Definitions
Antigen - is a substance from a virus that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response
 
Attenuated vaccine - a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to induce protective immunity
 
Conjunctiva – cellular layer that covers the sclera (white part) of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids
 
Coronary band - the junction of the skin and the horn of the hoof
 
Cross immunity - a form of immunity in which immunity to one virus is effective in protecting the animal against a similar but different virus
 
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) - It is a commonly used laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood to a specific virus
 
Fomite - an inanimate object or material on which disease-producing agents may be conveyed
                  Example- feces, bedding, harness
 
Inactivated vaccine - a vaccine with microorganisms that have been killed
 
Infectious dose - the amount of virus required to cause infection in the host
 
Incubation period - the time from exposure to a virus to the appearance of symptoms in infected animals
 
Infective period - the period during which an infected animal can transmit a pathogen to another animal
 
Negative-sense RNA virus - a virus whose genetic information consists of a single strand of RNA that is the negative strand which does not encode messenger RNA
 
PCR- a laboratory technique that can rapidly amplify the amount of DNA from a tiny sample to a large amount. It is used in DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing.
 
Reservoir – any animal in which a virus normally lives and multiplies
 
Serotype – a group of closely related viruses distinguished by a characteristic set of antigens
 
Stomatitis- inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth

Toxicosis – illness due to ingestion or exposure to toxins
 
Ulcer- a local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue, produced by sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue
 
Uremia – elevated levels of ammonia(urea) in the blood
 
Ventral - directed toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal
 
Vesicular- composed of or relating to small, saclike bodies; pertaining to or made up of vesicles on the skin
 
Virulence - the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism as indicated by case fatality rates and/or its ability to invade the tissues of the host; the competence of any infectious agent to produce pathological effects
 
Zoonotic disease - a disease that can be spread from wild or domesticated animals to humans
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