European Technology Transfer and Weapons Proliferation in Pacific Asia


Award No: L324253044




Project Leader: Susan Willett, Centre for Defence Studies, Kings College University of London.

Dr Tim Huxley, Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.



Period of Report: 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1997

Amount of Award: £145,430


The project was extended by one year with no extra funds to accomodate the unforseen delays to both Tim Huxley and Sue Willetts' work schedules.  The overall focus of the research remains concerned with an examination of the role of European technology transfer in assisting indigenous defence industrialisation in Pacific Asia, its potential for conventional weapons proliferation and the possibilities for adopting both supply and demand side restraint in order to stabilise the regional arms build-up. The division of labour between participants has involved Susan Willett concentrating on the production of a book and Tim Huxley working one day a week with his research assistant, Dr Sally Harris, to build a data base on regional military expenditures and procurement patterns in East Asia.


Publications and Working Documents


Sue Willett and Ian Anthony 'Countertrade and Offsets: Policies and Practices in the UK, France, South Korea and ASEAN,' Monograph, Swedish Ministry of Defence, May 1997,

 Sue Willett 'East Asia's Changing Defence Industry' in Survival Vol 39 No 3 Autumn 1997, pp107-134.

 Sue Willett 'Economic Crisis and East Asian Defence Markets'in B. Moeller and J. Singh Changes in Asian Security Doctrine, MacMillan (forthcoming).


Work In Progress


A shortened version of the 'Offset and Countertrade' paper is to be published in the academic journal Defence and Peace Economics.

 Tim Huxley and Sue Willett are in the final stages of drafting a mongraph to be published as an Adelphi Paper.(Sue Willetts contribution has been completed)

Sue Willett continues to work on the manuscript of her book.


Conferences and Seminars


Paper entitled 'East Asia's Evolving Defence Industry' presented to a conference on 'The Economics of East Asian Security', organised by Chinese Council of Advanced Policy Studies and the Canadian National Committee of IISS, Vancouver, 4-5 March 1997.

 Paper entitled 'Economic Crisis and East Asian Defence Markets' at conference on 'New Strategic and Military Doctrines in Asia', organised by the Indian Defence Studies Association and the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, New Delhi, India, November 27th - December 3rd.


From Tim Huxley



Publications during 1997:


'Indonesia's armed forces face up to new threats', Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997.

'South-east asia's naval build-up. A lack of regional cooperation', Strategic Comments, vol 3 (6) (July 1997)

'An arms race in East Asia?', International Security Review 1998 (London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1997).

'Brunei', 'Malaysia', and 'Singapore', Jane's Sentinel: South-East Asia (1997 ed) 'Brunei', 'Malaysia', 'Singapore' and 'Indonesia' Jane's Sentinel: South-East Asia (1997 ed, 1st update)


Publications in press at 31.12.97:


'China and the South China Sea: a challenge for ASEAN', Security Dialogue, vol 29 (1) (March 1998)

'The changing distribution of power in East Asia: implications for regional and international security', in Shaw Yu-ming & Philippe Régnier (eds), Civilizations, National Powers and Economics: Convergence or Clash? (Taipei: Institute of International Relations, 1998)


Conference and seminar papers presented:


"The Changing Military Balance in East Asia", Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies' Conference on Taiwan and East Asian Security, London, March 1997

"The Changing Distribution of Military Power in East Asia: Implications for Regional and International Security", 14th Sino-European Conference, Geneva, September 1997.

"The Changing Distribution of Military Power in East Asia: Implications for Regional and International Security", Security & Strategy Research Group seminar, Department of International Politics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, November 1997.

"Conventional Arms Proliferation in East Asia", British International Studies Association Conference, University of Leeds, December 1997.


Other activities:


Lectured three times on East Asian security at the Defence Intelligence & Security School.

Organized a panel on 'New security and economic relationships in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific' at the annual conference of the Association for South-East Asian Studies in the UK (ASEASUK), Hull, March 1997.

Participated in the IISS annual conference in Singapore in September, including the panel on 'The revolution in military affairs and Asian security'.


Project-funded research assistance:


Continued to benefit from Dr Sally Harris' valuable research assistance. Dr Harris and I are working particularly closely together on Korean defence procurement and defence industry, and plan to write a joint paper on these topics.