What is a virus?
What is a vaccine?
Viral Diseases of Cats
Viral Diseases of Dogs
Risks of Vaccines
Vaccination Programs for Cats
Vaccination Programs for Dogs
Immunity resulting from the development of antibodies in response to
the presence of an antigen, as from vaccination or exposure to an
disease with a rapid onset or a short course or
allergic reaction to a foreign protein resulting from previous exposure
a quantitative deficiency of the hemoglobin, often
accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells and causing pallor,
weakness, and breathlessness.
any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and
combine specifically with them.
Ataxia: failure of muscular coordination; incoordination of mucular activity.
Attenuated Virus Vaccines: a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to elicit a protective immune response
Bone Marrow: The soft blood-forming
tissue that fills the cavities of bones and
contains fat and immature and mature blood cells, including white blood
red blood cells, and platelets. Diseases or drugs that affect the bone
can affect the total counts of these cells.
immunity: immunity independent of antibody
but dependent on the recognition of antigen by T cells and their
subsequent destruction of cells bearing the antigen or on the secretion
by T cells of lymphokines that enhance the ability of phagocytes to
eliminate the antigen.
Cerebellum: The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing and other complex motor functions.
hypoplasia: A deficiency of the cell of the
degree and distribution of which is variable. This
results in the animal showing clinical signs
consistent with a
deficiency of cerebellar function including incoordination.
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the
nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the
transmission of hereditary information.
of the conjunctiva (the delicate membrane
lining the eyelids and covering parts of the eye.
various RNA-containing spherical viruses of the family Coronaviridae,
including several that cause acute respiratory illnesses
Corneal Ulcers: Damage or compromise to the surface of the cornea of the eye which may be caused by infectious or non-infectious causes.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): A hemorrhagic disorder that occurs following the uncontrolled activation of clotting factors and fibrinolytic enzymes throughout small blood vessels, resulting in tissue necrosis and bleeding.
DNA viruses: A virus in which the genetic material is DNA rather than RNA. The DNA may be either double- or single-stranded. Major groups of double-stranded DNA viruses (class I viruses) include the adenoviruses, the herpes viruses, and the poxviruses. Major groups of single-stranded DNA viruses (class II viruses) include the parvoviruses and coliphages.
Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess water accumulation.
Embryonic Resorption: Early death of the embryo during the fetal period with lysis and complete resorption of all the products of the conception.
Encephalomyelitis: A general term for inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
Endemic: an infection
is said to be "endemic" in a population when that infection is
maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
relating to, or being within the intestine.
inflammation of the intestine.
any animal tissue that covers a surface, or lines a cavity or the like,
and that, in addition, performs any of various secretory, transporting,
or regulatory functions.
Epizootic: An epizootic is the nonhuman equivalent of an epidemic, meaning that large numbers of animals are infected with a disease.
Fetal Mummification: Death of the fetus resulting in dehydration of the fetus in utero. The soft tissues are much reduced in volume, the skin is leathey and the tissues are deeply brown-stained.
Fibrosarcoma: A malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells.
inanimate object or material on which
disease-producing agents may be conveyed (for example: boots or
Granulomatous: an inflammatory tumor or growth composed of granulation tissue. Granulation tissue is tissue formed in ulcers and in early wound healing and repair, composed largely of newly growing capillaries and so called from its irregular surface in open wounds.
immunity conferred to an individual through
the activity of B cells and their progeny, which produce circulating
antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance and
recognize the substance upon renewed exposure.
thickening of the horny layer of the skin.
Immune complex: an aggregate of an antigen and its specific antibody. An antigen is any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them.
Immune System: The
body system in humans and other animals that protects the organism by
distinguishing foreign tissue and neutralizing potentially pathogenic
organisms or substances. The immune system includes organs such as the
skin and mucous membranes, which provide an external barrier to
infection, cells involved in the immune response, such as lymphocytes,
and cell products such as lymphokines.
lowering the body's normal immune response to invasion by
foreign substances; can be deliberate (as in lowering the immune
response to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ) or incidental
(as a side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer) or caused
by a disease.
Inactivated Modified Live Virus Vaccines: a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to elicit a protective immune response.
Period: In medicine, the time from
the moment of
exposure to an infectious agent until signs and symptoms of the disease appear.
of various proteins, produced by virus-infected cells, that inhibit
reproduction of the invading virus and induce resistance to further
Inoculation site: the site at which the infectious agent breaks through the natural barriers and gains access to infect the body.
Interstitial Pneumonia: Interstitial pneumonia is inflammation of the lung which involves the meshwork of lung tissue (alveolar septa) rather than the air spaces (alveoli).
Epithelium: The cells lining the innermost surface of
gastrointestinal tract. These aid in the
digestion and absorption of ingested feed. They
are rapidly sloughed off and replaced.
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune.
Latent: (of an infectious agent or disease) remaining
in an inactive or hidden phase; dormant.
drowsiness and weakness that may be a
result of clinical disease.
any of several cancers of the bone marrow that
prevent the normal manufacture of red and white blood cells and
platelets, resulting in anemia, increased susceptibility to infection,
and impaired blood clotting.
reduction of a number of white blood cells in the blood.
Live vaccines: A vaccine prepared from live, usually attenuated microorganisms that elicit a protective immune response.
Lymphoid Tissues: A part of the body's immune
system that helps protect it from
bacteria and other foreign entities. Lymphoid tissue is rich in
(and accessory cells such as macrophages and reticular cells). The
tissue includes the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and adenoids and the
(an organ in the neck that is particularly large during infancy).
of various usually malignant tumors that arise in the lymph nodes or in
other lymphoid tissue.
sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable
characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
having not been exposed to a particular infectious agent.
infections: are infections caused by organisms
that usually do not cause disease in a person or animal with a healthy
immune system, but can affect people or animals with a poorly
functioning or suppressed immune system.
nerves connecting the eyeballs to the brain.
Oral Epithelium: the
mucosal surface lining the inside of the oral
or incomplete paralysis.
Peripheral Nerve: The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs, for example. Unlike the central nervous system, however, the PNS is not protected by bone or the blood-brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries.
Pharynx: the tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles, that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.
Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs with consolidation. Pneumonia is frequently but not always due to infection. The infection may be bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough with sputum production, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
Retina: The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain. There is a small area, called the macula, in the retina that contains special light-sensitive cells. The macula allows us to see fine details clearly.
RNA Virus: A
virus in which the genetic material is RNA. The RNA may be either
single-stranded and the virus may be contained within a protective coat
or be naked.
Retrovirus : Any
of a group of RNA viruses whose RNA is used as a template inside a host
cell for the formation of DNA by means of the enzyme reverse
transcriptase. The DNA thus formed is inserted into the host cell's
genome. Most retroviruses can cause cancer. Retroviruses also include
Septic Shock: Shock caused by infection. Shock
is a critical condition brought on by a sudden
drop in blood flow through the body. There is failure of the
to maintain adequate blood flow. This sharply curtails the delivery of
and nutrients to vital organs. It also compromises the kidney and so
the removal of wastes from the body. Shock can be due to a number of
mechanisms including not enough blood volume (hypovolemic shock) and
output of blood by the heart (cardiogenic shock). The signs and
shock include low blood
pressure (hypotension), overbreathing (hyperventilation), a
rapid pulse, cold clammy grayish-bluish (cyanotic) skin, decreased
(oliguria), and mental changes (a sense of great anxiety and
confusion and, sometimes, combativeness).
excretion of an infectious agent from the body of an infected animal.
T-helper cells: a
T cell that stimulates B cells to produce antibody against a foreign
substance, using lymphokines or direct contact as a signal.
lymphoid organ in the neck, troat or thorax of young animals.
presence of toxins in the blood which may result
in the spread of the infectious agent throughout the body and shock.
act of passing an infectious disease between animals
local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ
or tissue, produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue
be found in all organs and tissues.
Vesicle: In dermatology, a vesicle is
a small blister, as on the skin.
Vesicles also occur on the mucous membranes, such as the buccal mucosa
lining of the mouth). Vesicles are less than .5 centimeters in diameter.
relative ability of a microorganism to cause disease; degree of
presence of virus in the blood, either as free virus or as virus inside
of the animal's own cells.