Antigen - is a substance from a virus that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response
Attenuated vaccine - a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to induce protective immunity
Conjunctiva – cellular layer that covers the sclera (white part) of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids
Coronary band - the junction of the skin and the horn of the hoof
Cross immunity - a form of immunity in which immunity to one virus is effective in protecting the animal against a similar but different virus
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) - It is a commonly used laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood to a specific virus
Fomite - an inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents may be conveyed
                  Example- feces, bedding, harness
Inactivated vaccine - a vaccine with microorganisms that have been killed
Infectious dose - the amount of virus required to cause infection in the host
Incubation period - the time from exposure to a virus to the appearance of symptoms in infected animals
Infective period - the period during which an infected animal can transmit a pathogen to another animal
Negative-sense RNA virus - a virus whose genetic information consists of a single strand of RNA that is the negative strand which does not encode messenger RNA
PCR- a laboratory technique that can rapidly amplify the amount of DNA from a tiny sample to a large amount. It is used in DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing.
Reservoir – any animal in which a virus normally lives and multiplies
Serotype – a group of closely related viruses distinguished by a characteristic set of antigens
Stomatitis- inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth

Toxicosis – illness due to ingestion or exposure to toxins
Ulcer- a local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue, produced by sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue
Uremia – elevated levels of ammonia(urea) in the blood
Ventral - directed toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal
Vesicular- composed of or relating to small, saclike bodies; pertaining to or made up of vesicles on the skin
Virulence - the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism as indicated by case fatality rates and/or its ability to invade the tissues of the host; the competence of any infectious agent to produce pathological effects
Zoonotic disease - a disease that can be spread from wild or domesticated animals to humans