Ideas, Identity and the Evolution of Policy Coordination in Pacific Asia


Award Holder: Principal--Professor Richard Higgott

Department of Politics and International Studies

Warwick University

Period of Report from January 1 1997--January 15 1998

Amount £120, 000 over three years


Aims and Methods of Research

The aims of this project is to conduct research into (i) the issue of

'identity' and the 'invention of the Asia Pacific as a prerequisite to

enhanced understanding of the regional policy process; (ii) to map and

analyse emergent trans-regional policy communities, the nature of regional

policy coordination and their implications for the management of the wider

international economic order; (iii) to analyse Europe's responses to the

Asia-Pacific regional policy agenda and the implications of these responses

for inter-regional linkage patterns between Europe and the Asia Pacific in

the closing stages of the twentieth century; (vi) to assess the

implications of these processes for theoretical & practical understanding

of international economic cooperation & policy coordination in the study of

late twentieth century international relations. The project is an

interdisciplinary, multi-researcher project developing over three related

but identifiably separate stages. Our principal methodological approach is

via the collection and analysis of primary and secondary qualitative and

quantitative data and extensive field work interviews with public and

private officials and interaction with other scholars through workshops and

mini conferences.



Highlights of the Research and Important Findings

Building on the first two reports we are reinforced in our view that

project continues to touch on questions of considerable moment in both the

practical evolution of regional policy coordination in Pacific Asia and the

theoretical understanding of international cooperation. Our research tends

to confirm our initial hypothesis of the growing salience of collective

identity formation in the Asia Pacific. Moreover, given the events in East

Asia over the last six months.--the economic crisis of the collapse of

certain currencies and stock values in several of the countries under close

scrutiny in this project (especially Korea, Malaysia and Thailand)--we

would argue that the project has gained added salience. The analysis of

the prospect of enhanced regional cooperation is now more, rather than

less, important as the region struggles to adjust to the downturn of

1997-8. (see Higgott, 1998a)

While fragmentation is always an option in times of crisis, enhanced

regional tactical and cognitive collective identity formation is a rational

response to such a crisis The current period is replete with tactical

possibilities for enhanced policy coordination or policy harmonisation,

especially in their economic and political relationships with third

parties, notably the USA and Europe. Asian countries have recognised the

need to pay more attention to the prospect of longer term collective

regional positions (implicit if not always explicit) on matters of import

in the international political economy over the medium to long term future.


The development of the ASEM process is testament to this point. For all

its indeterminism--especially given the events of the last six months--ASEM

is a further potential pillar in the contemporary international regional

architecture of enhanced dialogue and putative coordination. Its evolution

is important in the third phase of this project which considers the

implications for European policy of events in the region in some detail.

Again, we would argue that this issue is even more salient in the light of

recent economic events than we imagined when first drafting the proposal.

Current research and writing has been adjusted to take account of the

unfolding economic events in the region

Research Staff

As reported last year, the only funded researcher on the project was Dr

Yeon Ho Lee, employed in the Dept. of Politics and International Studies at

Warwick on a one year contract funded (June 1996-May 1997) by the award

Dr Lee's contract was extended by Warwick for three months to allow us to

finish a major paper. Dr Lee has since returned to an appointment at the

Centre for East West Studies at Yonsei University in Seoul. Dr Lee

continues to be associated with the project and we are currently applying

for funding from the Korea Asia Fund for support to mount a workshop

consisting of the Warwick, Paris and Seoul based participants in this



Publications, Papers

Given the comment raised in the director about the small amount of

publication arising from the projects to-date, a consolidated list of

published work and in press work is appended to this report. As can be

seen from the attachment, to-date, one edited book of original essays,

seven refereed articles, six book chapters and dozens of conference papers

have arisen from the project. One refereed article is under submission, a

second edited book will shortly go to press, a single authored book will be

completed by the end of the year and a third edited book will be completed

in early 1999 following the revision of the Fukuoka workshop papers.


Engagements with Research Users in 1997-8 to-date

Professor Higgott has interacted with and made presentations to a large

range of members of both the national and international, public and private

sector policy making community with specialist interest in the development

of economic cooperation in the Asia Pacific. For example the following

paper were presented

'Globalisation and Governance in East Asia in the Late C20: The Salience of

Economic Regionalism and Identity', Conference on The Logics of

Globalisation in Asia, Singapore: National University of Singapore,

December 2-4 1997, 1-26.

'ASEM: Towards the Institutionalisation of the East Asia-Europe

Relationship' Conference on Asia, Europe and North America: Cooperation or

Conflict, Calgary, University of Calgary, October 24-7 1997: 1-27.

'Identity, Political Economy and Regionalism in East Asia in an Era of

Globalisation', 50th Anniversary Lecture, Faculty of Political Science,

Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, September, 3 1997, 1-22

'Learning From ASEAN? International Theory and regional Diplomacy in the

Asia Pacific' Conference on Thirty Years of ASEAN, Mainz: Institut fur

Politik Wissenchaft, Johannes Gutenberg Universitat, July 12 1997, 1-30.

'The Politics of ASEM', Workshop on the Europe Asia Meeting Process,

London: National Institute for Economic and Social Research, 12 June 1997:


'Globalisation and Governance: The Accommodation with Regionalisation and

Localisation' in East Asia, Berne, European Consortium for Political

Research. Workshop 11, Globalisation and the State; February 27-March 3

1997: 1-31.

The following verbal presentations were made:

'Beyond the Asian Economic Miracle?' Coopers and Lyrbrand Senior Managers

Executive Workshop, Warwick Business School, March 1997.

'The State of EU-Asian Relations' UK-Korea Forum for the Future, Seoul,

September 9 1997.

Globalisation and Regionalisation: Implications for East Asia', Public

Forum on Understanding Globalisation in the Asia Pacific, Centre for

Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore, December 5 1997.

I also ran a panel on East Asian Regionalism at the Annual Meeting of the

British International Studies Association, Leeds, December 16 1997;

attended the Second Plenary Sessions of the Council for Asia Europe

Cooperation, Ditchley Park, Oxford, May 1997.

attended the European Commission sponsored Manila Forum on EU-Asia

Relations, December 11-12 1997


Detailed Progress Report

Items (i) and (ii) The project has, in the opinion of those of us involved

in it, progressed well. With the publication of l'Asie Retrouvee, phase

one was completed. Higgott and Lee worked on phase two throughout 1997.

Milestones included field work in Asia by both Higgott and Lee for data

collection on the mapping exercise of the various regional policy

coordinating bodies that make up the regional and inter-regional policy

communities and out of which Higgott's monograph on regional cooperation

will emerge. Evidently, this cannot cover all countries of the region, but

close attention is being paid to major actors such as Japan, South Korea

and ASEAN.



In keeping with the agenda of this research project, a second workshop on

Comparative Regional Integration was held in Warwick 27-29 October at which

six senior Japanese international relations scholars, in conjunction with

eight European scholars, came together to work through the papers for an

edited volume--the third volume anticipated in the initial application--on

regional economic and political cooperation. The funding for this was

partially met from this award, but considerable funding was also made

available from the Japanese Political Science Association in order for us

to bring six Asian specialists to Warwick.

Phase three of the project is now quite well developed. The third workshop

in the project's agenda will be held in Fukuoka in Japan in June/July 1998.

Again this will have substantial financial support from the Japanese

Political Science Association. The papers presented at the October

workshop are listed in appendix 1. Also 1998 a comparative workshop on

'the role of economic policy elites and different economic regulatory

cultures in Asia and Europe' will be organised by Dr Rhodes at the EUI

(this was also envisaged in the initial proposal)

(Item iii) Three minor difficulties have been encountered in the project.

The first was the transfer from Warwick to Manchester. This interjected

into the project a delay of about 6 months in which little research or

writing substance was conducted on the project. (ii) It took some time to

get clearance for Dr Lee to work in Britain so this delayed his arrival

until July.

(iv) No fundamental changes in methodology are envisaged.

(v) The timetable of the project is adrift only by the four-six months

delay that occurred because of its relocation from Manchester to Warwick.

Notwithstanding the delay we are happy with the progress we have made, we

hope the Steering Committee will share our view.


Publications Arising from the Project


(i) Already Published


David Camroux 'Huntington: le Choc des civilisations ou l'orientalism

mondialise', Etudes, 1996.

David Camroux, 'Accommodation, co-option and confrontation; state responses

to islamic resurgence in Malaysia', Asian Survey, 1996.

David Camroux, (with Christian Lechervy), 'Encounter of a Third Kind: The

Inaugural Europe Asia Meeting' The Pacific Review, 9 (3) 1996.

Jean Luc Domenach and David Camroux (eds) l'Asie Retrouvee. Editions du

Seuil Paris, 1997 English Edition in press with Routledge in 1997 (Table of

contents attached.)

'Richard Higgott, APEC and ASEM: The Opportunities and Limits of

Institutionalisation in an Era of Globalisation' in The Asia Europe Meeting

(ASEM): A New Dynamism for a Renewed Linkage, Seoul: Korean Institute of

Economic Planning and the Freidrich-Ebert-Stiftung,1996, pps 1-34

Richard Higgott, 'Leadership in Regional Integration Schemes' in Heribert

Dieter (ed) The Regionalisation of the World Economy, Berlin: Deutsche

Stiftung fur Internationale Entwicklung, 1997, pps. 59-90.

Richard Higgott, 'The Regional Integration Experience in Southeast Asia:

Lessons for Southern Africa' in Heribert Dieter (ed) The Regionalisation of

the World Economy:: Berlin: Deutsche Stiftung fur Internationale

Entwicklung, 1997, pps 237-76

Richard Higgott, 'Libre Echange et Regionalism Asiatique' in Jean Luc

Domenach and David Camroux (eds) l'Asie Retrouvee, Paris: Le Seuil and

London: Routledge, 1997, 76-97

Richard Higgott, Issues, Institutions and Middle Power Diplomacy: Action

and Agendas for Cooperation in the Post Cold War Era', in Andrew F. Cooper

(ed) Middle Power Diplomacy After the Cold War. London: Macmillan, 1997,


'Richard Higgott, Free Trade and Open Regionalism in Asia: De facto or De

Jure Regionalisation?', Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary

International Relations, 11(2) 1997, 165-83.

Richard Higgott, 'Institutions, Identity and Social Learning in the

International Political Economy of Regionalism: Asia and Europe Compared,

Kokusai Seiji (International Politics), 114, March, 1997, pps 14-48.

Richard Higgott, 'Globalisation et Modialisation: l'Evolution du Niveau

Regional' , Politique Etrangere, 62 (2) 1997: 277-92

'Richard Higgott, The Economic Crisis in East Asia: Shared Responses to

market Shocks?' The World Today, 54 (1) 1998, pps. 4-7.




In Press

Richard Higgott, 'The International Political Economy of Regionalism: Asia

and Europe Compared', in W. D. Coleman and G. R. D. Underhill (eds)

Regionalism and Global Economic Integration: Europe, Asia and the Americas,

London: Routledge, 1998, 47-67.

Richard Higgott, The Pacific and Beyond: APEC, ASEM and Regional Economic

Management', Economic Dynamism in the Pacific Region: The Growth of

Integration and Competitiveness, Routledge for the Open University, 1998,



Richard Higgott, 'ASEM: Towards the Institutionalisation of the East

Asia-Europe Relationship?' in Ron Keith and Donald Barry (eds), Europe,

North America and the Asia Pacific: Cooperation or Conflict? Vancouver:

University of British Columbia Press

'Richard Higgott, 'Keeping Regionalism Open', in Hanns Maull, Gerry Segal

and Jusuf Wanandi (eds) Europe in Asia, London: Routledge, 1998 in Press

Under Submission

Richard Higgott and Yeon Ho Lee, 'Ideas and Economic Liberalisation in East

Asia: The Case of South Korea under the Kim Young-sam Government', (with

Yeon Ho Lee) submitted to World Politics,

In final preparation

Richard Higgott (ed) The Theory and Practice of Regional Integration in the

Asia Pacific: A Reader, London: Routledge. All the papers are in an

edited, just the Introduction to write, submission to publisher May 1998.

Richard Higgott, Regional Cooperation and Theories of International

Relations: Learning from the Asia Pacific? London: Macmillan Series in

International political Economy. 80, 000 word manuscript in draft form for

submission to publisher by September 1998.


Richard Higgott and Makoto Iokibe (eds) Comparative Regional Integration:

The Asia Pacific and Europe Compared, completion and submission in 1999




Richard Higgott

Professor of International Political Economy

Department of Politics and International Studies

Warwick University, January 20 1998