Epidemiology of the Virus
on Canine Parvovirus continues today, as scientists monitor the natural
antigenic drift of the virus on an international scale, as the virus
adapts to veterinarian's vigilant efforts of vaccinating animals to
prevent the disease. This constant research not only identifies
new strains of Canine Parvovirus as they develop, but these studies
also act as sentinel projects, allowing countries to stay appraised as
to what strains of the virus are present within their borders1.
importance of discovering the development and tracking the circulation
of new strains of Canine Parvovirus cannot be overemphasized.
Although vaccination against the virus occurs worldwide, the
development of new serotypes of the disease that are not included in
vaccine formulations can lead to the development of the disease.
An example of this was the development and spread of the Canine
Parvovirus Glu-426 mutant that circulated in Italy in 2001 and
20022. Although vaccination against the disease occurs
in the country, the development of this mutation has caused the disease
in many infected animals. This sentinel project allowed the
detection and genetic characterization of the disease so that
protective measures could be taken to protect the canine population in
current vaccination choices do provide an adequate level of protection
against the virus, research continues to be conducted for a number of
reasons. Vaccines are modified to include all of the serotypes of
the virus that are circulating in an area. That way, adequate
protection against all serotypes of the virus can be generated in
susceptible animals. Continued research and development into the
formulation of vaccinations also occurs, in order to ensure that the
level of protection generated against the viral antigens is sufficient
to provide adequate immunity against the disease3,4.
that all vaccinated animals will be protected from infection by the
Utilizing Parvovirus for the
Treatment of Cancer
One of the
characteristics of virus of the family Parvoviridae is that they
replicate in rapidly producing cells. This has the family of
viruses interesting as a potential source for the treatment of
neoplastic conditions in humans. Currently, experimentation is
being conducted in which parvoviruses are being genetically modified to
specifically target cells with receptor subtypes present only on cancer
. It is theorized that, as the cancer cells
divide, the virus will replicate and eventually cause lysis within the
infected cells, there by killing the neoplastically transformed
. Although this represents a promising form of
therapy for a
variety of conditions, more research needs to be conducted before a
standardized treatment protocol can be developed.
Canine parvovirus strains in the UK. The
Veterinary Record. 2007.
2 Martella V,
Cavalli A, Pratelli A, Bozzo G,
Camero M, Buonavoglia D, Narcisi D, Tempesta M, Buonavoglia C. A canine parvovirus mutant is spreading in Italy. Journal of
Clinical Microbiology. 2004.
3 Truyen U.
Evolution of canine parvovirus – a need for new vaccines? Veterinary Microbiology. 2006.
4 Ilott M.
Efficacy of vaccination against canine parvovirus. The Veterinary Record. 2006.
5 Singh P,
Destito G, Schneemann A, Manchester
M. Canine parvovirus-like particles, a
nanomaterial for tumor targeting. Journal
of Nanobiotechnology. 2006.
K, Herrero Y, Calle M, Rommelaere J,
Schlehofer J. Oncolytic potential of
rodent parvoviruses for cancer therapy in humans: a brief review. Journal of Veterinary
Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and
Health. 2005. 52(7-8):