immunity is long lasting , but not
Inoculation is useful within 4 days of exposure to the virus
Typically the CDV vaccine iscombined with
other vaccines including:
Canine Parvovirus, Parainfluenza, Adenovirus 2, Leptospirosis, and
Corona virus (4).
3 types of CDV vaccines are
Highly Recommended: May take longer to
protect immunologically naïve dogs.
or rCDVfollows at 14-16 wks of age)
for female dogs >12 weeks of age.
Not Recommended for routine use.Do
not administer to any dog over 16 weeks of age.
Administer IM only
Modified live virus (MLV)
vaccines are considered to be the most
effective means of protection(5).
are designed to induce an immune
response but not illness(4). MLV
vaccines for CDV are prepared as either: canine
culture-adapted vaccines (Rockborn strain) or the Chick embryo
(e.g., Onderstepoort and Lederle strains). The Rockborn strain is
be nearly 100% effective, but is considered a risk in dogs with
systems (1,2,6). Only healthy animals
should be vaccinated to prevent
vaccine-induced distemper. Protection for 7 years has been demonstrated
experimentally (5). The Onderstepoort
considered to be safer than the Rockborn
strain, however efficacy is listed at 80% (2,6).
Protection for 5 years
been demonstrated experimentally (5).
Side effects of MLV vaccines occur rarely 1 to 2
vaccination (2). Vaccine induced
distemper is characterized by
behavioural changes, and blindness. The mortality is rate is high
modified live CDV vaccine may be fatal for wildlife and zoo animals,
species require an inactivated virus vaccine, which is no longer
commercially as its efficacy is considered to be inferior (6).
(rCDV) are prepared using a harmless
virus (Canary Pox) which has been tagged
with a CDV
protein capable of generating an immune response.Safety
is assured, as it is impossible
this vaccine to cause distemper (4,6). The efficacy and duration of
inferior to the MLV vaccine.
The Human Measles Virus
This virus has been historically used to vaccinate
against CDV. It is
considered the best choice to circumvent maternal antibody
interference (6). Subsequent immunity is relatively
shortlived compared to
offered by modified live or recombinant vaccines (4,6). Infection
conferred by this vaccine prevents
disease but not infection(6).
The uncommon failure of
CDV vaccine has been attributed to several factors. Maternal antibodies
in utero and via colostrum, have been shown to neutralize the vaccine
of the puppies vaccinated at 6 weeks of age (3).
For this reason, 3
administrations of the CDV vaccine are recommended as this phenomenon
significantly diminished by 12 weeks of age (3).
The concurrent use of
antibiotics suchs as
tetracyclines and chloramphenicol is not recommended (3). It should be
that excessive environmental exposure to CDV may result in disease in
considered to be protected under normal circumstances (3).
homeopathic prevention of CDV using nosodes
has not been adequately
substantiated. A nosode is defined as a
preparation made from diseased or
pathological products (7). These
include fecal, urinary, and respiratory
discharges, tissues, and blood products.
The use of these products has recently
resulted in a high number of deaths
of puppies in several kennels. (6).
Any suspected cases should be isolated immediately (2,6).All
in the home should be
prophylactically vaccinated, if their vaccines are not up to date.
CDV is susceptible to: heat,
sunlight, and most detergents. Contaminated
surfaces and living areas of the
home should be disinfected with a bleach
and water solution ()
(2). If a new puppy is desired it
to wait at least
one month to
allow the virus to be cleared from the home (2).