and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a medically and economically important
disease around the world. Contagiousness and
its impact on an agricultural economy are of great concern to
This website has two purposes:
To provide students with a comprehensive website on FMD which includes
information from recent research, up to date OIE and CFIA protocols and
standards, and news on FMD in the world today. The website will serve
as a resource for students who would like to gain further information
on FMD and how the disease impacts the world today.
2. To act as a study guide to hone virology skills - so don't forget to check out the Quick Quiz!
• Aphtae epizooticae is a non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA Aphtovirus of the family Picornaviridae.
• Picornaviruses are among the most diverse and
'oldest' known viruses. There are records from Egyptian temples dating
back to 1400 B.C.
The name ‘Picornaviridae’ is derived from ‘pico’ (very small), and
‘RNA’ because its genome is composed of ribonucleic acids, so it translates
as 'small RNA virus'.
• There are seven FMD virus serotypes: O, A, C, SAT-1,
SAT-2, SAT-3, and Asia-1. These serotypes show some regionality, and
the O serotype is most common.
<-- O Serotype distrubution throughout the world
• Affected species include cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, swine, and all
wild ruminants. Camels, llamas and vicunas have low
susceptibility and horses may be carriers but do not become sick.
• Despite being non-lethal to humans, the virus poses
a significant economic threat to affected countries. FMD virus has the ability
to infect in small doses, has a rapid rate of replication, a high level
of viral excretion and multiple modes of transmission.
• In Canada it is a reportable disease. Once reported, the Canadian
Food Inspection Agency requires that “positive animals are targeted to be
euthanized within 24 hours and other exposed susceptible animals within
48 hours. In most circumstances unexposed susceptible animals on a
positive FMD infected place will be slaughtered.”
Clinically, FMD can be confused with several
diseases, such as vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, bovine viral
diarrhea, foot rot in cattle, and swine vesicular disease. A definitive
diagnosis can only be achieved through laboratory testing.
whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and
infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a nucleus,
making the virus resistant to drugs which inhibit nuclear DNA synthesis.