Contents

Preface to the New Edition vii

Foreword by Robert A, Scalapino xiii
 

Acknowledgments xv
 

Introduction

A Frontier Tradition 1
 
 

PART ONE: THE VIEW FROM WASHINGTON, 1941-1945

I. The Cairo Declaration

Filling the Empty Files at Washington 9

Intelligence Reports-Chinese Style 12

Bombing Objective Folders and Propaganda 15

Formosa's Future: The Battle of the Memoranda 18

"China Firsters" 20

The Fateful Cairo Declaration 23
 

II. "Island X"

Operation Causeway: The Nimitz Plan to Seize Formosa 28

Bombs Away! 33

Who Will Get the Prize? 37

The Washington View in 1944 and 1945 39
 

xxii CONTENTS
 

A Struggle for Place in the New Island Government 44

The Chen Yi Appointment: Chiang Shows His True Colors 47
 
 

PART TWO: THE CHINESE TAKE OVER
 

III. The Surrender on Formosa, 1945

Formosa in Limbo 61

September Liberators 67

The Chinese Take Over - With Some Help 71

A Matter of "Face" at Taipei 74

The Formal Surrender, October 25, 1945 78
 

IV. Americans in Uniform

The American Image: the "God Country" 80

All Eyes on the Americans in Uniform 82

What Returning Formosan Labor-Conscripts Had to Say 87

Wanted: Permanent Consular Representation at Taipei 91
 

V. A Government of Merchants

The KMT Military Scavengers 97

Formosan Reaction to the Nationalist Armed Forces 103

The Stockpile Bonanza: Something for the Men at the Top 105

The Chinese Commissioners Prepare to Build a New Formosa 113

Nationalist Party Men as "Tutors" in Formosa 116

The Confiscated Japanese Property Deal 120
 

VI. Chen Yi's "Necessary State Socialism"

The Monopoly Mechanism 124

"If You Can't Sell the Product, Sell the Plant!" 127

Ships and Rails: Communications in an Island World 134

Crisis Behind the Scenes? 136

Cutting the Formosan Pie Another Way 139
 

VII. Unwelcome Witnesses

The Formosa Problem That Would Not Go Away 143

CONTENTS xxiii
 

Institutional Schizophrenia: The American Consular Establishment 146

Okinawans and Other Troublesome People 149

Chinese Reaction to Foreign Critics: "Getting the Facts Straight" 153
 

VIII. The UNRRA-CNRRA Story

The Peculiar UNRRA Program for China 158

The Fraudulent CNRRA Program 161

UNRRA's "Battle of the Pescadores" 168

The Communications Stranglehold 171

The Break-up of Public Health and Welfare Services 174

Plague and Cholera Return: "This is China Now" 179
 
 

PART THREE: CRISIS AND AFTERMATH
 

IX. The Formosans' Story: A Year of Disenchantment

Law and Order Under the New Regime 187

Representative Government and the Kuomintang 194

The First Peoples' Political Council Assembly versus Chen Yi 196

The Development of Opposition Leadership 201
 

X. The Search for Recognition

Intervention: Nanking, Tokyo, Washington, or the UN? 204

The Formosan Press Formulates the Issues 206

Is the U.S.A. Responsible? 210

The Chiangs Visit Taipei 216

American Propaganda Feeds the Fires of Discontent 218

The Second PPC Assembly Brings the Crisis Near 221

The Government's "Hate Foreigners" Campaign 224
 

XI. On the Eve of Disaster

How the Match Was Laid 232

Are Formosans Brothers, Cousins, or Enemy Aliens? 234

No Constitution in 1947? 239

Formosa and the Crisis at Shanghai 240

The February Monopolies 243

A Formosan Appeal to General Marshall, Secretary of State 250

xxiv CONTENTS
 

XII. The February Incident, 1947

Murder in the Park and Mobs in the Streets 254

How to Settle the Incident? 258

"Formosans Attack the American Consulate!" 259

March 2: Chen Yi Concedes a Need for Change 262

March 3: An Appeal for American Understanding 266
 

XIII. Town Meetings, American Style

Island-wide Mobilization of Public Opinion 271

The "Star-Spangled Banner" and All That 275

Miss Snow Red and the Communists 278

The Youth League and Local Political Expression 281

The "Thirty-two Demands" - What the Formosans Wanted 285

Reform - Not Rebellion 288
 

XIV. The March Massacre

The Betrayal 291

General Chen's Monday Morning View of the Situation 294

What the Unwelcome Foreigners Saw 297

The Generalissimo's View of the Affair on Formosa 307
 

XV. The Aftermath

The American Position at Taipei 311

Settling the Incident, Nationalist Party Style 313

Chinese Press Notices and Propaganda in the United States 316

The Situation in the American Embassy, Nanking 320

Diplomatic Paralysis Sets In 326
 

XVI. The "Reform Administration"

General Chen Yi Rewarded 331

Dr. and Mrs. Wei's Reform Administration 337

The Terror Continued 341

General Wedemeyer's Visit 344

Sun Fo: "Communist Agents in the American Consulate?" 351

American Bases for Formosa 353
 

XVII. The Retreat to Formosa

How to Regain American Support? 356

Chiang's Search for Assurance 361

CONTENTS xxv
 

A Million Dollars for the Missionaries 364

General Chen Cheng Prepares the Island Refuge 366

Chinese Theatre: The Generalissimo "Retires" 371
 
 

PART FOUR: FORMOSA BECOMES "FREE CHINA"
 

XVIII. Turning Point

Saving Chiang in Washington 381

Taipei, "Temporary Capital of China" 384

Reform! Reform! 388

Chiang Returns to the Presidency 392

Chiang Saved - But Leashed 396
 

XIX. Formosa's "Republican Decade"

Problems of Representation -and Misrepresentation 398

MacArthur on Formosa 402

The American Embassy's View of Formosa 408

The Attack on the American Embassy in May, 1957 410

The Missionary Picture 413
 

XX. Behind the Reform Facade

Cooperation's Price Tag 416

Dumping the Liberals 421

A Case for Mr. Dulles 426

Getting at the Facts: The Conlon Report 431
 

XXI. Two Chinas?

Red China's Formosa 434

Peking Prepares to Liberate Formosa 437

"Little China" - the Chinese Liberals' Program 443
 

XXII. Free Formosa

The Search for Independence 451

Emerging Independence Leadership 452

Japan as a Refuge from Both Chiang and Mao 460

The "Provisional Government" at Tokyo 462

xxvi CONTENTS
 

New Voices Overseas 466

An "Appeal for justice" 467
 

Appendices

I. The Thirty-two Demands 475

II. Dr. K. C. Wu's Views on the Police State and General Chiang Ching-kuo 480
 

Notes  487
 

Index 497
 

Figures

Figure 1: Formosa's strategic position in the western Pacific.

Figure 2: Map of Formosa showing counties.