Treatment, Control and Prevention


  • No treatment approved for human use to date, although there are vaccines available for animal use.
  • Current Tx: supportive care (intravenous fluids and breathing support by ventilation)


    1. Decrease contact with mosquito vectors

  • Prevention during peak seasons most important: mid-April to late September or October
  • Use insect repellent
  • Minimize time outdoors when mosquitoes are most active (dawn/dusk)
  • Remove stagnant water where mosquito larva and pupae develop
  • Remove decaying organic matter and shrubs where mosquitoes breed and rest
  • Prevent mosquito from entering indoors via window screens
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Use insecticides to control the mosquito population

    2. Currently there are a few vaccines labeled for horses in Canada

  • Merial, Recombiteck® West Nile Virus equine vaccine (Duluth, GA) [click here]
  • Fort Dodge, West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine (Overland Park, KS) [click here]
  • Boehringer-Ingelheim, Veterna™ - new combination vaccine including WNV (St. Joseph, MO) [click here]

    3. No Vaccine currently available to protect against human WNV

  • Reseearchers at University of British Columia are currently developing a vaccine for endangered birds that could potentially be used on humans

    Gamino, V. and Hofle, U. (2013) Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West nile virus infection in birds: a review. Vet Res. 44(38):doi:10.1186/1297-9716-44-39.
    "West Nile Virus." West Nile Virus. MediResource Inc, 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. [].
    Chai, Carmen. "UBC Scientists Develop West Nile Virus Vaccine for Birds." Global News [Toronto] 11 July 2013: n. pag. Print.