Adenomatosis: refers to a condition in which the tissue wall of an organ becomes abnormally thickened.


Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID): a test used to detect and measure antigen or antibody levels in tissues.

Antigenic drift:  in terms of a virus, refers to a genetic mutation coding for a new protein (antigen) that allows the virus to escape neutralization by the host immune system, eventually leading to development of a new type (serotype) of that virus.


Ataxia: incoordination of the limbs.


Dyspnea: refers to labored or difficult breathing.

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbatant Assay (ELISA):  a test used to detect and measure antigen or antibody levels in tissues.


Genetic drift: similar to antigenic drift. Occurs as a result of a mutation of the genome of the virus.


Incubation period: the time between when an animal is infected with the virus and the point when they start to show signs of being sick.


Indurative lymphocytic mastitis:  refers to an inflammatory condition of the udder in which the udder becomes hard and infiltrated with  lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

Lateral transmission: transmission of an infectious agent between animals at any period after birth.

Lentivirus: is a genus of slow viruses of the Retroviridae family characterized by a long incubation period.


Lymphadenopathy: refers to a problem involving the lymph nodes.


Non-suppurative encephalitis: inflammation of the brain that does not involve the build up of pus.

Necropsy: examination of a body following death to determine the cause of death.

Appendicular: refering to the limbs.


Oncogenic: giving rise to tumors or causing tumor formation.


Paralysis: loss of movement of a part of the body.


PCR: polymerase chain reaction; a test used to detect viral DNA.


Proliferative arthritis: inflammation of the joint involving hyperplasia (growth) of the synovial membrane, which lines the inside of the joint capsule.


Proprioceptive: refers to an animal's awareness of its movements and the position of it's body.


Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs.

Retroviridae: the family of enveloped retroviruses.

Seropositive: refering to a positive result on a test used to detect antigen or antibody. eg. ELISA.


Strains: refers to viral isolates that have been characterized. 


Tachypnea: rapid breathing.

Vertical transmission: transmission of an infectious agent from the mother to the fetus during pregnancy.