorption of around 4 mu-mol cntdot h-1 cntdot cm-2 mucosal area
regardless of the NaCl intake. Based on previously determined transport
parameters of the coproduem/ rectum epithelium (Dawson et al. 1985) and
ureteral excretion rates of water and electrolytes (Dawson et al. 1991), it
is concluded that the lower gut can resorbe the major part of the water
coming from the kidneys (and ileum) on both low and high NaCl intakes. The
lower gut is most important in the xeric adaptation. The reason for the
apparently high transport capacity, larger than in other birds, of the lower
gut (serosal area) was a high degree of folding of the mucosal surface
(increasing surface area by a factor of five).
Santalum Sp./ Rhagodia Sp./ Rectum/ Coprodeum/ Sodium Chloride/ Renal
Function/ Diet/ Urine Modification/ Semi Desert

147. Smetana P. Emu farming in Australia. Proceedings of the Australian
Society of Animal Production 1990; 18: 107-109.
Meeting held on July 8-12, 1990, Adelaide, South Australia.
emus/ animal production/ game farming/ australia 

148. Smith, DA, Kwiecien, JM, and Smith-Maxie, L. Encephalitis in emus
resulting from migration of Baylisacaris sp. Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; August 31-September 4,
1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 301-303. 
English; 10 ref.
Verminous encephalitis has been reported in emus and an ostrich as a result
of migration of larvae of Baylisascaris sp and Chandlerella quiscali.
Clinical examination and/ or necropsies were performed on seven emus showing
neurological signs including ataxia and incoordination. On histological
examination of the brains, malacia and macrophage accumulation were noted,
expecially in the cerebellum. Ascarid larvae whose morphology was consistent
with Bayliacaris sp were found in the brain of one animal. These clinical and
histological findings were consistent with previous reports of the disease.
No effective treatment has been described, however some veterinarians use
ivermectin administered at four to eight week intervals to reduce non-neural
tissue migration by this parasite. (Author's abstract)
emus/ ostriches/ encephalitis

149. Speer, BL. An update on infectious viral diseases of the ostrich and
emu. Arizona, California & Nevada Joint Veterinary Conference; September
27-30, 1993; Reno, Nevada.; [1993] 533-536. 
English; 0 ref.; 9606
This paper looks at viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases and mycoplasmas in
ostriches and emus. Viral diseases are discussed at a more indepth level with
casusative agent, clinical signs, transmission, diagnosis and prevention
being discussed for avian influenza, pox, Newcastles disease, coronavirus,
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
There is a brief discussion of gram positive and negative bacterial diseases,
fungal diseases (aspergillosis and candidiasis) and mycoplasmas.
ostriches/ emus/ viral diseases/ Newcastles disease/ avian influenza/ pox/
Eastern equine encephalitis virus/ Western equine encephalitis virus/
coronavirus/ E. coli/ Salmonella/ Staphyloccus/ Streptococcus/ Clostridium/
Spirochetes/ Campylobacter/ Aspergillus/ Candida/ Mycoplasmas

150. Stapel S; Leunissen J; Versteeg M; Wattel J; and de Jong W. Ratites as
oldest offshoot of avian stem - evidence from alpha-crystallin A sequences.
Nature 1984; 311(5983): 257-259.
English; 24 ref.; 9603
One of the most disputed issues in avian phylogeny is the origin of the
ratites, the large flightless birds of the Southern Hemisphere. It is still
not generally agreed whether the ostriches, rheas, emus and cassowaries, and
probably kiwis, form a natural, monophyletic group, although much recent
evidence supports this view. Also, their phylogenetic relationship with the
other avian orders remains unresolved; comparative protein sequence studies
might shed new light on this problem. Therefore, we determined the amino acid
sequence of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A in ostrich, rhea and emu,
and in representatives of 13 other avian orders. Comparison of these
sequences with known alpha A sequences of mammals, reptiles, frog and dogfish
provides strong evidence that the ratites, as a monphyletic assemblage,
represent the first offshoot of the avian line. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ ostriches/ emus/ rheas/ evolution

151. Stewart, JS. Overview of the ratite industry: Past, present & future.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians; September 1-5, 1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of
Avian Veterinarians; 1992 304-306. 
English; 2 ref.; 9603
Commercial ostrich farming, while seemingly new to many parts of the world,
is in fact an old established industry. Ostrich products include leather,
meat and feathers, and maintain a high market value. The current and expected
future demand for these products far exceed the supply. The renewed
internationall interst in commercial ostrich production is fraught with
production difficulties that are likely to retard saturation of this market
for years.
Commercial emu farming is a relatively recent venture. The principal products
include leather, meat and oil. Although emus have proven capable of being
reared in large scale production, the market for emu producats remains to be
developed. (Author's abstract)
ratites/ emus/ ostriches/ industry

152. Stewart, JS. Ratite (ostrich and emu) industry and management practices.
Proceedings of the Western Poultry Disease Conference; Feb. 27-Mar. 1, 1994;
Sacramento, California.; 1994 15-19. v. 43rd).
ostriches/ emus/ animal husbandry/ poultry industry

153. Swasy, A. No chickens or geese for this farm; here, birds have 
character. Wall Street Journal (East Edition), New York; June 2, 1993;
A1, A7.
emus/ animal husbandry/ pennsylvania 

154. Swerida, DF. Lysosomal storage disease in an emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 447. 
English; 0 ref.; poster presentation
Reports a case study of an emu diagnosed as having a genetic lysosomal
storage disease. The symptoms could also be caused by plant toxicity
(Astragalus) but the plant does not grow in Florida and no sign was found in
the bird's pen and straw bedding.
emus/ neurological disorders

155. Tommura T; Kotani T; and Mochizuki H. Comparative studies on
arteriosclerosis in wild and domestic animals. i. spontaneous
arteriosclerosis in the emu, Dromiceius novaehollandiae. Japanese Journal of
Veterinary Science 1970; 32 (1 ): 25-34.
English summary. bibliography: p. 30-31.

156. Tuckwell C. Farming of emus and processing of emu meat. Food Australia
1993; 45(12): 574-575.
English. Includes references.
emus/ poultry farming/ food processing/ eggs/ poultry meat/ food
composition/ nutritive value/ food storage/ food industry/ trends 

157. Tully, TN Jr. Eastern equine encephalitis in emus. Proceedings of the
Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 1-5,
1992; New Orleans. Florida: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1992 316-317. 
English; 7 ref.; 9603
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is included in the group of alpha
(Group A) arboviruses that include western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE). The name of the disease is derived
from the clinical signs commonly associated with infected horses although
many avain species may be infected and serve as reservoir hosts. Native
passerine species and columbiforms have been found to be asymptomatic
carriers of EEE. Captive whooping cranes (Grus americana), turkeys (Meleagris
gallopavo), chukars (Alectoris chukar), pheasants (Phasianus colchicus),
domestic ducks (Anas sp.), domestic chickens (Gallus sp.), and bobwhite quail
(Colinus virginianus) have been shown to be susceptible to EEE. EEE was
isolated from a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in south central
Louisiana exhibiting clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and peracute
mortality. (Author's abstract)
emus/ eastern equine encephalomyelitis

158. Tully, TN Jr and Shane, SM. Multivalent equine encephalomyelitis vaccine
to protect emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Proceedings of the Annual
Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians; 31 August-4 September
1993; Nashville.: Association of Avian Veterinarians; 1993 297-298. 
English; 4 ref.
Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis have been diagnosed in emus in
the southwestern and eastern United States since 1991. Both viral diseases
cause high morbidity and in the case of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis
(EEE) high mortality occurs in susceptible flocks. Emus that have been
vaccinated with an inactivated multivalent equine vaccine are protected from
exposure to both EEE and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis (WEE). A one year
study was performed on southeastern United States flocks to determine
protective antibody titers stimulated by vaccination. Seventy percent of the
birds developed a protective titer after receiving an initial vaccination
followed by a single booster one month later. (Author's abstract)
emus/ Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis/ Western Equine Encephalomyelitis/
vaccination/ encephalitis

159. Tully, TN Jr and Shane, SM. Salmonella pullorum seroconversion in emus
(Dromaius novaehollandiae). Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994 31 August-4
September 1993; Rena, Nevada Nashville.; 1993 315-317. 
English; 2 ref.
Experimental infection of juvenile emus with 2 x 10(8) cfu S. pullorum per-os
resulted in stimulation of antibodies detectable with the whole blood plate
agglutination test, 9 days post-infection. It was not possible to re-isolate
S. pullorum from viscera of infected birds 15 days post-infrction in this
pilot study. It is suggested that the S. pullorum agglutination test be
included in routine health examinations. (Author's abstract)
bacterial diseases/ salmonellosis/ host range/ Salmonella pullorum

160. Tully TJ; Shane S; Poston R; England J; Vice C; Cho D; and Panigrahy B.
Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).
Avian Diseases 1992; 36(3): 808-812.
Includes references.
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed in flock of emus in south
eastern Louisiana. The outbreak involved juvenile and adult breeders ranging
in age from 20 to 36 months, with an attack- rate of 76% and a case fatality
rate of 87%. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation and characterization of
the viral agent, arid by detection of EEE antibody in two recovered emus.
High mortality was preceded by marked depression, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and
emesis of blood stained ingesta. On postmortem examination, hemorrhagic
enteritis and multiple petechia of viscera were observed. Microscopic changes
included severe necrosis of hepatocytes, intestinal mucosa, and necrotizing
vasculitis of the spleen and lamina propria of the intestine. No nervous
system lesions were observed. This outbreak occurred concurrently with EEE in
horses and was attributed to unseasonably heavy rainfall with an abundance of
arthropod vectors and proximity to free-living reservoir host species.
emus/ eastern equine encephalitis virus/ flocks/ outbreaks/ morbidity/
mortality/ diagnosis/ histopathology/ case reports/ reservoir hosts/
disease vectors/ rain/ louisiana 

161. Twigg L; King D; Davis H; Saunders D; and Mead R. Tolerance to, and
metabolism of, fluoroacetate in the emu. Australian-Wildlife-Research 1988;
15(3): 239-247.
36 ref
Birds/ Wild animals/ Emus/ EMUS/ Fluorine/ Struthioniformes 

162. VanDerHeyden, N. Cardiomyopathy in three emu chicks. Kornelsen, MJ.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Avian
Veterinarians PO Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian
Veterinarians; 1994 127-129. 
English; 3 ref.
Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in three emu chicks - two antemortem and one
post-mortem. None of the chicks were related, and they originated from two
separate flocks. All of the chicks had been fed the same commercial ratite
diet since hatch. Symptoms suggestive of vitamin E deficiency had previously
been noted in the chicks and their clutchmates, and a vitamin E and selenium
injection had been administered to all of the chicks. An attempt was made to
link the cardiomyopathy to vitamin E deficiency; however, there was no clear
evidence to substantiate this theory. Liver vitamin E and selenium levels
were obtained on two of the affected chicks, and serum vitamin E and selenium
levels were obtained on representative chicks from both flocks. A sample of
the starter feed the chicks had been reared on was also analyzed from vitamin
E levels and selenium levels, and felt to be adequate. (Author's interpretive
emus/ diet/ cardiomyopathy/ vitamin E/ selenium

163. Veazey R; Vice C; Cho D; Tully TJ; and Shane S. Pathology of Eastern
equine encephalitis in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Veterinary Pathology
1994; 31(1): 109-111.
9 ref
In separate outbreaks on 2 farms, 50 miles apart, in Louisiana, USA, in late
August to late October and late October 1991, 13 of 24 emus (1.5-3 years old)
and 7 emus (2-4 years old), died. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus
(EEEV) was isolated from liver, spleen and intestines of 11 birds comprising
members of both flocks. Postmortem examination of 16 birds indicated that
EEEV shows visceral tropism in the emu. The reason for this is unknown but it
is suggested that the liver is the target organ for virus replication in
birds. Diffuse lymphoid necrosis found in emus suggests that in this species
the virus may target lymphocytes as well. The only preventative measures
available to emu farmers are vector control and use of an inactivated equine
vaccine (not approved for use in birds) which may not afford adequate
protection in all avian species.
emus/ pathology/ histopathology/ disease control/ hepatitis/ splenic
diseases/ equine encephalomyelitis virus/ USA 

164. Vodkin M; McLaughlin G; Day J; Shope R; and Novak R. A rapid diagnostic
assay for eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral RNA. American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1993; 49(6): 772-776.
English; 20 ref
A coupled reverse transcription/ polymerase chain reaction assay was designed
to rapidly, sensitively and specifically detect eastern equine
encephalomyelitis virus RNA. The assay successfully detected the viral RNA in
a single-blind study of a set of field samples composed of either pooled
mosquitoes (Culex erraticus and Anopheles crucians) or bird (emu, Dromaius
novaehollandiae) tissue. These results suggest that it would be practical to
use this assay for deciding when and where to implement mosquito abatement.
Diptera/ disease vectors/ arboviruses/ Alphavirus/ Togaviridae/ birds/
wild birds/ polymerase chain reaction/ RNA/ diagnostic techniques/ diagnosis
/ eastern equine encephalitis virus/ Culex erraticus/ Anopheles crucians/
emus/ detection/ Culicidae/ biotechnology 

165. Wahoski M. Emu egg candlers explained. Canadian Ostrich 1994; 3(9): 40.
Discusses the process of looking into an incubated egg. Gives graphical
reprsentation of normal and abnormal air-cell at various stages of
development (1 week, 21 days, and 30 days). Lists criteria for evaluating the
performance of an emu egg candler.
emus/ egg candling/ eggs

166. Watters, CE, Joyce, KL, Heath, SE, and Kazacos, KR. Cyathostoma
infection as the cause of respiratory distress in emus (Dromaius
novaehollandiae). Kornelsen, MJ. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the
Association of Avian Veterinarians; September 28-30, 1994; Rena, Nevada. PO
Box 18372/ Orlando/ FL 32861: Association Avian Veterinarians; 1994 151-155. 
English; 6 ref.
Two emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were presented for respiratory distress
within two weeks of purchase from a large breeding facility. The birds
exhibited open mouth breathing, coughing, and hemoptysis. Fecal and tracheal
endoscipic examinations revealed infection with Cyathostoma sp., possibly C.
bronchialis. An investigation of the breeding farm of origin suggested a
common source of infection, but the origin of infection could not be
determined. Possible risk factors for infrction of ratites with Cyathostoma
are discussed. (Authors' interpretive summary)
emus/ Cyathostoma/ respiratory diseases

167. Weiler B. Successful emu incubating and chick care. Canadian Ostrich
1994; 3(4): 76-79.
An emu producer provides tips on incubating and chick care.
emus/ chicks/ incubating

168. Widdowson B. Hints on raising happy chicks. Ratite Journal 1994; 2(10):
Discusses various factors which can impact on chicks. The essentials are
keeping them dry, warm, well fed and watered and with adequate ventilation.
Reviewed are: heat lamps, floor surfaces, pen surface, pen progression,
feeding and water.

169. Willson M. Gut retention times of experimental pseudoseeds by emus.
Biotropica 1989; 21(3): 210-213.
28 ref
Pseudoseeds (buttons and beads of a specific gravity within the range of real
seeds) were retained in the digestive tract of captive emus very commonly for
1-2 d, but a considerable number were held for over 1 week and up to several
weeks. These retention times were similar to those of several other large,
fruit eating vertebrates that often disperse the seeds of the fruits eaten.
Retention time did not vary consistently with pseudoseed dimensions but did
differ greatly among birds and trials. Many of the ingested pseudoseeds were
deposited at nightly camp sites. Long retention times and patchy deposition
patterns have several possible but undocumented consequences for seed
Seed dispersal/ emus/ Seeds/ transit time

170. Wilson G; Hill G; and Barnes A. An aerial survey of feral pigs and emus
in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 1987; 14(4):
Aerial surveys of feral pigs in the Goondiwindi region of Queensland showed
an overall observed density of about 1 per square kilometer. On mature wheat
crops in October, up to four feral pigs per square kilometer were seen amidst
substantial crop damage. Emus were less abundant and seen more evenly over
all habitats at an average of 0 multiplied by 3 per square kilometer. Factors
affecting sightability are discussed.
emus/ introduced species/ aerial surveys/ Sus scrofa/ Dromaius novae
hollandiae/ Australia, Queensland, Goondiwindi

171. Winterfield R and Thacker H. Verminous encephalitis in the emu [Probable
transmission to domestic birds]. Avian Diseases 1978; 22 (2): 336-339.

172. Zuniga J. Are you ready for those emu eggs? Ratite Journal 1994; 2(12):
Discusses incubation parameters such as temperature and humidity, hatching,
and trouble shooting during incubation and hatching.