ACIDOSIS = a condition resulting from accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserve in the blood and body tissues.


FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE = an organism that can live and grow with or without the presence of oxygen.


ANTIBODY = specialized serum proteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to antigens that animal was exposed to.


ANTIGEN = any substance which is capable of inducing a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response (i.e.: antibody).


BACTEREMIA = the temporary presence of bacteria in the blood.  This condition typically has no clinical signs, but is commonly followed by development of embolic infections.


COCCIDIA = a group of sporosoa in the family Eimeriidae commonly parasitic in epithelial cells of the interstinal tract.


COLOSTRUM = the thick, yellow secretion present in the mammary gland in increasing amounts for several days before and for about a week after parturition.  It is very rich in maternal antibodies and is essential in providing passive immunity to the neonate.


CONGENITAL = present at and existing from the time of birth.


DYSENTRY = a disorder marked by inflammation of the intestine, abdominal pain, tenesmus (straining to defacate), and frequent stools often containing blood and mucus.


DYSTOCIA = difficult parturition to the point of needing human intervention.


ELECTROLYTE = a substance that exists as an electrically charged particle within the body.  They are involved in metabolic activities and are essential to the normal function or all cells in the body.


ENTERIC = pertaining to the small intestine.


ENTERITIS = inflammation of the intestinal mucosa resulting in clinical signs of diarrhea, sometimes dysentery, abdominal pain, and dehydration and electrolyte loss and imbalance.


ENTEROTOXIN = a toxin specific for the cells of the intestinal mucosa.


ENVELOPE = a double-layered lipoprotein membrane that surrounds the nucleocapsid of a virus.


EROSIVE STOMATITIS = a disease of the mouth characterized by the presence of discrete, superficial ulcers or erosions of the mucosal surface of the mouth.


FECAL FLOATATION = a diagnostic test used to isolate protozoan oocytes from a fecal sample.


FOMITE = an inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents may be conveyed.  e.g. feces, bedding, harness, etc.


GENOME = all of the RNA contained within the virus.


HELICAL = shaped like a helix


HELIX = a coiled structure


HYPOGLYCEMIA = an abnormally low level of sugar in the blood.


INCUBATION PERIOD = the interval between exposure to the virus, leading to invasion of the body and establishment of the infection, and the appearance of the first clinical signs of the disease.


LIPID = a group of substances comprising fatty, greasy, oily, and waxy compounds that are insoluble in water and soluble in non-polar solvents such as hexane, ether, and chloroform.


LUMEN = the cavity or channel within a tubular organ such as the intestine.


MORPHOLOGY = the form and structure of a particular organism, organ, tissue, or cell.


NECROPSY = examination of a body after death.


NEONATE = a newborn animal.


NEUTROPHIL = one of the three types of granular white blood cells


NUCLEOCAPSID = a minimum unit of viral structure, consisting of a protein capsid with the enclosed nucleic acid


NUCLEIC ACID = they form the genetic material of the cell and direct the synthesis of protein within the cell.


PARTURITION = the act of process of giving birth.


PASSIVE IMMUNITY = the transfer of antibodies in colostrum from the dam to its calf  for temporary immunity.


PATHOGENESIS = the development of morbid conditions or of disease; more specifically the cellular events and reaction and other pathological mechanisms occurring in the development of disease. 


PETECHIAE = a pinpoint, non-raised, perfectly round, purplish red spot caused by hemorrhage within the skin.


VIRAL RESERVOIR = a passive carrier of a virus that acts as a source of infection of other animals.


VIRULENCE = the competence of any infectious agent to produce pathological effects.


ZOONOSIS = diseases of animals transmissible to humans.


All definitions were derived from Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary.  See reference below.




Blood, D.C., V.P. Studdert, and C.C. Gay.  2007.  Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dicionary.  3rd Edition.

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