Terms and Definitions

Acemannan – an ingredient in aloe-vera juice that has anti-lentiviral activity in vitro

Adjuvant- a substance added to vaccines to enhance antigencity

Anorexia - lack or loss of appetite for food

Antibodies- specialized serum proteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to an immense number of different antigens to which an animal may be exposed.

Antigenic Stimulation – when the body’s immune system responds to a foreign substance

Astrocytes - cells providing support functions to the central nervous system

Ataxia - failure of muscle coordination, irregularity of muscular action

Azidothymidine – is a drug that interferes with the enzyme reverse transcriptase which is responsible for replication of the virus

Azotemia – increase in urea and other nitrogenous substances in the blood

B lymphocytes – (aka B cell)  white blood cells that mature in the bone marrow and produce antibodies; also called B cells

Bovine Lactoferrin - glycoprotein which is extracted from the whey fraction of the dairy protein found in cows milk

CD4+ Cell - cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells

CD8+ T Cell - T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it.  Also known as a Killer T Cell.

Cytokines - proteins produced by the cells and organs of the immune system. They act on other immune system cells modulating the body's response to disease and infection

Dementia - loss of intellectual capacity accompanied by irrational behaviour

Dermatitis – inflammation of the skin 

ELISA Snap Test – Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay test.   It is an immunochemical method for detecting antigens or antibodies. 

Envelope - outer structure that encloses the nucleocapsids of some viruses

Hematological – related to or derived from the blood

Humoral Immune Response - immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage

– increase in the amount of globulins or protein in the blood

Inactivated virus- treated so that they are no longer able to produce evidence of growth or damaging effect on tissue

In utero- during gestation/ within the uterus

Lentivirus - a subfamily of retroviruses, including FIV and HIV, that are associated with chronic, slow-developing diseases

Leukemia - a progressive malignant disease of blood forming organs, marked by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow.

Lymphocyte - a white blood cell present in the blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissue; the two major types are T cells and B cells

Lymphocytosis – An increase in circulating lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphadenopathy - a disease of the lymph nodes

Lymphoma - a neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue usually malignant

Macrophages - large, white blood cells that ingest foreign substances and display on their surfaces antigens produced from the foreign substances, to be recognized by other cells of the immune system

Monocytosis – increase in circulating monocytes in the blood

Monocyte -  large white blood cell that ingests microbes or other cells and foreign particles

Mytogen - a substance that causes a cell to begin dividing

Neoplasia - the formation of a tumour

Neutropenia – decreased number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood

Neutrophil - a type of granulocyte, found in the blood and tissues that are capable of ingesting microorganisms

Non-regenerative anemia – a form of anemia where the bone marrow responds inadequately to the need for more red blood cells

Nystagmus- a periodic, rhythmic, involuntary movement of both eyelids in unison.

Otitis externa - inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal 

Parenteral - transmission not through the alimentary tract but rather through the subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrasternal or intravenous injection

Pars planitis – an infection of ciliary body

PCR – Polymerase Chain Reaction.  It is a method for amplifying a DNA sequence and can be used to detect viral loads in animals and humans.

Pneumonia – infection of the lung

Pneumonitis - inflammation of the lungs caused by a virus or an allergic reaction

Polyclonal Gammopathy - disorder characterized by a disturbance in the body’s synthesis of multiple antibodies 

Post –parturient- in the period immediately after giving birth

Pyothorax – presence of pus in the pleural cavity

Retroviridae - enveloped viruses possessing a RNA genome, and replicate via a DNA intermediate

Secondary Infection - Infection which occurs because the tissue and its natural defenses have been damaged by another condition

Seroprevalence - percent of a population testing positive for infection or viral serotype in a blood test

Serotype- the type of a micro organism determined by its constituent antigens based on one of several different antibody-antigen reactions

Stomatitis – inflammation of the soft tissues of the mouth

Subcutaneous- beneath the layers of the skin

T lymphocytes – (aka T cells) white blood cells, produced in the bone marrow, that aid B cells in making antibodies to fight bacterial infections

Thrombocytopenia – a low platelet count in the blood

Uveitis - inflammation of the middle layer of the eye 

Viremia- the presence of viruses in the blood either as free virus or a cell associated viremia.

Western blot – a test to identify and locate proteins.  Can be used to detect antibody in serum