DICTIONARY


Please refer to www.medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com for further clarification of vocabulary

Abortion -- premature expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception, termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

Antibody -- a protein molecule that recognizes and binds to a foreign substance introduced into the organism

Antigenemia -- The presence of antigen in the blood

Azotemia -- The presence of nitrogen containing compounds in the blood. 

Bilirubinuria -- The presence of bilirubin in the urine

Budding -- viruses that acquire their envelope by bulging through regions of host cell membrane

Capsid -- the protein coat or shell that surrounds a virion’s nucleic acid

Cell-mediated immunity -- Immunity dependent on T lymphocytes which are sensitized by first exposure to a specific antigen.   Subsequent exposure stimulates the release of a group of substances known as lymphokines, such as interferon, and interleukins as well as direct killing by cytotooxic T lymphocytes.

Chemotherapeutic agent -- A cancer fighting drug

Clear -- the process of the immune system completely removing the virus from the infected organism

Cytopathic -- pathological changes in the cell, usually resulting in cell death

De novo -- A method of producing something from non-recycled products

ELISA -- A type of primary binding test used to detect and measure either antigen or antibody.  Either an antigen or antibody is bound to a solid substrate and a second antibody to which enzyme is conjugated is added, followed by a substrate for the enzyme. 

Envelope -- the outer membranous later that surrounds the nucleocapsid in some viruses

Erythrodysplasia  -- Abnormal morphology of erythrocytes

Fomite -- inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents may be conveyed

Genetically engineered -- A vaccine

Genome -- the total amount of genetic information in a cell or virus

Glomerulonephritis -- Inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidneys.  A form of nephritis. 

Granulocytes -- any leukocyte containing granules, eg. eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil

Hematinic agent -- a medicine, as a compound of iron, that tends to increase the amount of hematin or hemoglobin in the blood

Hematopoiesis -- the formation and development of blood cells, taking place in the bone marrow

Hyperbilirubinemia -- The presence of excess bilirubin in the blood that can lead to jaundice

IFA -- A technique for conjugating antibodies with fluorescent dyes in order to identify specific microorganisms or tissue constituents using a fluorescence microscope.  Used for identifying specific bacteria and viruses. 

Immunosuppression -- diminished immune responsiveness, may occur following certain infections, notably viral infections such as retroviruses or herpesviruses, exposure to x-irradiation or toxic chemicals or certain drugs

Infectivity -- the ability of an agent to infect

In vitro -- Outside of the body/in tissue culture cells

Killed whole virus -- An inactivated vaccine.  A vaccine with organisms that have been killed

Latent Infection -- when the provirus in within the DNA of host cells, but no virus is produced because it is dormant.  Latent infections may become reactivated.

Lymphocytes --  a mononuclear, non-granular leukocyte involved with immunity.  They can be T-cells or B-cells

Lymphopenia -- A decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the blood

Macrocytosis -- The presence of macrocytes (abnormally large erythrocytes) in the blood

Macrophage -- any large, mononuclear, highly phagocytic cell derived from bone marrow, the progeny of which (monocytes) enter the blood stream and enter tissues where they develop into macrophages.  They are an important class of antigen presenting cells.

Monocytes -- a mononuclear, phagocytic leukocyte

Neutralize -- a noxious agent that has been rendered incapacitated and cannot cause damage to the organism

Neutropenia  -- a decrease in the normal number of neutrophils in the blood

Non-regenerative anemia -- anemia in which the bone marrow does not try to proliferate to increase the number of erythrocytes

Oncogenesis -- the production or causation of tumors, characteristic of FeLV, involving on, promotion, and mutation

Peritonitis -- inflammation of the serous membrane lining the wall of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and investing the contained  viscera

Pathognomonic -- a lesion or clinical sign that is specific for one particular disease

Persistent viremia -- virus that is isolated to the blood for long periods of time

Polydipsia  -- usually a compensatory increase in volume of water consumption, due to polyuria

Polymerase -- either DNA or RNA associated enzyme responsible for replication of nucleic acid

Polyuria -- an increase in volume of urine excreted

Proteinuria -- An excess of serum proteins in the urine; an important indicator of renal disease. 

Provirus -- a virus capable of producing proviral DNA, which is integrated into host cell DNA.  In retroviruses, it is a double-stranded copy of the RNA genome.

Regressor cat -- A cat whose clinical signs or disease process has subsided

Resistance -- the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment, immunity

Resorption -- the lysis and assimilation of a fetus within the uterus

Reticulocytosis -- An excess of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood

Retrovirus -- a group of viruses with RNA genomes that carry the enzyme reverse transcriptase and form a DNA copy of their genome during their reproductive cycle

Reverse Transcriptase -- an RNA-dependant DNA polymerase that uses a viral TNA genome as a template to form a DNA copy; this is a reverse of the normal flow of genetic information, which preceeds from DNA to RNA

RNA -- ribonucleic acid, a usually single-stranded polymeric molecule consisting of ribonucleotide building blocks.  Chemically very similar to DNA.  Consists of 3 types, all of which have an essential role in protein synthesis.  The genetic material of some viruses.

Shedding -- an infectious cat that is producing active virus, and releasing it into the environment via secretions or exhalation.  A contagious cat.

Stomatitis -- any lesion in the oral cavity resulting in inflammation

Subunit -- A vaccine containing only specific antigenic proteins of the infectious agent

Susceptible -- lacking immunity or resistance

Systemic -- affecting the entire body of the animal, via hematogenous spread

Thrombocytopenia -- a decrease in the number of cirulating platelets which can lead to bleeding tendancies
 
Thymic atrophy -- a decrease in the normal size of the thymus

Transcription -- RNA synthesis, the transfer of information from a double-stranded DNA molecule to a single-stranded RNA molecule

Transient viremia--virus that is removed from the animal's system within 3-6 weeks, and then becomes immune to re-infection

Translation -- protein synthesis, the conversion in the cellular cytoplasm of the mRNA base sequence information into an amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

Viremia -- the presence of virus in the blood either as a free virus or as a cell-associated viremia.  In generalized viral infections, there may be local invasion, proliferation in regional lymph nodes, followed by primary viremia with dissemination to other tissues.  There may be a secondary viremia followed by increasing tissue damage and severe clinical disease.

Viremic -- the state of viremia

Virulence -- the degree or intensity of pathogenicity of an organism as indicated by case fatality rates and/or ability to invade host tissues and cause disease

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