Award Holder: Principal--Professor Richard Higgott
Department of Politics and International Studies
Period of Report from January 1 1997--January 15 1998
Amount £120, 000 over three years
Aims and Methods of Research
The aims of this project is to conduct research into (i) the issue of
'identity' and the 'invention of the Asia Pacific as a prerequisite to
enhanced understanding of the regional policy process; (ii) to map and
analyse emergent trans-regional policy communities, the nature of regional
policy coordination and their implications for the management of the wider
international economic order; (iii) to analyse Europe's responses to the
Asia-Pacific regional policy agenda and the implications of these responses
for inter-regional linkage patterns between Europe and the Asia Pacific in
the closing stages of the twentieth century; (vi) to assess the
implications of these processes for theoretical & practical understanding
of international economic cooperation & policy coordination in the study of
late twentieth century international relations. The project is an
interdisciplinary, multi-researcher project developing over three related
but identifiably separate stages. Our principal methodological approach is
via the collection and analysis of primary and secondary qualitative and
quantitative data and extensive field work interviews with public and
private officials and interaction with other scholars through workshops and
Highlights of the Research and Important Findings
Building on the first two reports we are reinforced in our view that
project continues to touch on questions of considerable moment in both the
practical evolution of regional policy coordination in Pacific Asia and the
theoretical understanding of international cooperation. Our research tends
to confirm our initial hypothesis of the growing salience of collective
identity formation in the Asia Pacific. Moreover, given the events in East
Asia over the last six months.--the economic crisis of the collapse of
certain currencies and stock values in several of the countries under close
scrutiny in this project (especially Korea, Malaysia and Thailand)--we
would argue that the project has gained added salience. The analysis of
the prospect of enhanced regional cooperation is now more, rather than
less, important as the region struggles to adjust to the downturn of
1997-8. (see Higgott, 1998a)
While fragmentation is always an option in times of crisis, enhanced
regional tactical and cognitive collective identity formation is a rational
response to such a crisis The current period is replete with tactical
possibilities for enhanced policy coordination or policy harmonisation,
especially in their economic and political relationships with third
parties, notably the USA and Europe. Asian countries have recognised the
need to pay more attention to the prospect of longer term collective
regional positions (implicit if not always explicit) on matters of import
in the international political economy over the medium to long term future.
The development of the ASEM process is testament to this point. For all
its indeterminism--especially given the events of the last six months--ASEM
is a further potential pillar in the contemporary international regional
architecture of enhanced dialogue and putative coordination. Its evolution
is important in the third phase of this project which considers the
implications for European policy of events in the region in some detail.
Again, we would argue that this issue is even more salient in the light of
recent economic events than we imagined when first drafting the proposal.
Current research and writing has been adjusted to take account of the
unfolding economic events in the region
As reported last year, the only funded researcher on the project was Dr
Yeon Ho Lee, employed in the Dept. of Politics and International Studies at
Warwick on a one year contract funded (June 1996-May 1997) by the award
Dr Lee's contract was extended by Warwick for three months to allow us to
finish a major paper. Dr Lee has since returned to an appointment at the
Centre for East West Studies at Yonsei University in Seoul. Dr Lee
continues to be associated with the project and we are currently applying
for funding from the Korea Asia Fund for support to mount a workshop
consisting of the Warwick, Paris and Seoul based participants in this
Given the comment raised in the director about the small amount of
publication arising from the projects to-date, a consolidated list of
published work and in press work is appended to this report. As can be
seen from the attachment, to-date, one edited book of original essays,
seven refereed articles, six book chapters and dozens of conference papers
have arisen from the project. One refereed article is under submission, a
second edited book will shortly go to press, a single authored book will be
completed by the end of the year and a third edited book will be completed
in early 1999 following the revision of the Fukuoka workshop papers.
Engagements with Research Users in 1997-8 to-date
Professor Higgott has interacted with and made presentations to a large
range of members of both the national and international, public and private
sector policy making community with specialist interest in the development
of economic cooperation in the Asia Pacific. For example the following
paper were presented
'Globalisation and Governance in East Asia in the Late C20: The Salience of
Economic Regionalism and Identity', Conference on The Logics of
Globalisation in Asia, Singapore: National University of Singapore,
December 2-4 1997, 1-26.
'ASEM: Towards the Institutionalisation of the East Asia-Europe
Relationship' Conference on Asia, Europe and North America: Cooperation or
Conflict, Calgary, University of Calgary, October 24-7 1997: 1-27.
'Identity, Political Economy and Regionalism in East Asia in an Era of
Globalisation', 50th Anniversary Lecture, Faculty of Political Science,
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, September, 3 1997, 1-22
'Learning From ASEAN? International Theory and regional Diplomacy in the
Asia Pacific' Conference on Thirty Years of ASEAN, Mainz: Institut fur
Politik Wissenchaft, Johannes Gutenberg Universitat, July 12 1997, 1-30.
'The Politics of ASEM', Workshop on the Europe Asia Meeting Process,
London: National Institute for Economic and Social Research, 12 June 1997:
'Globalisation and Governance: The Accommodation with Regionalisation and
Localisation' in East Asia, Berne, European Consortium for Political
Research. Workshop 11, Globalisation and the State; February 27-March 3
The following verbal presentations were made:
'Beyond the Asian Economic Miracle?' Coopers and Lyrbrand Senior Managers
Executive Workshop, Warwick Business School, March 1997.
'The State of EU-Asian Relations' UK-Korea Forum for the Future, Seoul,
September 9 1997.
Globalisation and Regionalisation: Implications for East Asia', Public
Forum on Understanding Globalisation in the Asia Pacific, Centre for
Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore, December 5 1997.
I also ran a panel on East Asian Regionalism at the Annual Meeting of the
British International Studies Association, Leeds, December 16 1997;
attended the Second Plenary Sessions of the Council for Asia Europe
Cooperation, Ditchley Park, Oxford, May 1997.
attended the European Commission sponsored Manila Forum on EU-Asia
Relations, December 11-12 1997
Detailed Progress Report
Items (i) and (ii) The project has, in the opinion of those of us involved
in it, progressed well. With the publication of l'Asie Retrouvee, phase
one was completed. Higgott and Lee worked on phase two throughout 1997.
Milestones included field work in Asia by both Higgott and Lee for data
collection on the mapping exercise of the various regional policy
coordinating bodies that make up the regional and inter-regional policy
communities and out of which Higgott's monograph on regional cooperation
will emerge. Evidently, this cannot cover all countries of the region, but
close attention is being paid to major actors such as Japan, South Korea
In keeping with the agenda of this research project, a second workshop on
Comparative Regional Integration was held in Warwick 27-29 October at which
six senior Japanese international relations scholars, in conjunction with
eight European scholars, came together to work through the papers for an
edited volume--the third volume anticipated in the initial application--on
regional economic and political cooperation. The funding for this was
partially met from this award, but considerable funding was also made
available from the Japanese Political Science Association in order for us
to bring six Asian specialists to Warwick.
Phase three of the project is now quite well developed. The third workshop
in the project's agenda will be held in Fukuoka in Japan in June/July 1998.
Again this will have substantial financial support from the Japanese
Political Science Association. The papers presented at the October
workshop are listed in appendix 1. Also 1998 a comparative workshop on
'the role of economic policy elites and different economic regulatory
cultures in Asia and Europe' will be organised by Dr Rhodes at the EUI
(this was also envisaged in the initial proposal)
(Item iii) Three minor difficulties have been encountered in the project.
The first was the transfer from Warwick to Manchester. This interjected
into the project a delay of about 6 months in which little research or
writing substance was conducted on the project. (ii) It took some time to
get clearance for Dr Lee to work in Britain so this delayed his arrival
(iv) No fundamental changes in methodology are envisaged.
(v) The timetable of the project is adrift only by the four-six months
delay that occurred because of its relocation from Manchester to Warwick.
Notwithstanding the delay we are happy with the progress we have made, we
hope the Steering Committee will share our view.
Publications Arising from the Project
(i) Already Published
David Camroux 'Huntington: le Choc des civilisations ou l'orientalism
mondialise', Etudes, 1996.
David Camroux, 'Accommodation, co-option and confrontation; state responses
to islamic resurgence in Malaysia', Asian Survey, 1996.
David Camroux, (with Christian Lechervy), 'Encounter of a Third Kind: The
Inaugural Europe Asia Meeting' The Pacific Review, 9 (3) 1996.
Jean Luc Domenach and David Camroux (eds) l'Asie Retrouvee. Editions du
Seuil Paris, 1997 English Edition in press with Routledge in 1997 (Table of
'Richard Higgott, APEC and ASEM: The Opportunities and Limits of
Institutionalisation in an Era of Globalisation' in The Asia Europe Meeting
(ASEM): A New Dynamism for a Renewed Linkage, Seoul: Korean Institute of
Economic Planning and the Freidrich-Ebert-Stiftung,1996, pps 1-34
Richard Higgott, 'Leadership in Regional Integration Schemes' in Heribert
Dieter (ed) The Regionalisation of the World Economy, Berlin: Deutsche
Stiftung fur Internationale Entwicklung, 1997, pps. 59-90.
Richard Higgott, 'The Regional Integration Experience in Southeast Asia:
Lessons for Southern Africa' in Heribert Dieter (ed) The Regionalisation of
the World Economy:: Berlin: Deutsche Stiftung fur Internationale
Entwicklung, 1997, pps 237-76
Richard Higgott, 'Libre Echange et Regionalism Asiatique' in Jean Luc
Domenach and David Camroux (eds) l'Asie Retrouvee, Paris: Le Seuil and
London: Routledge, 1997, 76-97
Richard Higgott, Issues, Institutions and Middle Power Diplomacy: Action
and Agendas for Cooperation in the Post Cold War Era', in Andrew F. Cooper
(ed) Middle Power Diplomacy After the Cold War. London: Macmillan, 1997,
'Richard Higgott, Free Trade and Open Regionalism in Asia: De facto or De
Jure Regionalisation?', Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary
International Relations, 11(2) 1997, 165-83.
Richard Higgott, 'Institutions, Identity and Social Learning in the
International Political Economy of Regionalism: Asia and Europe Compared,
Kokusai Seiji (International Politics), 114, March, 1997, pps 14-48.
Richard Higgott, 'Globalisation et Modialisation: l'Evolution du Niveau
Regional' , Politique Etrangere, 62 (2) 1997: 277-92
'Richard Higgott, The Economic Crisis in East Asia: Shared Responses to
market Shocks?' The World Today, 54 (1) 1998, pps. 4-7.
Richard Higgott, 'The International Political Economy of Regionalism: Asia
and Europe Compared', in W. D. Coleman and G. R. D. Underhill (eds)
Regionalism and Global Economic Integration: Europe, Asia and the Americas,
London: Routledge, 1998, 47-67.
Richard Higgott, The Pacific and Beyond: APEC, ASEM and Regional Economic
Management', Economic Dynamism in the Pacific Region: The Growth of
Integration and Competitiveness, Routledge for the Open University, 1998,
Richard Higgott, 'ASEM: Towards the Institutionalisation of the East
Asia-Europe Relationship?' in Ron Keith and Donald Barry (eds), Europe,
North America and the Asia Pacific: Cooperation or Conflict? Vancouver:
University of British Columbia Press
'Richard Higgott, 'Keeping Regionalism Open', in Hanns Maull, Gerry Segal
and Jusuf Wanandi (eds) Europe in Asia, London: Routledge, 1998 in Press
Richard Higgott and Yeon Ho Lee, 'Ideas and Economic Liberalisation in East
Asia: The Case of South Korea under the Kim Young-sam Government', (with
Yeon Ho Lee) submitted to World Politics,
In final preparation
Richard Higgott (ed) The Theory and Practice of Regional Integration in the
Asia Pacific: A Reader, London: Routledge. All the papers are in an
edited, just the Introduction to write, submission to publisher May 1998.
Richard Higgott, Regional Cooperation and Theories of International
Relations: Learning from the Asia Pacific? London: Macmillan Series in
International political Economy. 80, 000 word manuscript in draft form for
submission to publisher by September 1998.
Richard Higgott and Makoto Iokibe (eds) Comparative Regional Integration:
The Asia Pacific and Europe Compared, completion and submission in 1999
Professor of International Political Economy
Department of Politics and International Studies
Warwick University, January 20 1998