For general histories of Formosa see James W. Davidson, The Island of Formosa, Past and Present (New York, 1903), 710 pp., and Fr. Jose Maria Alvarez: Formosa: Geografica e Historicamente Considerada (Lisbon, 1930), 2 vols., 568 pp. & 530 pp.

On the Dutch colony in 17th-century Formosa, see William Campbell, ed., An Account of Missionary Success in the Island of Formosa, published in London in 1650, and now Reprinted with Copius Appendices (London, 1889), 2 vols., 330 pp. & 337 pp.

For Commodore Perry's "Grand Design" see F. L. Hawkes, ed., Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, in the Years 1852, 1853, and 1854, under the Command of Commodore Matthew C. Perry, United States Navy (Washington, 1856), Vol. II, pp. 178-180.

On the 19th-century confrontation of the maritime nations with China concerning Formosa, W. A. Pickering tells the British story: Pioneering in Formosa: Recollections of Adventures Among Mandarins, Wreckers and Head-hunting Savages (London, 1898), 283 pp. Edward H. House tells of The Japanese Expedition to Formosa in 1874 (Tokyo, 1.875), 231 pp. John Dodd published The Journal of a Blockaded Resident in North Formosa During the Franco-Chinese War ,1884-5 (Hong Kong, 1888), 229 pp., outlining the French position and local reaction.

An elaborate record of American diplomatic and consular effort to compel China to establish orderly government on Formosa is preserved in the microcopied records of the Department of State, preserved in the National Archives, which include diplomatic and consular correspondence of American representatives in Amoy, Foochow, Shanghai and Peking with Washington in the 19th century.

See especially General C. W. LeGendre: Is Aboriginal Formosa a


Part of the Chinese Empire? (Shanghai, 1874), 20 pp., 8 maps, and his report to Washington, printed at Macao in 1871 (141 pp.) entitled How to Deal with China: a Letter to DeB. Rand Kheim, esq., Agent of the United States.

For an elaborate summary of conditions within Formosa just before World War II, see the U. S. Navy's Civil Affairs Handbook Series, 1944-45 11 volumes), printed at Washington for the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.

I The Cairo Declaration

1. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Rising Sun in the Pacific, 1931-April, 1942 (Boston, 1948), Part II, "The Philippines and Nearby Waters," esp. pp. 168-170. This work is Volume III of History of United States Naval Operations in World War 11, 15 vols.

2. See G. H. Kerr, "The Kodama Report: Plan for Conquest," Far Eastern Survey, Vol. XIV, No. 14 (N.Y., July 18, 1945), pp- 185-190. Original text in L'Echo de Paris (Paris), January 11-13, 1905. Full translation of the original issued in mimeograph form by the Institute of Pacific Relations, New York, 1945.

3. William D. Leahy, I Was There (New York, 1950), p. 213.

4. Robert Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins (New York, 1948), P. 774. 11.

II. "Island X"

1. See Robert Ross Smith's "Luzon vs. Formosa (1944)" in Command Decisions, published by the U. S. Dept. of the Army, Office of the Chief of Military History (New York, 1959), pp. 358-373.

2. Patrick J. Hurley , quoted in United States Relation's With China, State Department publ. 3573, F.E., series 30, p. 86 (Washington, August, 1949)

III. The Surrender on Formosa, 1945

1. [U. S. Govt. I Imperial Rescript Granted the Ministers of War and Navy. 17 August 1945. Reproduced in facsimile as Serial *2118, in Psychological Warfare, Part Two, Supplement *2 CINCPAC-CINCPOA Bulletin #164-45. 64-45.

2. Lin Wen-kuei, Letter to the Fourteenth Air Force Association Bulletin (Springfield, Mo.), Vol. 1, No. 2 (August 1948), pp. 2-3.

IV. Americans in Uniform

1. Hanford McNider, Brig. Genl., USA: Commendation of [Formosan] Prisoners of War, HQ 158th Regiment Combat Team, Luzon, P. I., August 23,1945, 1 p. mimeo.


2. G. H. Kerr: "Some Chinese Problems in Taiwan," Far Eastern Survey, Vol. XIV, No. 20 (October 10, 1945).

Chapters V and VI

Materials for these chapters were drawn from private journals, from UNRRA reports, and from the Taipei press which published, piecemeal, the so-called "Take-Over Report," an accounting of properties transferred by the Japanese Property Custodians to Chinese officials in 1946.

VII. Unwelcome Witnesses

1. Washington News (Washington, D. C.), March 21, 22, and 28, and Washington Post (Washington, D. C.), March 29, 1946.

2. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), August 7, 1946.


1. The Summary of UNRRA-CNRRA activities and observations is based principally on the following:

(a) Twenty-four personal letters addressed to Paine and Kerr by UNRRA-CNRRA team members.

(b) Twenty weekly reports from the Formosa Regional Office to the Office of the Economic and Financial Advisor, China Office (Shanghai) UNRRA; 133 pp., mimeo.

(c) Special Reports to Walter D. Fitzpatrick, Director, Taiwan Regional Office, by E. E. Paine, Reports Officer, n.d.

(d) Summary Report, Taiwan Regional Office (Taipei), Sept. 15, 1946, 15 pp.

(e) Reports on Industrial Rehabilitation, by Allen E. Shackelton (UNRRA-New Zealand), Taipei, 1946, 14 pp.

(f) Reports on the Work of CNRRA, Taiwan Regional Office (April 1, 1946), CNRRA's Emergency Sanitary Engineering Project (September 11, 1946) and on Public Welfare Projects (August, 1946), Taipei, 27 pp. mimeo.

(g) Special Report on Government-CNRRA Handling of Hainan Repatriates. UNRRA-Taiwan Regional Office (Taipei, Oct. 11, 1946), 2 pp.

(h) Report on the February 28 Incident and Subsequent Events to 15 March 1946. UNRRA-Taiwan Regional Office (Taipei, March 17, 1947), 9 pp.

(i) History of the UNRRA-Taiwan Regional Office (Taipei, n.d.), 25 pp.

(j) Allen E. Shackleton: "Formosa - Unhappy Golden Goose," World Affairs (Quarterly journal of the UN Association of New Zealand), Vol. 4, No. 2 (June 1948), pp. 28-29.


2. Edward E. Paine (UNRRA Reports Officer): Notes on the UNRRA Program, 1946-1947 (n.d.), 10 pp. mimeo.

3. Ira D. Hirschy, M.D. (Chief Medical Officer, UNRRA, Taiwan): "The World is Sick, the Cure is Difficult," Plantation Health (Honolulu, Hawaii), Vol. XII, No. 2 (April 1948), pp. 9-15.

4. Mary Mumford (Public Welfare Officer, UNRRA, Taiwan), letter dated July 6, 1948.

5. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), May 2, 1946.

6. Mary Mumford, loc. cit.

IX. The Formosans' Story: A Year of Disenchantment

1. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), May 2, 1946.

X. The Search for Recognition

1. Jen Min Tao Pao (Taipei), June 13, 1946.

2. The Formosan Magazine (Taipei), Vol. 1, No. 1, September, 1946, pp. 2-3, 38-39.

3. Min Pao (Taipei), October 28, 1946.

4. [U. S. Govt., Office of War Information] The Story of the United States Government ... How it Started ... and How it Works ... (Washington, D. C., n.d.), 39 pp., illus.

5. Stanway N. W. Cheng, ed., The New Taiwan Monthly (Taipei), No. 1 (October, 1946), p. 2.

XI. On the Eve of Disaster

1. Allen E. Shackleton (UNRRA-New Zealand), Formosa Calling, P. 43, typescript of article published at London, n.d., 82 pp.

2. Ta Ming Pao (Taipei), January 20, 1947, quoting a Central News Agency dispatch from Nanking,

3. Ta Ming Pao (Taipei), January 20, 1947, quoting an earlier Central News Agency dispatch from Nanking.

4. Taiwan Youth Report (Taipei), January, 1947, P. 23.

5. Ta Ming Pao (Taipei), January 20, 1947.

XII. The February Incident, 1947

1. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 2, 1947.

2. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 3, 1947.

3. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 5, 1947.


XIII. Town Meetings, American Style

1. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 5, 1947.

2. ibid.

3. Letter to Kerr from a former student, dated at Taichung, March 7, 1947

4. Chung Wai Jih Pao (Taipei), March 6,1947.

5. Ibid.

6. [U. S. State Dept.] United States Relations With China, pp. 933-935, with supplementary notes by the author of the quoted "Memorandum on the Situation in Taiwan" (G.H.K.).

7. Ching Hua Jih Pao (Tainan), March 5, 1947

8. Min Pao (Taipei), March 6, 1947.

XIV. The March Massacre

1. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 9, 1947.

2. Taiwan Garrison Headquarters, Communique No. 131 (Taipei), March 9, 1947.

3. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March 11, 1947

4. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), March :Li, 1947. Text also air-dropped by leaflet over Formosan cities.

5. Letter from Louise Tomsett (UNRRA-New Zealand) to Kerr, dated June 7, 1948.

6. Letter from Ira D. Hirschy, M.D. (Chief Medical Officer, UNRRA Taiwan) to E. E. Paine (UNRRA Reports Officer), n.d.

7. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, addressing the Weekly Memorial Services at Nanking, March 10, 1947. Text dropped by leaflet over the cities and towns of Formosa.

XV. The Aftermath

1. China News Service release (San Francisco, January 1947), mimeo., 1 P.

2. China Press (Shanghai), quoting a UP dispatch, March 27, 1947

3. China News Service release (San Francisco, May 3, 1947).

4. Stanway N. W. Cheng, ed., The New Taiwan Monthly (Taipei), No. 1, October, 1946.

5. Letter to Kerr from former student, dated Taipei, March 26, 1947.

XVI. The "Reform Administration"

1. Letter from N. P. Koh (CNRRA) to E. E. Paine (UNRRA) dated July 20, 1948.


2. letter from N. P. Koh (CNRRA) to E. E. Paine (UNRRA) dated June 15, 1948.

3. Letter to Dr. Ira D. Hirschy (Chief Medical Officer,, UNRRA) dated Taipei, April 14, 1947.

4. Letter to Edward E. Paine (UNRRA Reports Officer) dated Taipei, May 4, 1947.

5. Letter from Hans Johansen (UNRRA-Norway) to E. E. Paine, dated Taipei, April 17, 1947.

6. Letter to Kerr from Taipei, dated June 16, 1947

7. Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), May 1, 1947

8. Dr. Ira D. Hirschy quoting Dr. Pierre Sylvain (UNRRA-Haiti) in letter to E. E. Paine (UNRRA-USA), dated at Shanghai, June 27, 1947.

9. Letter to Kerr from Taipei, dated September 6, 1947

10. [U. S. State Dept.] United States Relations With China, "Report to President Truman by Lieutenant General Albert C. Wedemeyer, U. S. Army," September 19, 1()47- Part 11, "China-economic," P. 770.

11. Hua Shang Pao (Hong Kong), October 3, 1947.

12. Chuan Min Jih Pao (Taipei), December 20, '()48.

13. Letter from a Catholic priest on Formosa to an American friend, dated January 17, 1948.

14. Letter to Kerr, dated March 2, 1948, at Taipei.

15. Chung Hua Jih Pao (Taipei), February 27, 1948.

16. Central News Agency release (Shanghai), March 2, 1948; and Hsin Sheng Pao (Taipei), same date.

17. Shun Pao (Shanghai), February 1.4, 1948.

XVII. The Retreat to Formosa

1. Harold Ickes, "Man to Man," New York Post, December 6, 1948.

2. Constantine Brown, Seattle Times, November 19, 1948.

3. E. E. Paine & G. H. Kerr, Will America Face a Formosa Problem? December 15, 1948- 5 pp. mimeo

4. New York Times, December 9, 1948.

5. Letter to E. E. Paine (UNRRA) dated at Taipei, April 23, 1949.

6. Hessel Tiltman (London Daily News): "Formosa a Frail Gibraltar for China's Chiang." Reprinted in the Washington Post (Washington, D. C.), June 8, 1949.

7. Tillman Durdin, The New York Times, August 23, 1949.

8. [U. S. State Dept.) United States Relations with China, p. 404. Ambassador Stuart to Washington, April 6, 1949

9. Ibid., pp. 288-307.

10. Ibid., pp. 288-307- On- Chiang's betrayal of Acting President Li see especially pp. 302-304


XVIII. Turning Point

1. Joseph W. Ballantine, Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy (The Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C., 1952), p. 120. President Truman's "hands off" policy statement, January 5, 1950.

2. Letter to Kerr, dated at Taipei, January 12, 1950.

3. Tillman Durdin, "Taiwan and the Nationalist Governnent," unpublished ms. prepared for the Council on Foreign Relations symposium on The United States and China in World Affairs, 1964

4. [U. S. State Dept.) Bulletin, Vol. 23 (July 3, 1950), P. 5. President Truman's statement of policy neutralizing Formosa and declaring its legal status unsettled.

XIX. Formosa's "Republican Decade"

1. [U. S. Govt.] U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: Hearings. 88th Cong., 1st Sess., Activities of Non-Diplomatic Representatives of Foreign Principals in the United States, Part 7 (March 25, 1963) (pp. 677-825); Part 10 (July 10, 1963, pp. 1425-'518), passim.

2. [U. S. Govt.] Congressional Record, "Hearings before the Senate Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations" (82nd Cong., 1st Sess. 1951), "Military Situation in the Far East," P. 23.

3. Karl Lott Rankin, China Assignment (Seattle, Washington, 1964), 343 pp.

4. China Handbook 1953-54 (Taipei, 1953), "Chronology of Major Events (1911-1953)," P. 478.

5. Ibid., pp. 481-482.

6. Mark Mancall: "Too Much at Home in the Old Tiger's Lair," New York Herald Tribune Book Week (Nov. 15, 1964), p. 6.

7. On the missionary background of Chiang's appeal to Americans see especially Harold Isaacs, Images of Asia: American Views of China and India (New York, 1962), pp. 1.24-148.

XX. Behind the Reform Facade

1. Letter to Kerr, dated at Taipei, August 28, 1953.

2. [U. S. Govt. I Congressional Record - Proceedings and Debates of the 86th Cong., 2nd Sess. (Extract reprint, 1960) "Conlon Associates Report on Communist China and Taiwan. Extension of Remarks of Hon. Charles 0. Porter of Oregon, in the House of Representatives, Tuesday, January 19, 1960."

3. Ibid., p. 2,3.


XXI. Two Chinas?

1. Li Chun-ching: "Taiwan: the Marble Ball and the Marble Lion," China Digest, Vol. V, No. 9 (Hong Kong, February 22, 1949), pp. 4-8.

2. Ibid.

3. Chuang Chia-nung, ed., Fen Nu ti Taiwan ("Taiwan in Anger") (Hong Kong, 1949), p. 153.

4. [Editorial] "The Time for Reappraisal," Formosan Quarterly, Vol. I, NO. 2 (Tokyo, 1962), p. 30.

5. "Councilor Su Tung-chi Sentenced to Death," Formosan Quartly, Vol. 1, No. 1 (July, 1962) pp. 17-.18.

XXII. Free Formosa

1. Letter to Kerr, dated at Hong Kong, April, 1949.

2. [Editorial] "We Appeal to the World on the Arrest of Professor Peng Ming-min," Independent Formosa, Vol. 111, No- 3, (Tokyo, Oct., 1964), pp. 1-2.

3. "Formosa Inside Out," Ilha Formosa, Vol. I, NO. 3 (Philadelphia, Winter issue, 1964), p. 22.

4. [United Formosans for Independence] Appeal for Justice (Philadelphia, March, ig6o), 3 pp. Mimeo